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THE COMPLETE JOURNAL 

OF 

TOWNSEND HARRIS 




TOWNSEND HARRIS IN 1847 

From a Bronze Tablet by Albert P. D'Andrea, of the Art Department of the Townsend Harris Hall 
High School — the Preparatory High School of The College of the City of New York. It is a gift pre- 
sented by the Class of January, 1924, of the High School, and was unveiled on Charter Day, May 20, 
1925, by H. I. M.'s Ambassador, His Excellency Tsuneo Matsudaira. 



The Complete Journal of 

TOWNSEND HARRIS 

First American Consul 
and Minister to Japan 

INTRODUCTION AND NOTES BY 

MARIO EMILIO COSENZA, Ph.D., L.H.D. 

Dean Emeritus of Brooklyn College 

and formerly Director of 

The Townsend Harris Hall High School 

in New York City 

WITH A PREFACE BY 

DOUGLAS MacARTHUR II 
United States Ambassador to Japan 

(REVISED EDITION) 



-m 



PUBLISHED WITH THE COOPERATION OF 
THE JAPAN SOCIETY, INC., NEW YORK 

CHARLES E. TUTTLE COMPANY 
Rutland, Vermont & Tokyo, Japan 



THIS BOOK IS A SELECTION OF 

THE AMERICAN CLUB OF TOKYO 

Such selections are published with the support and 

cooperation of the Club ; are recommended to its 

members and friends, and are made in order to further 

cultural relations between the United States and Japan. 



Published by the Charles E. Tuttle Company 

of Rutland, Vermont, and Tokyo, Japan 

with editorial offices at 

15 Edogawa-cho, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 

All Rights Reserved 

Library of Congress 
Catalog Card No. 59-9397 

First edition, 1930 

{Published for Japan Society, New York 

by Doubleday, Doran & Co., Inc.) 

Second edition [revised), 1959 




PRINIED IN JAPAN 



TO THE 

PEACE OF THE PACIFIC 



"/ shall be the first recognized agent from a civilized 
'power to reside in Japan. This forms an epoch in 
my life and may be the beginning of a new order of 
things in Japan. I hope I may so conduct myself 
that I may have honorable mention in the histories 
which will be written on Japan and its future 
destiny." 

TowNSEND Harris 
Journal, August ig, 1856 



PREFACE TO REVISED EDITION 

The history of embassies and consulates, like that of all 
international relations, is inseparable from the stories of in- 
dividual men. Nowhere is one reminded of this more for- 
cibly than in observing the short and very active century 
of intercourse between the United States and Japan. 

While there have been many personalities of high dis- 
tinction charged with the weight of representing each of 
these countries, none, perhaps, has had more demanded of 
him in courage, ingenuity, discipline, and solitary decision 
than Townsend Harris, the first consular officer accredited 
from the United States Government to that of Japan. 

It is a source of much satisfaction that the journal of this 
pioneer, which has been long out of print, has been made 
available again to the public through the enterprise of the 
Charles E. Tuttle Company, with the support of the Japan 
Society of New York and the American Club of Tokyo. 

Any important figure in history gathers about him some 
elements of legend. Stories, whether true or apocryphal, at- 
tach themselves to the names of heroes. This is inevitable, 
and by no means is it always to be deplored. But the sober 
truth is sometimes more heroic than fiction, and for those 
who wish to understand, the unvarnished items of fact are 
indispensable. 

It is for this reason that, in a time when the meaning of 
Japan and the United States to one another, and of their, 
mutual relationship to the world are of such absorbing con- 
cern, we are grateful for the initiative, among others, of Mr. 

vii 



Juji Kasai, a lifelong friend of the editor, Dr. Cosenza, for 
causing the original journal of Townsend Harris to be 
reprinted. 



Douglas Macarthur II. 



U.S. Embassy, Tokyo. 
February 25, 1959. 



vui 



PREFACE 

In 1916, the writer of this preface was appointed 
Deputy Director, and later Director, of Townsend 
Harris Hall, the Preparatory High School of The Col- 
lege of the City of New York. Immediately he became 
interested in learning why the school had been named 
after Townsend Harris. Preliminary researches revealed 
the two outstanding achievements of Townsend Har- 
ris's life: the first, that, as President of the Board of 
Education of New York City, he had been the driving 
force and chief inspiration for the founding of The 
College of the City of New York; and the second, that, 
by a particularly happy turn of the wheel of fortune, 
he had later been appointed our jfirst Consul General 
for Japan, and had been successful in opening Japan 
and bringing her into the larger family of nations. 

The writer surrendered himself whole-heartedly to 
the alluring subject of the life and work of Townsend 
Harris. As a loyal alumnus of The College of the City 
of New York, he turned first to the study of Townsend 
Harris's connections with his Alma Mater, and accord- 
ingly, in 1925, he published a volume entitled The 
Establishment of The College of the City of New York 
as The Free Academy in 1841. Townsend Harris 
Founder. 

It soon became apparent that the available informa- 
tion about Townsend Harris was scanty, with much of 
it inaccurate. An irresistible urge to undertake the pres- 

ix 



ent task lay in the mass of source material at the writer's 
disposal. Some years ago, Miss Bessie A. Harris, the 
niece of Townsend Harris, presented to The College 
of the City of New York all the original letters, docu- 
ments, and papers of Townsend Harris then in her pos- 
session. The more the writer looked into this material, 
the more he became aware of the possibilities that lay 
in it. 

Here were four volumes of Townsend Harris's manu- 
script Journal; a dozen historic documents in the 
original Japanese and Dutch languages; a complete 
collection of Townsend Harris's various appointments, 
letters of credence, passport, etc. ; five large letter books, 
containing a complete file of his official correspondence 
not only with the authorities at Washington and at Yedo, 
but also with all persons who approached him on topics 
closely connected with his official duties; and, finally, 
hundreds of original manuscript letters received from 
many of the great men of the day — the ranking officers 
of our navy, the representatives of all the foreign powers 
accredited to Japan and to China, the many business 
men of all nationalities who early established themselves 
in China, in Siam, in Japan, and generally in the Far 
East; as well as the early British and American mis- 
sionaries to those countries, etc., etc.^ 

This hasty enumeration is not by any means intended 
to be a full description of the priceless historical ma- 
terial owned by The College of the City of New York. 
Enough has been said, however, to indicate the wealth 
and the importance of this Townsend Harris collec- 



iTownsend Harris did not keep copies of the letters he wrote to his friends. 
It is very sincerely hoped that readers of this work will be good enough to 
send to the writer all manuscript material (or copies thereof) that they may 
possess, for use in future works on the diplomatic relations between the United 
States and Japan. 



tion, practically every item of which is historic and dip- 
lomatic material yet unpublished. Large use has been 
made of these tempting sources in the notes of this vol- 
ume, but only in so far as they properly illustrate 
passages of the Journal. 

In these days of ever-expanding foreign relations, 
when American destiny in the new Pacific is so closely 
linked with that of the nations on the western border of 
that ocean, the story of the beginning of our friendly 
relations with Japan is an all-absorbing one. That story 
is here reproduced directly from the original manu- 
script. Words underlined by Townsend Harris have been 
printed in italics, and abbreviations have been spelled 
out in full, but there have been no omissions from the 
text. The transcription is a faithful and complete one. 

The earlier portion of Mr. Harris's Journal (which 
includes his mission to Siam, and which is approxi- 
mately one third of the entire manuscript) is here pub- 
lished for the first time. The portion of the Journal re- 
lating to Japan was published (with omissions) in 1895 
by Dr. William Elliot Griffis in his book Townsend 
Harris, First American Envoy in Japan. By express 
understanding with Houghton Mifflin Company, pub- 
lishers of Dr. Griffis's book (long out of print), the 
text of the Japanese portion of the Harris Journal is 
now for the first time given to the public in its full and 
complete form.^ 

The publication of the present volume is due to the 
kindly and continued interest which the officers of the 
Japan Society in New York have taken in it, and to their 
very natural desire that the complete Journal of Town- 
send Harris be made available to students of American 



^The Houghton Mifflin Company book is Copyright 1895, by William E. 
Griffis. 

xi 



relations with Japan and the Far East, as well as to the 
general public. It was, furthermore, peculiarly and his- 
torically fitting for the Society to undertake this pub- 
lication through its Townsend Harris Endowment Fund 
Committee — a Committee that bears the name of the 
man whom this volume delighteth to honor. It would 
be difficult for the writer adequately to convey his sin- 
cere thanks to the officers of the Society and to the mem- 
bers of this Committee individually. He trusts they will 
feel that they are all included when he expresses his 
deep appreciation of the kindness shown, and of the 
courteous assistance given, by Mr. Jerome D. Greene, 
the Chairman of the Committee; by Mr. Douglas L. 
Dunbar, its Secretary; and, above all, by Mr. Alexander 
Tison, the President of the Japan Society. 

This work, finally, has been signally honored by His 
Excellency Prince lyesato Tokugawa, who has graci- 
ously contributed a silken scroll on which he has in- 
scribed an appropriate saying of Confucius. The pres- 
ent Head of the House of Tokugawa and the legal suc- 
cessor of Tycoon lyesada Tokugawa, who made the 
Treaty with Townsend Harris, by this courteous act 
establishes still another spiritual contact with the deeds 
of his ancestors. To him, too, the writer expresses his 
sincere appreciation and gratitude. 

In 1 891, Dr. Inazo Nitobe said that four thick quarto 
volumes had made known to the world the minutest de- 
tails of Commodore Perry's expedition, but that suffi- 
cient justice had not yet been done to the memory of 
Townsend Harris, whose candle was still kept under a 
bushel. It is hoped that the present volume may make a 
beginning of rendering unto Harris the justice that is 
due him in recognition of his great achievement — a task 
that was perhaps the most difficult in the history of 

xii 



American diplomacy. It is a source of high satisfaction 
to reflect that the establishment of friendly relations 
between the United States and Japan was providentially 
placed in the hands of Townsend Harris — a New York 
City merchant, endowed with so great skill and patience 
and with so sympathetic an understanding. 

In his careful evaluation of the pioneering but quiet 
and unheralded diplomatic work of Townsend Harris 
in Japan, Dr. Nitobe further says : 

"An oak falls noisily crashing through the forest; the 
acorns drop with scarce a sound. To generations after, the 
acorns prove the greater blessing. Men have not yet learned 
what conquests there are in peace and in silence." 

As the years glide silently by, the seeds of sympa- 
thetic understanding that were sown by Townsend 
Harris so many years ago — in a foreign, but congenial 
and fertile soil — are indeed proving the greater blessing 
to later generations. The human family, after the pass- 
ing of countless ages since its migrations from the plains 
of central Asia, is meeting again on the far-flung coasts 
of the greatest of waters. The Ocean Sea — first named 
from its mere size — is no longer an estranging sea. The 
modern argosies of commerce and of trade, as they 
cross and recross it from west to east and from east to 
west, are daily vindicating the prophecy of Magellan, 
who, as he emerged from the stormy Strait and found 
himself wafted by gentle breezes, glanced over the quiet 
waters ahead and hailed them as the Mar Pacifico. 

Mario Emilio Cosenza. 

The College of the City of New York. 
January 25, 1930. 

xiii 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 



Quotation from the Journal of Townsend Harris vi 

Preface to Revised Edition vii 

Preface ix 

List of Illustrations xvii 

List of Abbreviations xxi 

Introduction: The Appointment of Townsend 

Harris as Consul General for Japan i 

The Complete Journal of Townsend Harris: 

Journal No. i : May 21, 1855 to April 14, 1856 1 7 

Journal No. 2 : April 15, 1856 to July 6, 1856 83 

Journal No. 3 : July 7, 1856 to February 25, 1857 175 

Journal No. 4: February 26, 1857 to December 7, 1857 315 

Journal No. 5 : December 7, 1857 to February 27, 1858 477 

Fragments 559 

Appendices : 

I. President Pierce's Letter to the First King of Siam 565 

II. List of Presents for the First King of Siam 566 

III. List of Presents for the Second King of Siam 

IV. The Convention of Shimoda: concluded June 17, 

1857 571 

XV 



V. The First American Flag made in Japan : Novem- 
ber, 1857 573 

VI. Townsend Harris's Letter of Credence, or "Full 
Powers" : dated, Washington, D. C, September 
8. 1855 575 

VII. President Pierce's Letter to the Emperor of Japan: 

dated, Washington, D. C, September 12, 1855 576 

VIII. Letter written by Hotta, Bitchiu-no-Kami, to 

Townsend Harris : dated, Yedo, January 4, 1858 577 

IX. The Treaty of Amity and Commerce: concluded 

at Yedo, July 29, 1858 578 

Index 591 



XVI 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Townsend Harris in 1847 Frontispiece 

From a Bronze Tablet by Albert P. D' Andrea, of the Art Depart- 
ment of the Townsend Harris Hall High School — the Preparatory 
High School of The College of the City of New York. It is a , 
gift presented by the Class of January, 1924, of the High School, 
and was unveiled on Charter Day, May 20, 1925, by H. I. M.'t 
Ambassador, His Excellency Tsuneo Matsudaira. 

Townsend Harris's Seal Title page 

This impression of Mr. Harris's stone seal shows three Chinese 
characters — Ha, Ri, S — somewhat conventionalized by the en- 
graver who made the seal. 

FACING PAGE 

Townsend Harris's First Commission as Consul 
General for Japan 24 

Dated, Washington, D. C, August 4, 1855. 

A Holograph Letter from the Second King of 
Siam no 

Dated, Palace of the Second King, Bangkok, Siam, April 22, 1856. 

Townsend Harris's Manuscript Journal, August 

19, 1856, in vol. 3, p. 25 196 

At the top of the page may be read his hope to receive honorable 
mention in the "Histories which will be written on Japan." 

View of Shimoda, from Kakizaki 212 

From a drawing in India ink by Mr. H. C. J. Heusken, whose 
signature in the lower right-hand corner is clearly legible in the 
original. This drawing was enclosed by Townsend Harris in a 
letter to "Kate" Drinker (later Mrs. Thomas Allibone Janvier), 
dated Shimoda, Japan, November 2i, 1856. For this letter and 
drawing, see the Janvier Letters and Papers, in the Manuscripts 
Division of the New York Public Library. 

xvii 



FACING PACE 

The U. S. Consulate at Shimoda in 1856 226 

From a drawing in India ink by Mr. H. C. J. Heusken. This 
drawing gives the earliest and only authentic view of the grounds 
of the consulate, of its buildings, and of the flagstafiE flying the 
first consular flag ever seen in Japan. See Journal, Thursday, 
September 4, 1856. 

Monument Dedicated to the Memory of Town- 
send Harris 268 

This monument was erected in the courtyard of the Gyokusen-ji, 
near Shimoda — the home of the first American accredited re- 
presentative to Japan. It was unveiled on Saturday, October i, 
1927. The front of the monument bears the English text; the 
back, the Japanese text. The Journal entry carved on the monu- 
ment is that for September 4, 1856, commemorating the hoisting 
of the first consular flag ever seen in Japan. 

Townsend Harris's manuscript Journal, vol. 4, 

P- S2_ 374 

This illustration shows his comment on having concluded the 
Convention of Shimoda: June 17, 1857. 

Townsend Harris's Second Commission as Consul 
General for Japan 400 

Dated, Washington, D. C, July 31, 1856. 

The First American Flag Made in Japan: No- 
vember, 1857 412 

This flag is now framed and is hanging on the wall of the Direc- 
tor's Oflice, in the Townsend Harris Hall High School. See 
Appendix V. 

Townsend Harris's "Full Powers," or Letter of 
Credence 468 

Dated, Washington, D. C, September 8, 1855. 

The Japanese Text of the Shogun's Speech 474 

This speech was delivered at the First Audience granted to Town- 
send Harris, December 7, 1857. It is the earliest oflicial and 
persona] expression uttered by the Shoguns of friendly relations 
between the United States and Japan. 

Letter Written by Hotta, Bitchiu-no-Kami, to 
Townsend Harris 494 

Dated, Yedo, January 4, 1858. See Appendix VIII. 

xviii 



FACING PAGE 



The Famous Ginkgo Tree at the Zempuku-ji (The 
Shrine of Peace and Prosperity) in Tokyo 514 

This tree marks the site where once stood the first flagstaff 
erected by Townsend Harris in the Capital of Japan. Townseid 
Harris concluded the Treaty of Yedo on July 29, 1858; the 
Convention of Kanagawa on March 19, 1859; and opened the 
American Legation at Yedo (Tokyo) on July 7, 1859. 

The Harbor of Settsu 527 

This drawing is by Townsend Harris's hand. The illustration is 
a reproduction of the manuscript Journal, vol. i, p. 112. 



XIX 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE NOTES 

L. & P.: Refer to the volumes of manuscript Letters and Papers of Toiunsend 
Harris. 

L. B.: Refer to the volumes of manuscript Letter Books of Toitinsend Harris. 

In referring to the volumes of the Congressional Series, the numbers 35-2 (for 
instance), refer to the 35th Congress, 2nd Session. 

All other abbreviations and references in the notes are, it is thought, clear in 
themselves. 



THE COMPLETE JOURNAL 

OF 

TOWNSEND HARRIS 



Introduction 

The Appointment of Townsend Harris as Consul 
General for Japan 

Interest in the strange and secluded country to which 
the American squadron under Commodore Perry was 
proceeding was very great and very general. Conse- 
quently many persons, both in the United States and 
elsewhere, moved either by scientific interest or by keen 
curiosity, importuned Perry for permission to go aboard 
the ships of his fleet and so have one of the earliest peeps 
at the people who, for more than two centuries, had kept 
the doors of their island empire so tightly shut. 

Commodore Perry met these importunate advances 
with dignity and with firmness. His position in the 
matter was clearly stated in the Second General Order 
which he issued while at sea, on December 23, 1852:^ 

"Entertaining the opinion that the talents and acquire- 
ments of the officers of the squadron, if properly directed 
and brought into action, will be found equal to a plain 
and practical examination and elucidation of the various 
objects pertaining to the arts and sciences that may 
come under their observation during the present cruise, 
and being aware of the limited accommodations of the 
vessels under my command, I have invariably objected 

iPerry, Narrative, 33-2, S. Ex. Doc, no. 79, vol. i, p. 88. 

I 



to the employment of persons drawn from civil life to 
conduct those departments more immediately connected 
with science." 

In spite of the fact that these invariable objections of 
the commanding officer were well known, requests to 
accompany the Japan Expedition continued to pour in 
on Perry. Townsend Harris was in China at the time the 
American fleet reached that country. Perry first stopped 
at Hongkong and at Macao; from there he went to 
Shanghai, where he arrived on May 4, 1853, leaving 
again towards the end of the same month. It was during 
Perry's stay at Shanghai that Townsend Harris made his 
first definite efifort to reach Japan. In a letter dated 
Macao, June 18, 1859,^ Mr. S. Robertson congratulates 
Townsend Harris on his then recent and brilliant 
successes both in Siam and in Japan. In the course of his 
congratulations there appears this interesting para- 
graph : 

"I often smile to myself when I recollect how anxious 
you were at Shanghai to accompany Commodore Perry 
on his first visit to Japan, and your annoyance at his 
refusal. The 'C little thought at the time, that he was 
then refusing a man who would accomplish greater 
achievements and acquire more renown in Japan [than 
Commodore Perry himself] while he would at the same 
time throw additional lustre on the name of Perry. But 
so wags the world." 

This refusal to be permitted to accompany Commo- 
dore Perry did not discourage Townsend Harris. At 

*Z,. & p., vol. I, no. 175. 



about the same time (the spring of 1853), he applied 
for the position of American Consul at either Hongkong 
or Canton, describing himself a resident of Hongkong.^ 
In his letter of recommendation addressed to the Hon. 
William L. Marcy, and dated New York, December 28, 
1853, General Wetmore says that he had never met Har- 
ris's "superior in a thoroughly educated and accom- 
plished merchant," and says of him: "I think from his 
unusually extensive acquirements on all commercial sub- 
jects and his acquaintance with several foreign languages 
(such as Spanish, French, Italian) that he could not fail 
to render himself useful in a consular office."* 

Instead of either of these posts. President Pierce, by 
letter dated Thursday, July 27, 1854, nominated Towns- 
end Harris Consul, at $1,000 per annum, for the treaty 
port of Ningpo, China, to succeed Charles W. Bradley, 
who was being transferred to Singapore. This nomina- 
tion was received by the Senate on Tuesday, August 
ist, and was duly referred to its Committee on Com- 
merce. On Wednesday, August 2, 1854, the Senate con- 
sented to the appointment." 

And here we begin to approach rather closely the 
matter of Townsend Harris's later appointment as 
Consul General for Japan. On Sunday, April 29, 185^, 
returning from his travels in India, Harris reached the 
home of his dear friend, Mr. Charles C. Currier, 



•Dennett, Americans in Eastern Asia, p. 348. 

*FiIes of the Bureau of Appointments, Washington, D. C. 

^S. Ex. J'l, vol. 9, pp. 369, 373, 379. Lamb's Biographical Dictionary and the 
American Encyclopedia are both wrong in stating that Townsend Harris was 
appointed only Vice-Consul for Ningpo. 



United States Consul at Pulo Penang, in the Strait of 
Malacca — Penang, "the primeval Paradise not altered 
at the Flood," as he himself says in the Journal entry for 
May 21, 1855. At Mr. Currier's residence he must have 
found av^aiting him his commission as Consul for 
Ningpo. Instead, however, of proceeding to this post, 
which seems to have had no attractions for him, he set 
sail for the United States on May 21, 1855, after having 
appointed the Rev. Dr. Daniel Jerome Macgowan his 
Vice-Consul for Ningpo. This gentleman, a medical 
missionary of the Baptist faith, carried on for a short 
while, but with great difficulty and under protest, as his 
long letters of complaint to Townsend Harris clearly 
prove. Harris himself never served a single day as 
Consul at Ningpo. 

In the meantime Townsend Harris's friends had been 
exerting themselves in his behalf. Mr. Sandwith 
Drinker, whose hospitality Commodore Perry and his 
officers had enjoyed both at Hongkong and at Canton, 
was a sailor of the old school and the most intimate 
friend that Townsend Harris had in the Far East. 
There is no doubt in our mind that Mr. Drinker im- 
proved every opportunity to praise Townsend Harris 
to Commodore Perry, who had already received Towns- 
end Harris's personal letter expressing a sincere desire 
to accompany him to Japan. In the United States Harris 
could count on the active assistance of Mr. W. H. 
Topping, of General Prosper M. Wetmore, and, 
through him, of the Hon. William L. Marcy, Secretary 
of State. 



We believe the following to have been the course of 
events. His appointment as Consul for Ningpo must 
have suggested to Harris the possibility of the far more 
responsible consulship to Japan — an ambition which 
could not have been much out of his mind since the days 
of Perry's Japan Expedition. There, in Japan, lay the 
greatest opportunity of the century for truly great and 
pioneer diplomatic work. The Perry Treaty received 
the approval of the Senate on July 15, 1854, and was 
signed by the President on August 7th. Ratifications 
were exchanged at Shimoda, February 21, 1855 ; and the 
Treaty itself was proclaimed June 22, 1855. On July 27, 
1855, at4P. M.jTownsend Harrispassed thebuoyon the 
Bar of New York, reaching home from far-ofif Pulo 
Penang in the Strait of Malacca after a voyage of more 
than two months. 

The appointment of an American representative to 
Japan was now in order. The Perry Treaty (concluded 
March 31, 1854) clearly stated (Article XI) : 

"There shall be appointed, by the Government of the 
United States, Consuls or Agents to reside in Shimoda, 
at any time after the expiration of eighteen months from 
the date of the signing of this treaty ; provided that either 
of the two Governments deem such arrangement 
necessary." 

The President undoubtedly consulted with Comriio- 
dore Perry as to the best available man, and we have 
subsequent official testimony to the effect that the Com- 

5 



modore was one of the men who recommended Harris 
for the post. 

Townsend Harris's claims for consideration were 
truly outstanding and unique. He had resigned as Presi- 
dent of the Board of Education of New York City on 
January 26, 1 848. In 1 849, he sailed from New York and 
journeyed around Cape Horn to California as super- 
cargo of his own merchant vessel. With this voyage 
began his wandering trading expeditions from port to 
port — expeditions which extended over a period of six 
years and brought him into close contact with the 
many different races of the South Seas and of Asia. In 
the course of these voyages, he visited many islands of 
the Pacific, and many points on the mainland of the 
oldest of continents. He visited far-off New Zealand 
and the Philippines; he crossed the China Sea; he 
lived and carried on business in both North and South 
China, in Shanghai, Ningpo, Canton, Macao, and 
Penang; in Singapore, in Ceylon, and in India. 

These statements may seem of minor importance, but 
they become facts of primary importance when we con- 
sider their real significance in connection with the great 
life work which was to follow. This commercial wander- 
ing from place to place gave Townsend Harris the ideal 
training and preparation for his later diplomatic inter- 
course with the Japanese. It helped remove that feeling 
of shock or of puzzled attitude which takes hold of so 
many men when suddenly brought face to face with a 
different civilization and with strange manners and 
customs. It taught Harris to be tolerant and sympathetic, 

6 



and, above all, to be patient — for patience ha« ever been 
the supreme and special prerequisite for all successful 
intercourse with the peoples of the East. Finally, it 
gave him a knowledge of the life and the mind of the 
Oriental that even an extended course of reading of 
selected books could scarcely have given him. 

To repeat, then, these qualifications of Harris could 
not, we venture to assert, have been duplicated any- 
where in the United States of 1855. The Perry Treaty 
was not a commercial agreement, but merely a "wood 
and water" treaty, and it provided (as we have seen) 
for the appointment of consuls or agents. Harris's 
friends presented and urged his really exceptional 
claims to the post. On July 31, 1855 — only four days 
after his arrival in New York — the following letter was 
written to the President of the United States and signed 
by eight of the foremost citizens of New York :® 

New York, July 31, 1855. 
To the President of the United States : 

Sir: 

We desire to recommend for your most favorable 
notice Mr. Townsend Harris, formerly for many years 
an active merchant in this city, but more recently a 
resident in various parts of China and India. 

Mr. Harris possesses great business experience, ex- 
tensive and varied information on commercial subjects, 
and is unusually well qualified to discharge the duties 
of a consular or diplomatic situation in the East. Feel- 



*Files of the Bureau of Appointments, Washington, D. C. 

7 



ing confident of the great capacity and personal merits 
of Mr. Harris, we unite most cordially in commending 
him to your favor. 
With high respect 

(signed) Brown Brothers Co. 
Herman J. Redfield 
Isaac Townsend 
Schuyler Livingston 
R. Withers 
John J. Cisco 
John Romeyn Brodhead 
C. W. Lawrence 

It is interesting to note that Mr. John R. Brodhead, 
one of the signers of this letter, had himself been nomi- 
nated Consul General for Japan by President Pierce on 
Saturday, March 3, 1855.' And on August i, 1855, Mr. 
John J. Cisco wrote this special letter of recom- 
mendation :^ 

New York, August i, 1855. 

In addition to what is contained on the preceding page, 
I desire to state that Mr. Harris, while residing here, 
occupied and deservedly a high position in the com- 
munity. He was an active member of the Chamber of 
Commerce, trustee of a savings bank, and for several 
years President of the Board of Education. These duties 
were all discharged with credit in the intervals of an 
active commercial life. 

As a politician he was a sound, reliable, and influential 
Democrat, and I have reason to know that his views have 



'^S. Ex. J'l, vol. 9, pp. 440, 441. 

spiles of the Bureau of Appointments, Washington, D. C. 



undergone no change ; that he is a true Democrat now as 
ever before. I give this testimony with much pleasure. 

John J. Cisco. 

Townsend Harris now went to Washington and had 
the privilege of several personal interviews with Presi- 
dent Pierce. We are not in a position to give the details 
of these busy days in the nation's capital. There are ex- 
tant, however, other extremely interesting documents re 
lating to this historic appointment. 

From Willards Hotel, Townsend Harris addressed to 
the President a very frank and touching letter :^ 

Willards Hotel, 
Washington 

August 4, 1855. 
Sir: 

In consequence of letters which reached me last 
evening, I have postponed my return to New York, and 
remain at this hotel, anxiously awaiting Your Excel- 
lency's decision on my application. 

I have told Your Excellency that I have long had a 
strong desire to visit Japan; and so deep has this feeling 
become that, if I was offered the choice between Com- 
missioner to China or Consul to Japan, I should in- 
stantly take the latter. 

I have a perfect knowledge of the social banishment 
I must endure while in Japan, and the mental isolation 
in which I must live, and am prepared to meet it. I am 
a single man, without any ties to cause me to look 
anxiously to my old home, or to become impatient in my 
new one : — You may rely. Sir, that I will not ask for leave 

^Files of the Bureau of Appointments, Washington, D. C. 

9 



to visit my friends, or resign the place for any reasons of 
dislike to the country, but will devote myself, zealously, 
to the faithful discharge of my duties. 

I have only to add, that I shall be much obliged by 
your early decision on my application. 

I have the honor to be 
With great respect 

Your obedient servant, 
TowNSEND Harris. 

To His Excellency Franklin Pierce 
President of the United States. 

The references in this letter to social banishment and 
mental isolation were a prophetic look into his future life 
in Japan — a presentiment of the long-continued isolation 
which later caused him such great pain and sorrow. 

The Secretary of State, William L. Marcy, who was at 
Old Point Comfort enjoying a brief respite from the 
oppressive heat of the capital, had known of the Pres- 
ident's indecision for some days; and on August 4, 1855 
— the very same day on which Townsend Harris wrote 
his letter to the President — Secretary Marcy wrote a 
confidential letter to General Prosper M. Wetmore (an 
intimate friend of Townsend Harris), giving a clear 
picture of the President's hesitation — even quoting the 
President's own words from a letter which he had re- 
cently received from the White House. The letter proves 
that General Wetmore had enlisted the hearty cooper- 
ation of Secretary Marcy. The communication is marked 
"Confidential," but its presence to-day in the Harris 
Letters and Papers simply means that, after reading it, 

10 



General Wetmore (in accordance with Secretary 
Marcy's expressed wish) turned it over to Mr. Harris 
with his compliments. The letter" reads as follows: 

(Confidential) 

O. P. Comfort 
August 4, 1855. 
My dear General: 

Your letter notifying me that Harris intended to come 
here arrived the next day after he left this place for 
Washington. Some days before I left home, the Pres- 
ident had assented to Harris's appointment, but when I 
sent him a commission to sign he hesitated, and I 
thought he was inclined to bestow the office on another. 
I think he retained that view when Mr. Harris had his 
first interview with him, but it appears by a letter I have 
just received from him that Harris has carried his point. 
From that letter I make the following extract, which I 
do not doubt will be very gratifying to you. 

"I had a short interview with Mr. Harris yesterday 
and he dined with me to-day. He is evidently a man of 
high character, and his large intelligence derived both 
from books and observation impresses me forcibly. 
My consultations with him have been very satis- 
factory, and you have not in my judgment overesti- 
mated his qualifications for the position of which we 
have spoken. I shall appoint him at once and think he 
had better sail as soon as possible." 

I rejoice as heartily as you can at this result. I cannot 
doubt that he will justify the favorable opinion we enter- 



101,. & p.. vol. I, no. 5. 

II 



tain of his eminent qualifications. Should Harris get the 
appointment, — as I think it is beyond contingency he 
will, — I have no objection you should read to him the 
above extract from the President's letter to me. Beyond 
that I w^ish it to be regarded as strictly confidential. I 
have been here nearly a fortnight and may remain some 
time longer. I brought work with me. The President 
says in his letter it is hot in Washington and urges me to 
remain until the weather changes, unless some emer- 
gency calls for my return. We are here "under an ardent 
Southern sun," as old Mr. Ritchie would say, but we are 
surrounded by water and nearly all the time fanned by 
ocean breezes. These breezes and the bathing are our 
comforts, — perhaps fish[ing] ought to be added 
thereto. 

Yours truly, 
W. L. Marcy. 
General P. M. Wetmore. 

President Pierce, then, had reached a final and favor- 
able decision before he received Townsend Harris's 
letter of August 4, 1855. Indeed, on that same day, Mr. 
W. Hunter, Assistant Secretary of State, sent Harris the 
following notice of his appointment :" 

Department of State 
4th August, 1855. 
Dear Sir: 

I have the pleasure to inform you that the President 
has signed your commission as Consul General to 
Japan. He is desirous of conversing with you upon the 



i^L. & P., vol. I, no. 10. 

12 



subject and will receive you for the purpose at any time 
when he may not be otherwise engaged. 

Very respectfully 

Your obedient servant, 
W. Hunter. 
To TowNSEND Harris. 

Townsend Harris must have been in New York City 
by this time, as is proved by another interesting note by 
Mr. W. H. Topping, written August 5, 1855, which was 
addressed to him at New York, and which reveals two 
more persons who strove for the appointment of Harris 
as our first representative to Japan." 

Washington, August 5, 1855. 
My dear Sir : 

Permit me to congratulate you on your success in 
obtaining the appointment you desired. 

I called on Mr. Webster, as I promised I would, and 
was informed by him that the President had concluded 
to give you the appointment, and I then called in at the 
Hotel, but you had flown. 

It is more than probable that you will be obliged to 
return here to receive your instructions, and, if so, I shall 
have the pleasure of seeing you again either here or in 
New York, at which latter place I shall be in the course 
of a few days. Present my regards to General Wetmore 
and his brother, and believe me to be 

Very respectfully and truly yours, 
W. H. Topping. 
Townsend Harris, Esq., 
etc. etc. etc., 
New York. 

"L. fif p.. vol. I, no. II. 

13 



This letter brought added joy to Townsend Harris, 
who must have hastened to communicate the good news 
to some of his dearest friends — for this we interpret to 
be the meaning of the names written in his own hand on 
the back of this letter — namely, Topping and Marcy 
(at Washington), Currier (at Penang), Barstow (S. L. 
M. Barlow?), and Drinker (in China). Mr. Sandwith 
Drinker, indeed, was particularly well informed about 
Harris's appointment. Writing from Canton, China, on 
December 3, 1855,^' he says to Harris : 

"Mrs. Drinker received your note mentioning your 
appointment to Japan, and we shall all be glad to see you 
back again. . . . Your secrecy about your mission to 
Siam is rather amusing, as you say you do not wish it 
to reach China. We know all your movements better 
than people at home do. I have received two letters about 
your going to Siam, and have seen two or three others 
giving an account of your mission. I also knew, before 
you wrote, of your appointment to Japan, and knew 
Marcy consulted Commodore Perry about it. I knew 
Perry's answer. So you see we are well posted up 
here." 

As Mr. Drinker said, Secretary Marcy had in fact 
consulted Commodore Perry as to a properly qualified 
person for the post to Japan. But we are in a position 
to-day to give more authoritative information than Mr. 
Drinker had been able to gather from the letters which 
he had received. Curiously enough, it is information that 
Townsend Harris himself received only years later — 

i^L. & P., vol. I, no. 23. 

14 



after he had officially sent in his resignation as Minister 
Resident to Japan. In regretfully accepting this letter 
of resignation, the then Secretary of State, William H. 
Seward, bears testimony not only as to the persons who 
actually had recommended Townsend Harris for the 
position, but also to the satisfaction of the United States 
Government at the pioneer work he had accomplished 
in Japan." 

No. 24 Department of State 

Washington, October 21, 1861. 
Sir: 

Your dispatch of July 10 (No. 29) has been re- 
ceived. 

You perhaps are informed now for the first time that 
your appointment as the first commissioner to Japan was 
made by President Pierce upon the joint recommenda- 
tion of Commodore Perry and myself. 

You will do me the justice, therefore, to believe that 
I sincerely sympathize with you in your suffering from 
ill health, and that I regard your retirement from the 
important post you have filled with such distinguished 
ability and success, as a subject of grave anxiety, not only 
for this country, but for all the Western nations. 

The President [Lincoln] instructs me to say that he 
accepts your resignation with profound regret, and to 
present to you an assurance of his entire satisfaction with 
the manner in which the responsibilities of your mission 
have been discharged. 

Mr. Robert H. Pruyn has been appointed to succeed 
you, and, I presume, will reach Yedo as early as January 



^*Dipl. Corr., 1862, pt. 2, p. 816. 

IS 



next. You will, of course, remain in the discharge of 
official duties until relieved by his arrival. 
I am, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 
William H. Seward. 
TowNSEND Harris, Esq., 
etc. etc. etc., 
Yedo. 

So closes the history of Townsend Harris's appoint- 
ment as Consul General for Japan. He thus became the 
first representative of any country at any time to be 
accredited to the Island Empire of the Far East; and it 
was an extremely fortunate choice — fortunate not only 
for Japan but for the United States and the world in 
general. Japan feels deeply the debt of gratitude which 
she owes to the United States for all that Townsend 
Harris did for her in those early and troubled days when 
she first opened her ports to the Western world; and, 
on the other hand, the world has greatly profited from 
the fact that Townsend Harris built the diplomatic re- 
lations of Japan with the United States and the other 
members of the family of nations on the firm founda- 
tion of friendliness, mutual trust, and sympathetic un- 
derstanding. 



i6 



Journal No. 1 

Commencing May 21, 1855 
Ending April 13, 1856 — on page 60^ 

At Penang, l8^^. Having arrived here on the 29th 
ult. from my Indian trip, and being soon to start on my 
homeward voyage overland, I shall only record a few of 
the points and dates in my journey. 

May 21, I8SS- Bade adieu to my most kind and 
hospitable friend Charles C. Currier, Esq., a true Amer- 
ican and an honor to his country; his praises are in the 
mouth of every gentleman who has visited Penang." Dear 
Penang! a part of the primeval Paradise not altered at 
the Flood: here, an everlasting spring reigns; fresh 
flowers scent the air on each morning; its luscious 
fruits, — the pisang, mangosteen, durian, ramput, mango, 
rambutan, kachao, orange, golden fig, among others, — • 
and the whole family of palm fruits are some of them 
constantly in season. What lovely views! What a panor- 

^This legend is written in Townsend Harris's own hand, on the first page 
of vol I of the manuscript Journal. As a matter of fact, Journal no. i ends 
(on p. 60 of the manuscript) with the entry for Monday, Apr. 14, 1856. 

2U.S. Consul at Penang ; sailed for the United States on July 1, 1859 : 1,. QT P., 
vol. 1, no. 256. 

A thorough search of Hasse's Index has failed to find any mention of Nir. 
Currier as U. S. Consul. In a footnote to his letter to Charles Huffnagle, U. S. 
Consul General for British India, and dated Shimoda, July 6, 1857 (L. B., vol. 2, 
P- 39 )> Townsend Harris distinctly mentions Mr. Currier as U. S. Consul at 
Penang. 

17 



ama from the West Hill 2,800 feet high! What rides in 
its sweetly shaded valleys! It is a land of delight, and the 
people are simple, warm hearted and hospitable ; so long 
as memory continues I can never forget them and their 
terrestrial Paradise. Go on board the steamer Singa- 
pore, Captain Baker, my old friend who commanded the 
steamer Pekin, when we were in fearful danger from a 
typhoon in the China Sea, October 2, 1851. 

May zg, 1855. Arrive off Point-de-Galle (Ceylon) 
at 7 P. M. Cannot enter the harbor except by daylight, 
therefore we lie off and on all night, and enter at day- 
light on the 30th. 

May SO, 1855. Go on board the small steamer Bom- 
bay for Suez, — horribly crowded, and any quantity of 
ill-tempered children, speaking Hindostanee, Bengalee, 
Malay and "Pigeon English" — anything in fact but 
English — sallow-looking things they are, but time and 
the temperate zone will give them rosy cheeks, red lips 
and bleach the yellow stain of bile out of their skins. 

June II, l8S5- Reach Aden, created by Shaitan^ and 
abandoned by God. Is the most fearfully desolate place 
I ever saw. Volcanic in its origin, it looks as though it 
had not yet got cool. Go out to the cantonments five 
miles, situated on the actual bottom of the old crater. 
The side to the north is broken down, and through this 
opening runs the road to the neck which unites it with 
the land. Finish coaling at 8 P. M. and start for Suez. 
The weather is oppressive beyond anything I ever knew 
— it utterly prostrates one. 

^An Arabic word meaning Satan. 

18 



June 12, 1855. Last night will always be fixed in my 
mind as a night of horror. As we ran up the Straits of 
Bab-el-Mandeb (truly to us the "Gate of Tears") the 
simoon began to blow; at i A. M. the thermometer stood 
at 104°; the air did not appear to possess any oxygen. 
Men — strong men — gasped for breath, — for something 
to satisfy the craving of their lungs. At last we passed the 
Gate at 5 A. M., and, joy of joys, we saw the blue waters 
of the Red Sea curling under a fresh breeze from the 
west. The relief was instantaneous — all were like men 
raised from a sick bed — and the thermometer fell to 87°. 
About two years ago, three females died from exhaustion 
alone, during a passage like that of last night. I would 
advise any friend to avoid the Red Sea from April to 
November. 

June ig, 185s. Reached Suez early this morning. I 
had the good luck to draw Van No. i, consequently I 
leave in the first caravan of five carriages at 2 P. M. The 
other passengers will follow at intervals of four hours 
between each caravan. The Van is half an omnibus on 
two wheels, and drawn by two horses and two mules. 
Guards on horseback go with each party. The Arabs 
drive furiously and treat their brutes with great cruelty. 

About five miles from Suez, I had a fine sight of the 
"Moving Sand Pillars" so graphically described by 
Bruce.* There were four that I saw. They are simply 
occasioned by a small whirlwind which lifts up the burn- 



*James Bruce (Dec. 14, 1730-Apr. 27, 1794.), African traveller and ex- 
plorer. The passage referred to is in Travels to Discover the Source of the 
Nile, in the Years i'^68-tJ73, Dublin, 1790-91, in vol. 5, bk. VIII, ch. XI, pp. 
318-19, 321. 

19 



ing dust of the desert, and, from its being confined to the 
vortex of the whirlwind, gives it the appearance of a 
solid body of great height and moving more or less 
rapidly over the desert. This no doubt is the origin of the 
Arab fables of the Jin whose heads reach up to the clouds. 
Afterwards had a fine mirage — the deception was 
perfect — a beautiful sheet of water — a noble and exten- 
sive palace raised its lofty white walls — palm trees were 
waving — and the green fields refreshed the eye. How 
much like the future of life in the eye of youth with its 
glowing anticipations! Alas! how much were the facts 
like the realities of life! 

The water was the sandy desert — the palace simply 
the low white stables v/here our horses stood — the palm 
trees a poor stunted "thorn acacia" and the green fields 
a few leaves that will grow in the desert despite its 
aridity. We have sixteen relays of cattle and eat three 
times on the road between Suez and Cairo. The cofifee 
must be drunk to be appreciated. Distance, 83 miles; 
time, 1 6 hours. On reaching the hills that overlook Cairo, 
I saw the Great Pyramid by the light of the rising sun — 
a grand sight. It looked like a mountain. 

June 20, 1855. As the cholera was raging in Cairo, 
we drove at once to the steamer at Shubra, about three 
miles below Boulak. Here are a fine palace and beautiful 
gardens belonging to the Pasha, Said-Pasha. Not fearing 
the cholera [we] went to Cairo and visited the Citadel 
and the Tomb of Mehemet Ali. As Cairo is no novelty 
nowadays I do not describe it, merely remarking that the 
Mosque or Tomb of Mehemet Ali brought the glories 

20 



of Agra and Delhi to my mind from the similarity of 
style; but what a difference! Go and see the Taj Mahal 
and Moote Musjeed,^ the Tomb of Ackbar and the 
Jumma Musjeed and twenty other fine buildings at 
Agra; then visit Delhi, both old and new, and see her 
glories, and you would at once say that Mehemet's Tomb 
is mere cutcha.'^ 

Having time, I went to the Great Pyramid and went 
through the whole process of donkey bargaining with its 
attendant noise and cheatery; was dragged up to the top 
of the Pyramid by four cutthroat looking rascals, and 
then came down again, woefully out of breath. I am 
sorry I ever saw it under any other light than that from 
the hills at sunrise. 

I would advise any friend visiting Cairo to go out there 
to see the sight. It will pay — as we say in America. Passed 
the^night miserably enough in the small, dirty, hot and 
crowded steamer. The last passengers arrived at 8 P. M. 

June 21, I8SS' Left Shubra at 6 130 A. M. for Kafirlis, 
or Cafferlis — seventy-five miles below Cairo. Pass 
through the great hydraulic work called the Barrage, 
intended to secure the inundation of the lands above it. 

It is a bold and noble work, but not yet complete. 
Reached Kafirlis at 4 P. M. and took the railway! Shade 



^Musjeed (or masjid, mesjid, musjid) : a Mohammedan mosque. "MotI 
Masjid, or Pearl Mosque, is an equally perfect example of the Mahommedan 
style"; Encycl. Brit., s. v. Agra. 

It will be noticed that here, and generally so, Townsend Harris anglicizes 
the spelling of foreign words: e, g., the long "i" of masjid he represents by 
a double "e." 

"The meaning is quite clear, even without knowing that cutcha is an Anglo- 
Indian word meaning a cheap lime used in building. 

21 



of Cheops! A railway in Egypt 1 Cars new and capital, 
we spun over the eighty-three miles to Alexandria by 
8 130 P. M. Rose early and got a vapor bath — the first 
bath since leaving Ceylon. 

June 22, l8§§. Went on board the steamer Euxtne 
at II A. M. for England ho! via Malta and Gibraltar. 
View of Alexandria Harbor as you leave it is very fine. 

En route to Malta saw Cape Bon near Tripoli, and 
Captain Weeks like a good fellow sheered in so that we 
could make out the houses at Algiers as we passed. 

June 25, l8S5' Arrive at Malta, visit the Church of 
St. John with its magnificent roof and pavement and 
noble monuments of the old knights ; also the old palace 
and armory of the knights; about one hundred suits of 
their armor are preserved in the armory. I was surprised 
at the smallness of it, but few of the corselets were large 
enough for my chest, although I am not very large. 

July 1, 1855- Arrive at Gibraltar early in the morn- 
ing. Visit the fortifications, which I think might be truly 
called impregnable, — so long as ammunition and food 
hold out, nothing but treachery or cowardice can cause 
its surrender. Capital apricots and other fruits. Pleasant 
to my ear it was, to hear the rolling sounds of the 
majestic Castilian language. I should have noted that, on 
our voyage from Malta, we saw snow on the peaks of the 
Sierra Nevada, and that among other places we had 
capital views of Velez-Malaga, Malaga itself, and the 
beautiful country between. Malaga must be a capital 
place for an invalid. We left the same day for our last 
stage, — Southampton. 

22 



July 6, i8S5' On our voyage from Gibraltar we 
sighted Cape Trafalgar, Cape Finisterre and Ushant, 
of course observing Europa Point and Cape Spartel. 

We reached Southampton at 4 P. M. having passed be- 
tween the Isle of Wight and the villages of New Forest. 
I would here remark that, from leaving Penang until 
our arrival here, the weather has been good, so far as 
wind is concerned, and that we never had any sea that 
would endanger a common ship's boat. Passed my 
luggage at the Custom House and went to Radley's 
Hotel, a very good house, where we had beefsteaks, 
strawberries and other things that do not figure in the 
Asiatic bills of fare. 

July J, I8SS- Went up to London and on going to 
Baring Brothers & Co. I met the welcome of letters from 
my dear friends in New York. I had intended to go to 
Paris, but my letters were so urgent for my immediate 
return^ 4hat I took my passage for the Atlantic to leave 
Liverpool on the i6th inst. Went down to Liverpool 
on the 14th, passed the 15th in calling on Mr. and Mrs. 
Miller and Mr. and Mrs. Whittemore, and early on the 
1 6th went on board the noble steamer Atlantic, Captain 
West; and, being so placed and surrounded by plenty of 
countrymen, I felt as though I had already reached 
home. 



^Though there is no manuscript evidence, the writer feels sure that among 
these urgent letters from dear friends in New York there was at least one 
frorn General Prosper M. Wetmore, and perhaps one from William L. Marcy, 
the Secretary of State. The writer is even more sure that the reason for the 
urgency of Townsend Harris's return was that he might be present in the 
United States to plead his own cause and to make sure of receiving the ap- 
pointment as first Consul General to Japan. 

23 



We had a singular -mirage on our voyage home. We 
saw Cape Race early in the morning, and at 3 P. M. land 
appeared nearly directly ahead and apparently some ten 
miles distant. Suddenly the line of the land stretched 
along nearly across our course and extended a long 
distance. Now, in reality, the nearest land in that 
direction was Cape Breton (I think) then some one hun- 
dred and ten miles (not knots) distant. The land soon 
began to show remarkable changes. Sometimes it would 
shoot up into high sharp peaks; then the peaks would 
change to rounded hills; then the line of coast would be 
changed into distinct islets as quick as the changes of a 
kaleidoscope. It continued until 9 P. M. 

July ZJ, 1855. At 4 P. M. we passed the buoy on the 
Bay of New York, which completed my voyage around 
the world. 

I expressed a hope to some of the passengers that I 
should never be required to leave New York for two 
hundred and fifty miles in any direction!' 

I omit the details of what I did while in the United 
States, merely noting that on the 4th of August I was 
appointed Consul General^ for Japan. 



^The hope here expressed by Townsend Harris must have been due to the 
exuberance of his joy at reaching home again, — "dear old, inflammable New 
York" (as he elsewhere calls it), — after an absence of seven years, dating 
from the spring of 1849, when he left for California as supercargo of his own 
trading argosy. (See note 7.) 

^See illustration. It will be noticed that the word General was inserted by 
hand on a form intended for consuls only; secondly, that this first commission 
was addressed to "His Imperial Majesty, The Emperor of Japan," although, 
as a matter of fact, it was ultimately delivered to the Shogun at Yedo; and 
thirdly, that W. Hunter signed as Acting Secretary of State, in place of Secre- 
tary William L. Marcy, who was then at Old Point Comfort enjoying a 
short vacation. 

24 













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During the same month the President was pleased to 
entrust me with the making [of] a commercial treaty 
with the Kingdom of Siam,'° a matter m which Mr. 
Balestier was unsuccessful in 1851." 



i°The first information Townsend Harris received of this additional assign- 
ment was contained in a letter from Secretary W. L. Marcy, dated Washington, 
Sept. 6, 1855 (L. & P., vbl. I, no. 14). He was informed that he was to visit 
Siam with a view to negotiate a treaty, and was requested to go to Washing- 
ton as soon as possible in order to make the necessary arrangements. As is so 
often the case, the most interesting part of this letter is the postscript, which 
reads: 

"I advise that nothing should be said about the Siam negotiations. If it 
should become public, obstacles may be thrown in the way of it." 

We have already seen (in the Introduction) how well this state secret was kept. 
Townsend Harris informed Mr. S. Drinker of it by letter of Sept. 15, 1855. For, 
writing from Canton, China, on Dec. 3, 1855, Mr. Drinker was already in 
a position to say to Harris: 

"Your secrecy about your mission to Siam is rather amusing, as you say 
you do not wish it to reach China." 

Incidentally, there seems to have been no exception made in this instance to 
the rule affecting secrets. For, just as Townsend Harris, in spite of Secretary 
Marcy's injunctions, had within ten days seen fit to confide in his intimate 
friend Mr. Drinker, so had others (at least the "two or three others" referred 
to by Mr. Drinker) similarly confided in their friends in China. 

The two "Full Powers," authorizing Townsend Harris to conclude com- 
mercial treaties with Siam and Japan, are dated September 8, 1855, and are 
signed by President Franklin Pierce and by Secretary of State William L. 
Marcy. The special passport, signed by Secretary Marcy, is dated Sept. 12, 
1855. (These three originals are at The College of the City of New York; cf. 
also L. & P., vol. I, no. 15.) The President's letters to the King of Siam and 
to the Emperor of Japan (countersigned by Secretary Marcy), are dated Sept. 
12, 1855 {L. & P., vol. 2, nos. 14 and 15). These five documents were sent 
to Townsend Harris enclosed in Secretary Marcy's Letter of Instructions, 
bearing date of Sept. 12, 1855, and directing him: 

Firstly, to revise the existing treaty with Siam, concluded by Edmund 

Roberts on Mar. 20, 1833 ; and 

Secondly, to make sure that missionaries from the United States would 

henceforth be free from molestation. (Dispatch No. i from the Department 

of State: L. Sf P., vol. 2, no. 16.) 

iijoseph Balestier, of Massachusetts. He was nominated U. S. Consul for 
Rhio, Island of Bintang, Malagan Sea, on Jan. 21, 1834; referred to the Com- 
mittee on Commerce; consented to, Feb. 10, 1834 (Hasse, Index, pt. 3, p. 1720). 

He was nominated U.S. Consul for Singapore, July 2, 1836; referred to Com- 
mittee on Commerce; consented to, July 4, 1836; served in this capacity from 
1836 to 1852 {ib., p. 1712). 

From Aug. 16, 1849, to Feb. 15, 1851, he acted as Special Commissioner of the 

25 



It was arranged between the State and Navy Depart- 
ments, that the Steam Frigate San Jacinto would call at 
Penang, to which place I wished to proceed overland, 
and then take me to Siam and afterwards to Japan. I 
soon made the acquaintance of Commodore Armstrong" 
whose flag is on the San Jacinto, and Captain Bell" of 
the frigate. I put on board of her the presents for the 
Kings of Siam with my heavy luggage for Japan, with 
some few stores. I found the Commodore and Captain 
Bell very kind and accommodating, and I hope we shall 
prove to be good messmates. 

October IJ , iS^S- Embark on board the steamer 
Pacific^^ Captain Nye, for Liverpool. For reasons that 



United States to Cochin China. Mr. Balestier's report to the Secretary of 
State of his unsuccessful efforts to conclude a commercial treaty with Siam is 
to be found in 32-1, S. Ex. Doc, no. 38 — in Serial no. 618 — a report which, 

ith the accompanying documents, fills 125 pages. 

i-Commodore James Armstrong: born at Shelbyville, Kentucky, Jan. 17, 
1794. His official career was as follows: Midshipman, Nov. 15, 1809; Lieuten- 
ant, Apr. 27, 1816; Commander, Mar. 3, 1825; Captain, Sept. 8, 1841; Com- 
modore, Retired List, Apr. 4, 18671 died, Aug. 25, i868 {cf. Callahan, List; 
and T. H. S. Hamersly, General Register). 

In 1814, he was captured by the British while serving in the Frolic; from 
185s to 1853, he commanded the East India Squadron, during. which time (in 
1857) he destroyed the Barrier Forts at Canton. 

i^Captain Henry Haywood Bell : born in Orange County, North Carolina, 
in 1808. His official career was as follows: Midshipman, Aug. 4, 1823; Passed 
midshipman. Mar. 23, 1829; Lieutenant, Mar. 3, 1831; Commander, Aug. 12, 
1854; Commodore, July 16, 1862; Rear-Admiral, July 25, 1866; Retired List, 
Apr. 12, 1867; Drowned at the mouth of the Osaka River, Japan, Jan. it, 
i868. {Cf. Callahan, op. cit.; and Hamersly, op. cit.) 

In early life he served on the Grampus in the expedition against the pirates 
on the coast of Cuba. In the destruction of the Barrier Forts at Canton, he 
commanded the San Jacinto. During the Civil War, he did distinguished 
service in the West Gulf blockading squadron under Admiral Farragut. In 
1865, he commanded the East India Squadron with the rank of commodore. 

i*This steamer (300 feet long and 46 feet wide) was a ship of 3,500 tons. 
The New York Tribune of Thursday morning, Oct. 25, 1849, in reporting the 
installation of her engines the preceding day, speaks of her as the largest 
steamer in the world and the future monarch of the ocean. 

26 



I will omit, the voyage was the most unpleasant I ever 
made. From unavoidable exposure I took a violent cold 
on the 24th. We arrived at Liverpool at 2 A. M. of Sun- 
day, October 28th. I visited Mr. and Mrs. Miller and 
Mr. and Mrs. Whittemore, and transacted some business 
with Messrs. Brown, Shipley & Co. and left for London 
at 4 P. M. of the 29th. Arrived at the Euston Square 
Station" and thence went to the Clarendon Hotel. I was 
very happy to meet here Colonel Osborne of the Madras 
Army, an old fellow passenger on the Indian side. The 
30th and 31st were passed in arranging my money 
matters with the Messrs. Baring, calling on Mr. 
Buchanan" and making some small purchases. 

November I, iS^S- Went to Paris via Dover and 
Calais, Lisle, Amiens, etc. etc. Reached Paris at 1 1 P. M. 
and went to the Hotel Meurice, where with great 
difficulty I got a room up 132 steps of staircase at five 
francs per day! I ordered some properly ornamented 
clothes to wear at the Court of Bangkok", etc. etc., and 



i^Townsend Harris arrived in London the same day — Monday, Oct. 29, 
1855. {L. & P., vol. 2, no. 119.) 

i^James Buchanan, then Minister to Great Britain, later President of the 
United States. 

Townsend Harris called at the American Legation on Tuesday, Oct. 30, 1855. 
Among other reasons, he called to have his passport duly vised — which was ac- 
cordingly marked, Bon pour La France, and was signed by John Appleton, 
Secretary of Legation. On the same day, he visited also the Consulate General 
of France in London, and for the same purpose. His passport was here marked 
Bon pour un an pour France. The next day, Oct. 31, 1855, he paid Mr. Buchanan 
a visit of leave. {Journal, Monday, Mar. 9, 1857.) 

By a strange coincidence, Buchanan was destined, as President of the United 
States, to receive officially, at Washington, the first Japanese Embassy that, in 
i860 and at the instance of Townsend Harris himself, left the Island Empire 
for a visit to the Western countries — seeing America first. 

iTQn a small scrap of blue paper (endorsed "Uniform Regulations"), Town- 

27 



purchased a good supply of shoes. I visited the great 
Exhibition, the Louvre and all the great collections of 
w^orks of art, besides going to the opera as often as I 
could. 

November 1 5, 1 8 55. The great Exhibition was 
closed to-day, w^ith all the imposing ceremonies that the 
French know so well how to arrange. On arriving in 
London I found the steamer for India was full and that 
a passage could not be had at any rate. I therefore took 
my passage by the steamer of the 20th from Southamp- 
ton (I to go via Marseilles), although this will compel 
me to wait in Ceylon some fifteen days. I should have 
reached Penang just as soon by taking the steamer of the 
4th of December, but I wished to avoid even the appear- 
ance of loitering, though, for that matter, the steamer 
of the 4th of January, 1856, would have taken me to 
Penang in ample time for the San Jacinto^^, as Captain 
Bell told me he did not expect to reach Penang before 
the 20th of February. 



send Harris wrote the following memorandum of the uniform he was to wear 
at Court {L. & P., vol. 2, no. 7) : 

Uniform 

A blue coat lined with white silk, straight, standing collar embroider[e]d 

with gold, single breasted, straight or round button holes, slightly erabroid- 

er[e]d — Navy button — cuffs embroider[e]d in the manner of the collar, white 

cassimere breeches, gold knee buckles, white silk stockings, and gold shoe 

buckles — a chapeau bras, black cockade and gold eagle — sword. 

i^The San Jacinto left New York for Pulo Penang on Oct. 25, 1855, eight 

days after Townsend Harris sailed on the Pacific (William Maxwell Wood, 

Fanktvei: or the San Jacinto in the Seas of India, China and Japan, p. 15. 

London and New York, Harper & Bros., 1859). She arrived at her destination 

on Mar. 21, 1856, at 11 A. M., 149 days out from New York (L. B., vol. i, p. 14), 

having on board Mr. Heusken, Townsend Harris's Dutch Secretary for Japan, 

and the numerous presents for the two Kings of Siam and for the Emperor 

of Japan. (P. J. Treat, The Early Diplomatic Relations betvaeen the United 

States and Japan, p. 56.) 

28 



November 26, l8§^. My cold, contracted in the 
Pacific, has not left me, indeed I do not know how it 
could, as I have only seen the sun twice since I have been 
in Paris, — fog, drizzle, rain, mud and misery. I am glad 
to start for the clean skies and bright suns of the tropics 
once more. 

I called frequently on Mr. Mason'' and Mr. McRae,'" 
our Consul at Paris. I was most happy to meet Mr. 
Vesey,^^ our Consul for Havre, and Charles HufiFnagle, 
Esq.," United States Consul General for British India. 
The latter is an old Indian acquaintance, and we passed 
many happy hours together in Paris. 

Mr. Huffnagle left on the 19th to go to the Crimea, 
promising to join me at Alexandria and so go on with me 
to Ceylon. 

I left Paris early this evening and travelled all night 



i^John Young Mason, of Virginia: Apr. 18, 1799-Oct. 3, 1859; Envoy Ex- 
traordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to France, 1853-59. 

He was Secretary of the Navy (President Tyler), Mar. 14, 1844 to 1845; 
Attorney General (President Polk), Mar. 5, 1845, to Sept. 9, 1846; again 
Secretary of the Navy, Sept. 10, 1846-49; commissioned Minister to France 
(President Pierce), Oct. 10, 1853; nominated Minister on Dec. 6, 1853, in place 
of William C. Rives, who was recalled at his own request; died at his post 
in Paris, Oct. 3, 1859. (Hasse, Index, pt. 3, p. 1798, and Encycl. Brit.) 

~°D. K. McRae, of North Carolina, Consul at Paris, 1854-55. 

He was nominated on Feb. 4, 1854, in place of S. G. Goodrich, recalled; 
consented to, Feb. 13, 1854. (Hasse, Index, pt. 3, p. 1723.) 

2iWiiliam H. Vesey, of New York, Consul for Havre, France, 1853-59. 

He waa nominated Consul on Mar. 9, 1853, in place of L. Draper, recalled; 
reported, Mar. 14th; consented to. Mar. 21st. (Hasse, Index, pt. 3, p. 1722.) 

22Charles Huffnagle, of Pennsylvania. 

He was nominated Consul for Calcutta on Dec. 22, 1847, in place of J. B. 
Higginson, recalled; reported, Dec. 23, 1847; consented to, Jan. 3, 1848 ; served 
till, 1853. 

He was nominated Consul General for British India on Mar 7, 1853; re- 
nominated, July 7, 1856; consented to, July 31, 1856; served till i86i. (Hasse, 
Index, pt. 3, p. 1704.) 

29 



to Marseilles — passing Lyons, Vienne, Avignon, etc., 
etc., — arriving at 5 P. M. Next day called at the Amer- 
ican Consulate — the Consul, Mr. Hodge,"^ I left in 
Paris. Got my passport, etc., en regie and finally left 
Marseilles on the 29th. The new harbor of Marseilles 
is a noble vv^ork; passed quite close to the celebrated 
Chateau d'lf or Monte Cristo's Island. I am in the 
Vectis, a small but very fast steamer which is com- 
manded by Captain Norris, an old China acquaint- 
ance. 

November 2Q, l8^§. Pass between Corsica and Sar- 
dinia and have a fine view of both islands, and on the 
morning of the 30th we see the coast of Sicily. Pass the 
Island of Maritima, celebrated for its prison for political 
offenders of the olden time. It looks bad enough, but it 
is a pleasure garden when compared with Aden. Have 
a capital view of the town of Marsala and afterwards 
some other places on the coast, — coast high and pictur- 
esque. At 3 P. M. passed Girgenti, and on the 30th of 
November at 6 A. M. reached Malta. Called at once on 
Mr. Winthrop,"* U. S. Consul; afterwards went on an- 
other pilgrimage to the noble church of St. John and 
to the ramparts of Civita Vecchia. 



23J. L. Hodge, of Pennsylvania, Consul for Marseilles from 1850 to 1856. 

He was nominated Consul on Jan. 4, 1850, in place of D. C. Croxall, recalled ; 
reported, Aug. 2, 1850; consented to, Aug. 27, 1850. (Hasse, Index, pt. 3, 
p. 1722.) 

24WiIliam Winthrop, of Massachusetts, Consul for Malta from 1834 to 1869. 

William Winthrop was the same individual as W. W. Andrewi. As An- 
drews, he was nominated Consul on Dec. 10, 1834, in place of P. Eynard, 
removed; referred to the Committee on Commerce, Dec. 15, 1834; consented 
to Dec. 30, 1834. He changed his name to William Winthrop about Sept, 2, 
1845; died at his post, July 3, 1869. (Hasse, Index, pt. 3, p. 1709.) 

30 



The U. S. Frigate Constellation left yesterday for 
Sicily. We leave at noon for Alexandria. 

December 4, 1 8 55. We reached Alexandria at 3 P. M. 
and am sorry to learn my friend Huffnagle has not ar- 
rived, so I shall lose his agreeable company. Mr. De 
Leon,^^ the U. S. Consul General for Egypt, is in Cairo. 
The Vice-Consul called on me in the evening. 

December 5, iSSS- Leave Alexandria per railway at 
7 A. M. for Cafferlis. Had we been one day later we 
should have been able to go all the way to Cairo by rail, 
which would have been more agreeable than the small 
dirty Nile steamers. The steamer from Southampton 
(November 20th) reached Alexandria one hour before 
us. This shows that a person saves eight days by going to 
the East via Marseilles. Among my fellow passengers 
is the Hon. Chisholm Anstey,^^ late M.P., now Attorney 
General for Hongkong, and Mr. Gregory, M. P. for 
Dublin, both agreeable persons. Arrived at Cafferlis at 
half-past ten and did not leave till half-past twelve. A 



25Edwin De Leon, of South Carolina, Consul General for Alexandria, 
Egypt, from 1854 to 1861. 

He was nominated Consul General on Feb. 4, 1854, in place of R. B. Jones, 
recalled; reported, Feb. 13, 1854; consented to, Apr. 18, 1854. (Hasse, Index, 
pt. 3, p. 1752.) 

He was author, journalist, and diplomat. Born May 4, 1818, in Charleston, 
South Carolina, he resigned his office in 1861 in order to go with the Confed- 
eracy. In his Thirty Years of My Life on Three Continents, he gives many 
pleasing reminiscences of distinguished persons whom he met in Europe and 
in the East. He died in New York City, Dec. i, 1891. {Nat. Cycl. Amer. Biogr., 
vol. 4, p. 94.) 

26The Hon. Thomas Chisholm Anstey, 1816 to Aug. 12, 1873. After a stormy 
career in English home politics, which scarcely gave him any claim to govern- 
ment office, he was none the less appointed Attorney General for Hongkong 
in 1854. His endeavors to reform radically the entire administration of Hong- 
kong brought him into serious collision with Sir John Bowring, the Governor ; 
and finally, in 1858, he was suspended from his post by Sir John — a suspension 
later confirmed by the home government. {Diet. Nat. Biogr.) 

31 



most unpleasant trip — steamer small, dirty and crowded ; 
and, going upstream, do not reach Cairo until half-past 
two on the next morning. I found Mr. De Leon at the 
hotel and am indebted to him for a most agreeable day. 
Revisited the Citadel, Tomb of Mehemet Ali, and some 
of the chief bazaars. Leave Cairo at midnight. 

December J, 1 8^5- Reached Suez at 4 P. M. and, 
after three hours' search after luggage, I go on board 
the fine steamer Bengal. I had applied for a sofa when 
I was in London, but they were all engaged and I was 
compelled to take an upper berth, which is very un- 
pleasant in a hot climate. I was most agreeably surprised, 
on going on board, at being told that sofa No. 95 was 
assigned to me — one of the best places and cabins in the 
ship. I find a large and pleasant company on board ; but 
the steamer is so large and roomy and so well ventilated, 
that we are very comfortable. I here meet Mr, Stirling, 
late Attorney General for Hongkong, who is going to 
Ceylon as Puisne" Judge. He has Mrs. and Miss Stirling 
with him. Among the passengers whose names I wish to 
preserve were Mr. Mitford, Civil Judge, Ceylon; 
Major Durand,^^ Bengal Engineers; General Lockyer, 
Commander of the forces, Ceylon, with his amiable wife 
and daughters. We left Suez during the night. 

The sunsets in the Red Sea are glorious beyond any 
description I can give. At 5 P. M. the atmosphere appears 
to be composed of liquid gold — more glorious even than 



2'^Junior, younger or inferior judge. From the old French puis-ne; Latin, 
post natus, meaning therefore "born later," and giving our English word 
"puny." 

-^Sir Henry Marion Durand, 1812-1871. (See Diet. Nat. Biogr.) 

32 



Turner's landscapes which excited so much criticism. It 
then changes to green, violet, purple and other hues 
that make a combination "that must be seen to be 
appreciated." 

December 1 3, 1855. Ofif Mocha; pass the Calcutta 
steamer Oriental bound to Suez. She is forty-eight hours 
behind her time. Have a capital view of Mocha. I 
omitted to state that both in going up in June last, and 
now in coming down the Red Sea, I had a very good 
view of the peak of Mount Sinai and of Mount Hor. 

Arrive at Aden December 8th, <S* A. M. I did not intend 
to land, but at nine o'clock I received a letter from Mr. 
Alley, an American who has established himself here in 
business. He invited me to his house and said his carriage 
was waiting for me at the wharf. I accepted his kind 
offer and passed some hours very pleasantly with him. 
We left Aden at half-past two P. M. with a fresh breeze 
from the south. Thermometer 81°. What a contrast to my 
visit here last June! 

Sunday, December 16, 1855. Divine service in the 
morning by Mr. Brown of the Scotch Kirk, and in the 
afternoon by the Rev. Mr. Daintree, son of the Bishop 
of Madras. Among our passengers, beside those noted 
before, are Colonel Chester, Bengal; Colonel Spottis- 
wood,^"do.; Major Tombs,^° Bengal Cavalry; Mr. Far- 
quarson, Bengal Civil Service; and Captain Crish, of 
Maulmain. A Miss De Quincey, daughter or sister (?) 
of the "Opium Eater"; she is going out to India to meet 



• 29Arthur Cole Spottiswoode, 1808-74. (See Diet. Nat. Biogr.) 
soSir Henry Tombs, 1824-74. (/*•) 

33 



her betrothed. She has a sweet voice and sings charm- 
ingly. I shall long remember her intelligent face. 

Miss Stirling gave the following as a good reason for. 
not marrying : E. E. xx Matrimony, e e XX. 

December 24., 1855. At 6:30 anchor off Point-de- 
Galle to wait for daylight. The next morning I take leave 
of Captain Black of the Bengal, with thanks for his 
attentions, and go on shore and proceeded to my old 
quarters at Bogar's Mansion House. Call on Captain and 
Mrs. McDonald. The Bengal leaves for Madras and 
Calcutta at 5 P. M. I dine with Dr. Clarke (LL.D.), 
Acting Judge. The guests, besides myself, were Judge 
Mitford, Mr. Clarke, the Presbyterian clergyman, Mr. 
Black,^^ U. S. Consul, and wife. Mr. Clarke is a tee- 
totaler, — of which class the number is increasing in the 
East. While in France I drank the delightful mild wine 
of the South, but after leaving Marseilles I came back to 
my old Asiatic habit — tea and cold water. 

December 26, 1855. Call on John Black, Esq., U. S. 
Consul — he [was] absent at Colombo. Saw Mrs. Black 
and her three fine children. Afterwards I see Staff Sur- 
geon Cowen and the Rev. Mr. Garstin, Colonial Chap- 
lain, and Mr. W. C. Forbes, all of whom called on me 
first. What a difference a title of office makes in this 
world of ours! Mr. Forbes invited me to dine with him 
on New Year's Day, which I accepted. 

December 2^, 7^55. Breakfast chez mot. Afterwards 
go to reading room, where my name has been kindly 
inscribed. See a grand match at billiards played between 

81 John Black {cj. entry for Dec. 26, 1855). 

34 



Major Lilly, Commander at Point-de-Galle, and Cap- 
tain Vanderspaar, of the Ceylon Rifles. A deal of betting 
by the players and bystanders. How fond the English 
are of a bet! Home to dine and early to bed. Sleep well. 

December 28, l8^§. Breakfast and dine with Cap- 
tain and Mrs. McDonald, my old Hongkong friends. 
They kindly give me a standing invitation to breakfast 
with them every day and also to dine, when they are not 
engaged out themselves. 

Write to Judge Mitford and J. O'Halloran, Esq. Mr. 
H. Sonnerkalb, Consul for Hamburg, called on me to- 
day. 

Friday, Saturday and Sunday, December 28, 2Q and 
p, 1855. Did not leave the hotel. Read The New- 
comes. This, like the other works of Thackeray, leaves 
a very unpleasant sensation. In his eyes the whole world 
is base, black and faithless ; he ignores everything like 
benevolent action based on principle, and disbelieves any 
other motive of action than egoism. On Monday the 
31st the steamer from Calcutta for Suez comes in. Mr. 
Baker, formerly of the Sandwich Islands and now of 
Calcutta, desires to be remembered to S. N. Greene,^^ 
(fat Sam), of Penang. Write to N. Dougherty of New 
York.^^ 



32Samuel N. Greene, an intimate friend of Townsend Harris, of whom we 
shall hear more later. He was a business partner of Charles C. Currier, U.S. 
Consul at Penang. (Wood, op. cit., p. 133.). Mr. Greene's wife and two children 
sailed for Scotland on the P. & O. Malabar on Oct. 22, 1859 (^' ®' P-> vol. i, no. 
256). He was a cousin of Captain W. C. Nicholson, of the U,.S.S. Mississippi, 
{lb.) 

s^Nathaniel Dougherty, a very intimate friend of Townsend Harris. He 
served as Townsend Harris's clerk while the latter was in the earthenware 
business in New York from Oct., 1838, till the winter of 1847-48. (See Nathan- 

35 



Monday, December ^l, l8§5. The steamer from 
China comes in. Hear of the death of Commodore Ab- 
bott,'' U. S. N., at Hongkong. Call on Mrs. Black and 
Mrs. McDonald.' 

Go to reading room ; look over China and India news- 
papers; return The Newcomes, and take out The 
Caxtons. 

January I, l8^6. Happy New Year! I would much 
like to be in New York to-day to call on the few friends 
that Death has left me. This bids fair to be an important 
year to me. I have important matters entrusted to my 
charge, and, if I am successful, I may connect my name 
with the history of my country. But, if unsuccessful, no 
matter what ability I may display in my negotiations, I 
shall sink just as much in proportion as I should rise if 
successful. In other words, the world judges solely by 
results. Finis coronat opus is the motto of our day and 
generation. The steamer from China (Noma) sailed for 
Bombay at 6 130 A. M. 

Call on Captain and Mrs. McDonald. Finish and re- 
turn The Caxtons. How much the later works of Bulwer 
excel his early productions; what a difference in the 



iel Dougherty's letter to General Prosper M. Wetmore, dated New York, 
Mar. 24, 185s, now in the files of the Bureau of Appointments, Washington, 
D. C.) During the early part of 1847 Townsend Harris devoted very much 
of his time to the establishment of The College of the City of New York, to 
the neglect of his own business. He resigned as president of the Board of Edu- 
cation of New York City by letter dated Jan. 26, 1848, and in May, 1849, sailed 
for California. Mr. Dougherty continued Independently as an importer of earth- 
enware at loi Water Street, New York ; and during Townsend Harris's absence 
in Japan frequently acted as his American agent in financial matters. (L. B., and 
L. & P., passim.) 

3*Commodore Joel Abbott, of Massachusetts; died at Hongkong, Dec. 14, 
1855. (Hasse, Index, pt. 1, p. 7.) 

36 



morals and philosophy of My Novel and The Caxtons 
and that of Pelham, Eugene Aram, Paul Clifford, etc., 
etc. Dine with Mr. Forbes, Governor's Agent for this 
place. His bungalow is outside the Fort, on a pretty hill 
overlooking the Fort and Harbor. Met Captain and 
Mrs. McDonald, Major Lilly and two subaltern officers. 
These military men cannot talk anything but shop. The 
Indian officers are, many of them, much better informed 
than those of Her Majesty's service. The latter talk only 
of horses, dogs, billiards and cards — that is, beyond the 
gossip of the regiment and station. 

Mrs. Forbes is a very charming person, daughter of a 
judge, born and educated in Ceylon; she has never been 
one hundred and fifty miles from her birthplace, yet she 
is well informed and most pleasing in her manners. The 
dinner was somewhat different from the usual English 
one in the colonies. A great number of excellent Cinga- 
lese plates made their appearance: among others, the 
cabbage, as it is called, of the cocoanut tree, dressed half 
a dozen different ways, — the meat of the cocoanut which 
has just begun to germinate, in which state the cavity is 
quite filled up with a sweet, crisp, vegetable substance 
that is quite agreeable. The Malay curries of Mrs. 
Forbes were unexceptionable. Hulwah, an Arab sweet- 
meat, made of rice, sugar and camel's milk, figured at 
the dessert among a regiment of Cingalese and Hindo- 
stanee preparations of fruit and sugar. 

January 2, 1856. I meet for the first time with the 
works of the Rev. C. Kingsley: Alton Locke, Yeast, 
Hypatia, and Westward Ho! I shall read these. I took 

37 



out the Adventures in the Punjab by Major H. M. 
Lawrence, the most remarkable man of India at the 
present day. He resembles Lord Clive in energy, fertility 
of resources and indomitable courage, while he has none 
of the vices that stained the glory of Clive. Also took 
[out] Anti-Coningsby .^^ 

January 3, 18^6. Up at 5 A. M. and go out to a rock 
temple {'wiharree), sitting and recumbent figures of 
Budh — the last, twenty-five feet long. Plenty of the 
sacred tulsi of the Hindoos growing here. This plant is 
the "sweet basil" of Europe and America — the purple 
variety. The Hindoo legend is that "Tulasi," beloved of 
Krishna, was changed by him into this plant. The first 
avatar of Vishnu was in the form of a fish, and a fish 
forms a part of the Royal Arms of the Great Mogul, the 
King of Oude, and other potentates of the East. When a 
new Governor General comes out to India, that "shadow 
of a shade," the "Great Mogul," presents him with a 
patent of nobility giving him various titles, among others 
that of "Bahaudor"^^ or "Lord of the Sword." This 
patent bears the impress of two crossed fishes as a seal. 
Sacred trees here, as in India, are decorated with red and 
yellow flags. I cannot but admire the brilliancy and blue 
tinge of Sirius, the Dog Star, as seen both in India and 
Egypt. It shines more brightly than Venus with us. 
Major Durand told me that when he was stationed at 



^^Coningsby: or The Nevi Generation is the title of a novel written in 1844 
by Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of BeaconsReld. 

^^Bahaudor, or Bahadur : an Anglo-Indian title of ceremony, given to Euro- 
pean officers in India State papers; or to high officials, in the common language 
of Hindus and Mahommedans. 

38 



Peshawur, in the Punjab, he had frequently seen the hour 
by his watch from the light of this star. It is the most 
agreeable in idea of all the host that was worshipped by 
the ancient Egyptians, who called him Anubis, and he 
figures as a Dog-headed Deity. The Hindoos say that 
the constellation Rishi — our Great Bear — is composed 
of seven Hindoo Fakeers, who were so placed by Siva 
or Ram. 

The Neem tree (Persian lilac) is planted near the 
temples ; leaves are on racemes ; are pointed, about three 
inches long by half an inch wide. In appearance it is 
like our mountain ash; when in flower, the fragrance is 
charming. Here also is the henna tree — Mendee in Hin- 
dostanee. It is the Lawsonia of botanists. The leaves are 
small and the flowers are like those of the clematis; if 
placed close to the nose, they have an unpleasant vege- 
table smell, but at a short distance the perfume is charm- 
ing. The henna dye is produced by bruising the leaves 
and moistening them with water and lime juice. When 
applied to the nails and palms, it produces a bright 
orange tint. The extraordinary custom of polyandry, — 
i.e., one woman having several husbands, — is practised 
in Ceylon and also in Thibet and parts of Nepal. The 
husbands are usually (but not alv/ays) brothers, and 
exercise their marital rights for one week at a time. On 
the road from Point-de-Galle to Colombo, the rest house 
where coach passengers breakfast is kept by three Cin- 
galese brothers, who have one wife. On stopping there 
the second time, I asked the woman which she would 
like the best : to be one of many wives to one man, the 

39 



sole wife of one man, or her present situation. She spat 
at the idea of polygamy, shook her head at a single union, 
and was emphatic in praise of polyandry. After some 
pressing she said the youngest of her husbands was her 
favorite, but that all were kind to her. 

Jafiuary 4, 1 8 §6. Major Lilly invites me to dine 
with him to-morrow. At reading room; finish Guizot's 
Charles I, and first volume of Coningsby. Lieutenant 
Griffith, R.N., and Admiralty Mail Agent, is a fellow 
lodger at the hotel with me. He is an enthusiast with 
the microscope, examining flowers, flies, beetles, etc., 
etc. 

January 5, 1856. Finish Coningsby and Anti-Con- 
ingsby; query. Who wrote the latter work? Dine with 
Major Lilly. Guests: Captain McDonald, Judge 
Clarke, Mr. Forbes, Mr. Sonnerkalb and Mr. Vander- 
spaar. Left at 10 P.M., leaving the whole party playing 
short whist at sovereign points. I never bet on any game 
of chance — not even sixpenny points, and the older I 
grow the more am I satisfied with this resolution which 
I took some eight years since. 

Sunday, January 6, 1856. At church, where, to my 
surprise and annoyance, I found myself occupying a 
"high place in the synagogue." Dr. Garstin gave a capi- 
tal sermon. Dined at the McDonalds. Yesterday I took 
from the library Kay's Life of Lord Metcalf; a very 
readable book. 

Monday, January 7, 18^6. Steamer Cadiz from 
Bombay for China arrived. By this steamer I shall pro- 
ceed to Penang, where I am to be taken up by the San 

40 



Jacinto, but the Cadiz must wait the arrival of the 
steamer from Suez to take the mail on to Penang, Singa- 
pore and China. Went on board the Cadiz and found my 
old friend Captain Baker. Captain Franceville and 
Mr. Newman (Americans) are passengers. 

Tuesday, January 8, 185O. Returned Life of Lord 
Met calf. Write to A. H. Fryer, my kind host at Colombo 
in 1854, during my visit to that part of Ceylon. Mr. 
Ronaine, Collector of this Port, was introduced to me 
to-day. Call on Mrs. McDonald, Mr. Clarke, Major 
Lilly, and the Rev. Dr. Garstin. Ride with the Collector 
to Garstin's hill, where he has a pretty bungalow, 
beautifully placed, charming views from all sides of 
it. 

Dine with Mr. Sonnerkalb, Hamburg Consul. 

January (?, 1856. Mr. Ronaine takes me out for a 
drive. It was charming and such an one as only can be 
found in the tropics. Palms of every kind shaded our 
road. The bright sweet-scented flowers were seen on all 
sides ; bright plumaged birds flitted about, and monkeys 
mimed and grimaced at us on all sides. Our road lay 
across a stream over which the government engineer 
had thrown what he called an American truss-bridge; 
but, from some slight errors in his architecture, the 
bridge, instead of presenting a fair level roadway, 
formed an inverted arch of rather steep descents and 
ascents. It is a crazy looking affair, and I was glad when 
I was safely over it. Dine with Mr. Black, U.S. Consul ; 
Captain Baker, Rev. Dr. Garstin and Mr. Ronaine 
were the guests. It is the custom of all who do not ride 

41 



or drive out to walk on the ramparts from half-past 
five to six P.M. The views are beautiful and you have 
a fine fresh air. I always walk here unless occupied 
by a drive. 

Thursday, January 10^ 18^6. Breakfast at Captain 
McDonald's and dine with Mr. Forbes. It is a shame 
to nembu a dinner, no matter how good, when the table 
is graced by such a woman as Mrs. Forbes, but I must 
say that her dinners, for my palate, excel all I have 
partaken of in Ceylon. 

Friday, January 11^ l8^6. Mr. Forbes drives me 
out to the Paramendr wiharree. The High Priest Dar- 
masalmkase Sirisoman Tisse is a clever man. He showed 
me a number of letters from the First King of Siam 
written in English by the King himself, and a number 
of presents from him. The High Priest has some curious 
books in the Pali character, inscribed on leaves of the 
talipot palm, with a steel style. After thus engraving 
the letters, the surface is rubbed over with blue, red or 
black, according to taste; and, falling into the marks of 
the style, the letters remain of the color of the powder 
applied. This priest built the Burmese wat at Ayer- 
Etam, Pulo Penang. He speaks Cingalese, Burmese 
and Malay, and understands English very well — alto- 
gether an uncommon man. I had a good deal of conver- 
sation with him, — he answering my English by Malay. 
He said he would not take life under any circumstances ; 
that, if threatened by a cobra capello or tiger, he would 
not attempt to secure [his life] by destroying either of 
them; that if it were God's will that he should escape 

42 



or die, that will would take effect notwithstanding his 
efforts. He said he would not catch a fish or kill a fowl, 
yet he would eat of both when they were cooked for 
him; that the sin lay not in the eating but in the slaying. 
In answer to my remark, that if there were no eaters 
of fish or fowl none would be killed, he said those 
things were settled by an overruling power. The Cin- 
galese use the sacred Aum of the Hindoos. This word 
is composed of the initial letters of the three unknown 
and ineffable names of the Deity. In Thibet the lamas 
use Aum, mani pant aum/^ and also Aum! mani pami 
aum! Heu! jemma lotus heu! The Chinese use Aum 
meto Foo! Amidah Budh!^^ repeating these thousands 
of times; and this dull repetition forms the principal 
occupation of the life of a Chinese recluse. When I was 
wandering among the picturesque hills and the sacred 
groves of Tien-Tung in China, I came one day to a 
hermitage seated high up the gorge of the hills. A little 
streamlet of water ran near it, and made everything 
verdant in its vicinity. On approaching the hermitage, 
its tenant, a pleasant looking old man, came out and 
saluted me kindly. 

On looking about I saw a little water-wheel, such 
as boys make from shingles in America, placed over 
the brook, where it was revolving merrily. 



s^Still another form of this formula is Om mani padme hum — which "by 
repetition bars the door of the various worlds of delusion and permits pure 
meditation": Talbot Mundy, Om, The Secret of Ahbor Valley, pp. 274 (es- 
pecially the note) and 289. 

38The Chinese form of this invocation to Buddha is given as 0-me-to-Fuh 
in Jos. Hergesheimer's Java Head, pp. 84-85. (New York, Knopf, 1919-) 

43 



I could not help smiling, as it brought back my boy- 
ish days when I used to construct similar pieces of 
machinery. On looking at it closely, I discovered that 
the gudgeon or shaft was square, and that it had Chinese 
characters on each of its four sides, and a further exami- 
nation showed the inscription to be the same on all the 
sides. Through my Chinese servant I asked for an ex- 
planation and was told that the characters stood for 
Aum meto Foo — Amidah Budh, and that, when the 
wheel revolved, each time one of its square sides came 
up, it answered the same as if it had been uttered by 
the priest; in other words, that he was praying by 
water. I believe wind wheels are used for a similar pur- 
pose. 

I may here remark that, while the Chinese Buddhists 
have retained the sound of these pious ejaculations, they 
have entirely lost the meaning of the words, and this 
remark will apply to all the books they have in the 
Pali character. They have preserved the sound by writ- 
ing it in Chinese, but the sense is lost. The same has 
taken place with the Mahometans at Ningpo with the 
Koran, and with the Jews and the Pentateuch, 

The following lines, translated from a Cingalese poet, 
show that females do not occupy a high position in their 
estimation: 

I've seen the udumber tree in flower; 
White plumage on the crow; 
And fishes* footsteps o'er the deep, 
I've s^en through ebb and flow; 

44 



If man it is who this asserts, 
His word you may believe ; 
But all that woman says, distrust, 
She speaks but to deceive. 

The udumber, almost alone of the Cingalese trees, 
never blooms. In my wanderings in almost every part 
of the world I have applied one test, which I find to 
be unvarying, and that is, that the social position of 
women in any nation will indicate the amount of its 
civilization. Therefore, given her social status and you 
can at once find the mental state of the men. 

Saturday, January 12, t8§6. No steamer yet from 
Aden. The Oriental is now five days behind her time. 
Captain Bond of Madras Artillery desires to be remem- 
bered to Captains Danen and Macpherson at Penang. 
Captain Bond is ordered to the Tennessarim provinces 
at a post back of Maulmain. At library from 1 1 A.M. 
to 5 P.M. Steamer from Suez arrived at ii 130 P.M. 

Sunday, January /J, 1856. Meet my friend Huff- 
nagle; take him to breakfast at Captain McDonald's. 
At noon good-bye to all kind friends at Galle, and go 
on board the Cadiz and start for Penang; not crowded. 
Among the passengers are the Hon. Chisholm Anstey 
and Captain Twiss, R.A.,^'* both for Hongkong. Cap- 
tain Twiss is a son of Horace Twiss, a former Tory 
whipper-in and small poet. I am most happy to meet 



39The father, Horace Twiss, lived from 1787 to 1849. He married twice, 
and his only son (by his second wife) was Quintin William Francis Twiss, who 
therefore must be the Twiss here mentioned by Townsend Harris. {Diet. Nat. 
Biogr.) 

45 



my old friend the Bishop of Batavia, on his return with 
his health quite restored. 

Thursday, January //, 1856. We have beautiful 
weather, and expect to be up to Pulo Rondo (ofif north 
end of Sumatra) by midnight. 

The Bishop has told me some wonderful stories, 
among others that not long since a soldier, bathing in 
the river at Samarang, Java, suddenly cried out and 
hastened on shore, when, to his horror, he found the 
head only of a very venomous snake was fastened to 
his thigh. The head had the appearance of having been 
recently severed from the body of the snake. All possible 
aid was given to the poor man, but all was in vain ; he 
died shortly after being bitten. Not long after the man 
was bitten, the headless body of the snake was seen 
floating down with the tide. Further inquiry discov- 
ered that the snake had been killed some hours before 
the accident by a native who, having severed its head, 
threw the head and body into the river. A good snaik 
story! 

The Bishop said the sagacity of the elephants in Suma- 
tra was very surprising, for when they heard the sound 
of the beating out of rice, which is done with a heavy 
pestle in a species of trough or canoe made of a very 
hard and resonant wood, the elephants would approach 
the place and, if only a few women were present, they 
would drive them away and devour the paddy 1 Well 
done, Bishop! 

Friday, January 18, 1856. The Portuguese Gover- - 
nor of Timor is a passenger with us. I give to Mr. Anstey 

46 



a parcel for Mrs. Drinker of Macao, which I re- 
ceived from Mr. Walker at New York. Write to Mrs. 
Drinker,*" and Armstrong and Lawrence of Hong- 
kong." 

Saturday, January IQ, l8§6. Arrive at Penang at 
8 P.M. I am at once approached by my old friend Cur- 
rier's khansamar/' who cannot salaam me enough or ex- 
press his happiness at seeing me. I leave him in charge 
of my luggage, take leave of my fellow passengers, and 
at the jetty am received in the most cordial manner 
by Mr. Currier. On arriving at the house I find the 
whole family paraded to welcome me. Bhusties/^ 
syces/^ bobbachees,^^ bearers, misaulchers, kitmagars/^ 



*°The Drinkers were Townsend Harris's dearest friends. The Mrs. Drinker 
here referred to was Mrs. Susannah Budd Drinker, the wife of Mr. Sand- 
with Drinker, a captain and sailor of the old school. Townsend Harris knew 
intimately their four little children, mentioned in his letters as "Kate," 
"Harry," "Mortie," and "Elizabeth" — the last born in China while Townsend 
Harris was in Japan. The little "Harry" mentioned in Townsend Harris's 
correspondence is ( 1928 ) the President Emeritus of Lehigh University ; "Mortie" 
is Morton, who became a student of divinity; while "Kate," with whom Town- 
send Harris carried on a voluminous correspondence (unfortunately destroyed 
by fire during a spring house-cleaning), was Catherine Ann Drinker, who 
became the wife of Thomas Allibone Janvier, and who died July 19, 1922 

^^Bankers. At the end of 1856 this firm was dissolved and was succeeded 
by the firm of Davis & Lawrence, the new member having been bookkeeper 
with the banking house of Wetmore & Co., of Canton, which had branches 
at Shanghai, Foo-Chau, and New York {Journal, July 17, 1856), and which 
had recently failed. L. & P., vol. i, no. 62.) 

^^Khansamar (or: khansamah, khansuma, consumah, consumar) : an Anglo- 
Indian word meaning a servant combining the functions of house steward and 
butler. {Funk & W agnails.) 

^^Bhusties (or: bheestee, beastec, beestie, bheestie, bheesty) : an Anglo-Indian 
word meaning a water-carrier, especially one who furnishes water for domestic 
purposes, carrying it from the tanks in skins. {lb.) 

^^Syces (or: sake, sice, sais) : a groom or horseman's attendant; a horse- 
keeper, {lb.) 

*^Bobbachee (or: bobachee) : a male cook. {lb.) 

^^Kitmagars (or: kitmutgar, khitmutgar, kitmudgar): a table servant; an 
underbutler. {lb.) 

47 



and even the poor old mehter'^'' with the grass cutters 
were there and help to swell the chorus of Slamat Allah!! 
Tuom! Tuom! etc., etc." 

It was not unpleasant to be thus welcomed at the 
antipodes of New York. 

Find three Americans at Mr. Currier's : Captain Mol- 
lis and Captain Parker of the American ships Chilo 
and Daniel Sharpe, also a Mr. Dow. 

Sunday, January 20, l8§6. Visit Pere Martin*^ at 
the Cochin-Chinese College; am warmly welcomed by 
him and his confreres. 

Afterwards call at Mrs. Wallace's and T. Mitchell's. 

Monday, January 21, l8^6. Call on W. T. Lewis, 
Esq., President Councillor and Acting Governor. Af- 
terwards on Mrs. Rose, Madame du Thune, Mrs. 
Palmer (who has become a widow since I left here), 
Mr. Mitchell Sr., Captain Danen of the Artillery, 
Commandant of Fort Cornwallis; Captain Cross, an 

*''Mehter (or: mehtar) : in the original Persian, this word meant a high offi- 
cial in the royal household; here it means a groom or house-sweeper. {Ih.) 

*^Slamat: a corruption of the Arabic greeting from one Mahommedan to 
another — a different form of salutation being used to a non-Mahommedan. 
The usual greeting was: As-salam 'alaikum — Peace be unto you; to which 
the obligatory reply was: ff a-' alaikum as-salam — And unto you peace. {Ne<w 
Int. Encycl.) 

49Pere N. Martin, head of the Roman Catholic College General at Penang. 
We know very little about him. In the manuscript Letters and Papers of Town- 
send Harris, there is extant only one letter, and that one is written by P. Martin 
to Townsend Harris, who was then at Shanghai, on a short visit from Japan. 
This French letter (L. & P., vol. i, no. 159) is dated Penang, Apr. 27, 1859. 
It describes P. Martin's visit to the U.S.S. Po'whatan, which had entered the 
harbor of Penang to await the arrival of the United States Commissioner to 
China; it gives news of the different members of the College General, consist- 
ing of six teachers and 129 pupils; and announces the victories in Cochin 
China of the French forces commanded by Vice-Admiral Rigault de Genouilly, 
etc., etc. 

For a short description of the Roman Catholic Mission at Penang, see Wood, 
op. cit., pp. 137-38; and Journal, Jan. 27, 1856. 

48 



old Indian veteran, seventy-nine years old, has been in 
India sixty-three years and rose from the ranks, fought 
under Wellington, has led three forlorn hopes, has 
been active in storming some thirty fortresses and in 
more than a hundred actions, or rather under fire more 
than a hundred times. A noble-minded man, with the 
simplicity and kindliness of a child. He is now enjoying 
an extra pension, the just reward of his long service 
and universal good conduct. Afterwards [call] on Cap- 
tain Clarke, another veteran who has risen from the 
ranks, but not so old as Captain Cross. 

Tuesday, January 22^ iS^O. Visit Pere Bigandet,^° 
George [Charles] Scott of Ayer Rajah, Walter Scott 
at Scotland Nutmeg Gardens, and Alexander Brown 
of Sans Souci. 

Wednesday, January 2^, 1856. It is the custom for 
the stranger arriving at any place in the East which is 
held by the English to make the first visit. If he does not 
do so, it is considered that he declines going into society. 
It is many times excessively awkward for the poor 
stranger, who is entirely ignorant of the family he visits, 
their tastes, habits, etc., etc., but he dashes on and runs 
through the list his resident friends have given him of 
people he must visit. 

Called to-day on Mr. Caunter, Mr. Nairne, Captain 
Mann, two Captams Hazlett, Ensign Dickson, Rev. 
Mr. Bland and Captain Boulderson. 



^°In Journal, Mar. 30, 1856, Townsend Harris tells us that Pere Bigandet 
was that day consecrated a bishop in partibus infidelibus, and that he was soon 
to leave for Burmah. Pere Martin, in his letter to Townsend Harris {L. & P., 
vol. I, no. 159), adds: "Mgs. Bigandet est a Rangoon." 

49 



January 24^ iS^O. Home and wrote letters to W. L. 
Marcy,^^ Joseph Evans/^ Mrs. Langlois, Mrs. Drinker, 
Heerjeebhoy Rustumjee, S. Drinker, D. J. Macgowan^^ 
and P. M. Wetmore.'* 

Miss Lewis, daughter of W. T. Lewis, Resident 
Councillor, died yesterday and was buried to-day at 
5 P.M. 

Friday, January 25, 1856. The steamer Madras with 
the mails from China arrived this morning. Get letters 
from Mrs. Drinker, Kate Drinker, S. Drinker, and 
Dr. Macgowan. 



"iWilliam L. Marcy, Secretary of State of the United States. The letter 
referred to is to be found in L. B., vol. i, p. 12. The two chief items of this 
letter are: first, that before leaving the United States he had upon the recom- 
mendation of the Rev. Dr. De Witt and others of New )fork, appointed Mr. 
Heusken of New York to be his Dutch interpreter for Japan at $1,500 per 
annum and free passage to Japan, "he paying his mess," while Townsend 
Harris advanced him $750; and second, that the English officers he had met 
on his journey to the Far East had condemned the spirit and the tone of anti- 
American articles in the London Times, and that they "deprecated even the 
idea of a war between the two countries." 

s^Mentioned elsewhere in the Journal. In a letter to Townsend Karris dated 
Deshima, Feb. 18, 1859 (L. & P., vol. i, no. 142), Mr. Jan Hendrik Donker 
Curtius, the Netherlands Minister to Japan, speaks of the English and the 
American firms that were establishing themselves at Nagasaki; and he men- 
tions Mr. Joseph Evans as the Nagasaki agent of Dent & Co., of Shanghai. 

s^Daniel Jerome Macgowan, a medical missionary to China, sent out by the 
American Baptist Union, of Boston, Massachusetts. He had already spent many 
years in China when Townsend Harris appointed him Vice-Consul for the 
treaty port of Ningpo, China. It will be remembered that Townsend Harris 
was then at Penang, and that, instead of going to Ningpo, he returned to the 
United States and obtained the appointment of Consul General to Japan. 

In the Letters and Papers of Townsend Harris there are numerous letters 
by Dr. Macgowan, clearly describing the difficulties of trying to be a mis- 
sionary, a consul, and a general translator at the same time, until he was driven, 
on June 22, 1855, to send in his resignation to Secretary Marcy and to Town- 
send Harris (L. £f P., vol. i, nos. 8 and 9). It was later the ambition of his 
life to have Townsend Harris appoint him to some post in Japan — the sealed 
empire to the east of China. 

^*General Prosper M. Wetmore, an exceedingly prominent citizen of "little 
old New York," and one of the men who had exerted themselves to obtain 
Townsend Harris's appointment to Japan. 

50 



Write to C. W. Bradley, Esq., U.S. Consul at Singa- 
pore.'" 

Mr. Murphy,"® U.S. Consul at Shanghai, is a passen- 
ger by the Madras. He called on me and informs me that 
he is on his way to the United States. 

Saturday, January 26, 1856. The steamer Lightning 
arrived from Calcutta at 7 P.M. She brought me a letter 
from S. Drinker at Canton dated December 15, 1855, 
and sent per steamer Fiery Cross/"^ but, as she did not 
stop here, the letter went on to Calcutta. The Lightning 
leaves to-morrow at 6 A. M. 

Sunday, January 2/, 18^6. At St. George's Church 
this morning. The Rev. Mr. Bland, Colonial Chaplain, 
officiated. I never was so much displeased at church as 
this morning. 

From gross affectation Mr. Bland sank his voice so 
low that I could not hear one word in twenty though 

^^Charles William Bradley, Sr., of Connecticut. Consul for Amoy, 1849-54. 
He was nominated on Jan. 26, 1849, in place of T. S. Peachey, resigned; con- 
sented to, Feb. 7, 1849. (Hasse, Index, pt. 3, p. 1714.) He was nominated 
Consul for Ningpo on Jan. 23, 1854; consented to, Jan. 31, 1854. (Hasse, Index, 
pt. 3, p. 1716.) He was nominated Consul for Singapore on Mar. 8, 1854, in 
place of J. H. Adams, declined; consented to. Mar. 14, 1854. {Ibid., p. 1712.) 

The letter referred to was received by Consul Bradley on Jan. 29, 1856, and 
was answered the following day. (L. fef P., vol. i, no. 28, dated Singapore, 
Jan. 30, 1856.) In answer to what must obviously have been Townsend Har- 
ris's request, he sends him a copy of Sir John Bowring's Treaty with Siam and 
a list of books on that country. He adds important information on the French 
mission to Siam-. Then he applies for the position of Secretary to Townsend 
Harris and hopes that he may be sent back to the United States as the bearer 
of the treaty about to be concluded with Siam. He concludes with the courteous 
offer of his home when Townsend Harris should arrive at Singapore. 

^^Robert C. Murphy, of Ohio, Consul at Shanghai, 1854-57. He was nomi- 
nated, in place of J. N. A. Griswold, recalled, on January 23, 1854; consented 
to, January 31, 1854. (Hasse, Index, pt. 3, p. 1716.) 

^'^This English steamer was later purchased at Yedo by Shimadzu Saburo 
for his son-nephew, the Daimyo of Satsuma, at a time when he did not enter- 
tain toward foreigners- any feelings of hostility. (J. R. Black, Young Japan, 
vol. 1, p. 99.) 

51 



I was not thirty feet distant from him. This feeble ut- 
terance does not arise from disease or physical inability, 
for at a dinner party he can talk loud enough, and per- 
haps a little too loud. From dissatisfaction the congrega- 
tion of St. George's is not one-half as large as I left it 
in May last. Penang is well supplied with churches: 
I St, St. George's; 2nd, Church of the London Church 
Missionary Society; 3rd, Scotch Free Kirk; 4th, Ar- 
menian Church; 5th, 6th, 7th, three Roman Catholic 
Churches. The Roman Catholic Cochin-Chinese Col- 
lege is a noble institution. It has about one hundred 
pupils, nearly all of whom are from Cochin-China. 
They here receive such an education as will fit them 
to perform the duties of a priest in their own country, 
with such instruction in astronomy, natural philosophy, 
etc., etc., as will enable them to detect the popular er- 
rors of their countrymen. In dress, food, manner of 
living, etc., etc., they follow the exact fashions of their 
own country, so far as they are compatible with good 
morals — so that, when the youth returns home after his 
eight years' absence, there is nothing in his dress or 
manners to point him out as one who has long been 
among foreigners. On his return home, the youth bears 
a report from the head of the College addressed to the 
Bishop which shows the pupil's attainments, disposi- 
tion, conduct during his residence, with an opinion as 
to his fitness for the priesthood. If, after his return home, 
he wishes to enter the priesthood, his Bishop puts him 
under a two years' probation; and if his conduct is good 
and his desire continues, he is then consecrated as a 

52 



deacon, priest, etc., etc. It does not require any argu- 
ment to show how preeminently priests so prepared, 
and of the people themselves, are qualified to be mis- 
sionaries in a country where the persecution is so fierce 
and so fatal as it is in Cochin-China. Remain at home 
in the afternoon with a bad earache. 

Monday, January 28, 1 8 §6. Gave Mr. Currier 
thirty-three sovereigns for my account. Ear very bad 
— number of calls on me, do not see anyone from that 
cause. 

Thursday, January ^T, 18^6. Write a letter to Com- 
modore Armstrong of the U.S. Frigate San Jacinto, 
now daily expected to arrive here, and gave it to the 
pilot who is to watch his arrival. 

February 5, l8§6. Chinese New Year. Talk of keep- 
ing New Year's Day by the Americans, the French, or 
any other people, and it sinks into child's play when 
compared with that of the Chinese. It is a Saturnalia 
for all, for three days, and is kept up by the wealthy 
until the full of the then new moon, and by some until 
the next new moon. 

All work is suspended; the smith pulls down his 
furnace; other handicrafts renew their tools or work- 
shops; the house is furnished with new cooking and 
eating appliances. The man, his house, his clothes, his 
children, are all thoroughly washed and dressed up in 
their best and gayest clothing. The house, shop or work- 
shop shine with new vermilion papers inscribed with 
all sorts of wisdom from Confucius, Mencius and other 
philosophers. The Chinaman gives himself up to the 

S3 



enjoyment of his favorite weakness, gambling; and for 
three days the anti-gambling laws are suspended. He 
drinks samshew^^ — he fires off uncounted crackers — he 
beats tom-toms, gongs and his bamboos with their click 
clock. He visits, with all the forms laid down in the 
books of ceremonies, his friends, and pays his greetings; 
presents are exchanged ; children gaily dressed are now 
drawn about the streets in pretty little carriages. "Mo- 
tions,'"* to use an old English phrase, swarm in the 
streets, performing before each house. Here is the great 
dragon trying to swallow the world. There some of the 
heroic demigods of China are showing how they did 
it in their day and generation. Yonder is a dance of 
peacocks — and vastly well done it is. Men are disguised 
under the plumage and form of the proud bird (except 
the legs) . In the breast is a pretty oval mirror — the tail 
is spread in all its glory, and now and then the bird 
flutters its wings, as it "walks the stately pavisse." Now 
come the bands of music led off by an instrument that 
looks like a hoboy and sounds like a distracted bagpipe 
(may its inventor burn in Jehannenn), with tom-toms, 
gongs, bamboos, and all the noisy appliances that the 
Chinese delight to call music. Add to this the unceasing 
explosion of firecrackers, some of which are as loud 
as a three-pounder cannon (fact), and then think for 

^^Samsheio (or: samsho, shamshoo) : a Chinese word for an alcoholic liquor 
distilled from boiled and fermented rice or millet; loosely, any kind of spirits. 
{Funk ST fV agnails.) 

"Only one distillation is made for common liquor, but when more strength 
is wanted, it is distilled two or three times, and it is this strong spirit alone 
which is rightly called samshu, a word meaning 'thrice fired.' " (S. Wells 
Williams, Middle Kingdom, vol. i, ch. 14, p. 808 [s. '83].) 

s*Puppets, or puppet shows. 

54 



seventy-two hours this din never lags — never stops, and 
you have an idea of "New Year" as celebrated by the 
Chinese at Penang. 

Sunday, February 10, l8§6. The American screw 
steamer Caroline arrived in forty-five hours from Sin- 
gapore. Passengers: Mr. Charles K. Tuckerman, Supra 
Cargo, and Mr. Shaw of Singapore. 

Receive a letter from C. W. Bradley, U.S. Consul 
at Singapore, dated January 30, 1856. 

Monday, February II, l8^6. The Caroline sailed 
to-day for Calcutta; wrote to C. Huffnagle, Esq., U.S. 
Consul General for British India. 

Invited to dine with Captain Boulderson and the 
officers of 27th Regiment Madras Native Infantry at 
their mess house — have a prior engagement for that 
day, — /. e., Friday next. 

Tuesday, February 12, 1 8 56. Dine at Mr. Charles 
Scott's, Ayer Rajah. What a glorious house! — worthy 
of its situation in the center of nutmeg and clove gar- 
dens. The approaches to the house are shaded by glori- 
ous palm trees of different varieties, among which 
figures that most graceful of trees, the areca palm, with 
its straight slender stem and its waving panache of 
green plumes to ornament its head, while just below 
hangs its golden fruit, that look like apples of Paradise. 
What a dining room! Some sixty feet by eighty feet!! 
Think of that. Fifth Avenue. 

Saturday, February 16, l8§6. Dine with Mr. A. 
Brown of Sans Souci. We were, greatly to the discom- 
posure of our host, thirteen at table. The belief here 

55 



is strong that, when thirteen dine in company, some 
one of them will die before twelve months come round 
— and hence the discomposure of my good host. Mr. 
Walker, Judge at Point-de-Galle, who is here for the 
benefit of hill air for Mrs. Walker, who is an invalid, 
came down the mill to-day and took quarters with 
Mr. Currier. As there is no hotel at Penang, strangers 
are dependent on the hospitality of the Penang people, 
who, to do them justice, are never backward in showing 
it. Among the first in the rank of hospitality stands our 
countryman, Mr. Currier. 

Monday, February l8, l8§6. Go up the hill on in- 
vitation of Mr. S. N. Greene to his bungalow "Belle- 
vue" situated over twenty-six hundred feet above the 
plain. This hill is one of the delights of Penang. You 
ride in your palkee*'" to the foot of the hill four and a 
half miles, and then mount one of the pretty, active and 
sure-footed Sumatra ponies, who takes you some three 
miles up the hill in less than an hour, so that in an hour 
and a half you leave the heat of the plain and reach 
a point where a covering on your bed is always accept- 
able at night. The thermometer ranges here from 65° 
to 81°. 

The panorama from "Bellevue" is charming: over- 
looking the plain and town of Penang — the nutmeg 
and clove gardens — the varied groves of palms sur- 
rounding the spacious and elegant mansions of the 
Europeans, the view extends out towards the Bay of 
Bengal and sometimes Pulo Bouton, sixty miles distant, 

60 An East Indian word for "palanquin." 

56 



can be seen. Directly west you see Elephant Mountain 
in the Kingdom of Quedah*^ which pays tribute to 
Siam. To the right you see the mountains that form 
the backbone of the Malayan Peninsula and are, in fact, 
a prolongation of the Himalaya range. 

"Europe ships," country crafts, Malay prows,^" and 
China egg-boats are seen moving or lying at anchor in 
all directions. Due south you look into the Strait of 
Malacca, and see the high lands of the dominions of 
the independent Rajah of Perak. I was warmly wel- 
comed by Mrs. Greene, who resides here the greater 
part of the year for the health of her two children, a 
boy and girl — the latter Miss Maggy, my god-daughter. 

The children speak only Malay, it being found easier 
to teach them English as a foreign language than to 
get them to unlearn the broken lingo they acquire from 
native servants who pretend to speak English. For this 
reason most families refuse to employ servants who 
speak English. Mr. Greene leaves his house at half-past 
five A.M. and returns at 6 P.M., and he does not find it 
fatiguing, as the good rest he always enjoys on the hill 
amply makes up for the extra fatigue of descending and 
ascending the hill six times a week. There are eight 
bungalows on this part of the great hill, which makes 
a little society; besides, each resident has always some 
guests up from the plain. 

As this is my seventh visit to Penang I have fre- 



^iQuedah (or: Kedah, Kedda) : a state in the Malay Peninsula. 
82Prows (or: Proa, prau, prahu) : a swift Malaysian vessel sailing equally 
well in either direction. {Funk & W agnails.) 

57 



quently been on the hill, and every part of it is quite 
familiar to me. 

Tuesday, February IQ^ 1856. Up at daylight to see 
the beautiful changes of light and shade produced by 
the rising sun; indeed, it is a constant source of enjoy- 
ment to watch the effect of those changes during the 
day; now, the light cloud, passing quickly over the sun, 
seems to race down the mountain, across the plain, across 
the water over to Province Wellesly; where now it 
darkens for a moment the golden paddy fields — next 
seems to deepen the green of the canes growing on the 
various sugar estates. Next dark masses of clouds rise 
up over Elephant Mountain, The leaden color of its 
advanced edge does not leave you in doubt for a moment 
as to its nature — it is a thunder squall. Soon the vivid 
lightning begins to dart about — next you hear a faint 
mutter of thunder; the cloud hurries on; the lightning 
plays incessantly; the crash of the thunder is distinct; 
you see the curtain formed by the falling rain, down 
to the tops of the palm trees at a distance of twenty 
miles — on it comes — now the tall white chimneys of 
the sugar boiling houses are shut out — now it strikes 
the shipping — the town — the plain — palm trees and 
houses are shut out from view. You hear a low sound 
like an angry roar and it has reached the hilltop. You 
are in the cloud itself. What blinding lightning — the 
roll of the thunder never ceases. It continues half an 
hour, an hour, or three hours, and then the clouds roll 
away to the southeast and the sun comes out once more. 
In all parts of the tropics the thunder is heavy and the 

58 



lightning vivid, but I never saw such grand displays 
of God's pyrotechnics as I have seen at Penang. On 
one night that I was on the hill, the storm lasted six 
hours. It was the most magnificent sight I ever wit- 
nessed. I saw on that occasion what indeed I have seen 
since, the descending stream of lightning, divided into 
a great number of lines and curved around and up- 
wards, forming an "inverted weeping willow." 

Very good bridle paths are cut in various directions 
on the top of the hill, and you can gallop away for more 
than a mile without any ascent to check you. 

The ferns here are both rich in number, and many 
rare and beautiful ones are found. Among the sixty 
and odd varieties that have been catalogued by botanists 
as having their habitat here, the grandest is the tree 
fern, more than twenty feet high, with branches like 
the fronds of the cocoanut palm. The rattan is also found 
here and extends its tendrils, armed with hooks like 
steel, that forbid all passage until a path is cut. The rat- 
tan is a climber. It is covered with a great number of 
husks, so that the body is sometimes five or six inches 
in diameter. The part used is the core or center. As it 
is attached in the strongest possible manner by the hooks 
before named to every tree or shrub that comes within 
its sphere, and as it sometimes climbs the tallest trees 
and thence stretches itself from tree to tree for a great 
distance (for, some have been found five hundred feet 
long!) , it would be all but impossible to detach it from 
its place. It is collected for use in the following manner. 
The natives find its root and then cut it ofif near the 

59 



ground ; they then stri'^ off the husky covering for some 
six or eight feet, and of the part so cleaned they form 
a loop through which they pass a stick some eight or 
ten feet long. Six or eigh" men now apply their strength 
to this stick, surging backwards from the direction the 
rattan has grown. By thus pulling it backwards, the 
sutures of the husks that are attached to the rattan 
at distances of two to five feet are easily broken, and 
this done, the men have only to pull in and coil away 
the rattan as they would a rope. If the attempt was made 
to pull out the rattan from the top, no force could be 
applied that would accomplish it. The milk tree (so 
called from its juice being the color of milk and thick- 
ness of cream) is the largest of the jungle trees of 
Penang. One of these measures forty-three feet in cir- 
cumference some fifteen feet above the ground, and the 
boll rises up one hundred and twenty feet without a 
limb. The branches and top of this tree are very small 
when compared with the enormous size of the trunk 
or boll. 

The cinnamon, clove and nutmeg trees grow in the 
jungle, and my dinner has often been cooked with the 
wood of these precious trees. 

The cayu-putP^ (white wood), corrupted into our 
cajeput, produces the oil once considered as a specific 
for Asiatic cholera, also grows here. A great variety 
of other trees are found in the jungle, but even their 
names would not be understood if I was to write them 



^^Cayu-puti (or: kajeput, cajaput, cajuput) : from the Malay kayu-putih, 
kayu meaning tree, and putih (or puteh) white. {Funk gf fVagnalls.) 

60 



here. Coffee flourishes on the hill and produces a berry 
almost equal to that of Mocha. Some tea shrubs are 
growing here, bearing innumerable small yellow white 
roses. The rose of Shiraz is cultivated here, and in the 
early morning the fragrance is delightful. The ipeca- 
cuanha shrub is used to form hedges for the hill gardens 
and grounds. It produces a pretty flower. The ipeca- 
cuanha is a certain cure for the bite of the centipede and 
sting of the scorpion; and, if applied immediately, pre- 
vents any of the dreadful pain that is sure to follow 
the neglected wounds made by these insects. The powder 
is simply made into a poultice with cold water and 
applied to the wound. I should like to hear of a trial 
of this remedy for the bite of venomous snakes. It is 
at least worthy of a trial. Some few vegetables of the 
temperate zone are raised on the hill, but they do not 
succeed so well as they do at Calcutta, Bombay or 
Macao. This may arise in part from unskillful culti- 
vation. 

The air plants, parasites and climbers, are without 
number, and the blossoms of some of the two first are 
exceedingly beautiful. The nepenthe or pitcher plant 
— that curious creation of nature with its pitchers filled 
with sweet potable water — grows here in vast numbers. 
Happily no tigers, elephants or rhinoceros are found 
in this happy island, although they abound on the main- 
land not one mile distant. Wild hogs are numerous and 
a host of animals of the fox and weasel tribes, that are 
sad enemies to the poultry. Monkeys caper and grimace 
and mow in every direction on the hills. Lizards of all 

6i 



sizes, from the smallest up to the gekko, which is some- 
times four feet long, abound. Scorpions, both black and 
gray, and centipedes are numerous, but they do not 
give any uneasiness to the residents here, as, if you let 
them alone, they will not molest you. A great variety 
of snakes are found; some are very curious and even 
beautiful. The cobra capello is also here. The boa con- 
strictor is also found. There is hardly any one pro- 
duction of the East concerning which so much error 
prevails as concerning this serpent. It will not kill an 
elephant, or a buffalo, or a man. It is sluggish in its 
movements and perfectly harmless. The natives are 
always glad to have them in their rice fields where they 
destroy the rats, frogs and other things that injure the 
rice crop. I have made inquiries constantly in India, 
Ceylon, Java, Borneo, Siam, Burmah, Arracan,*^* and, 
\n fact, in all the countries where the boa is found, and 
never found any good authority for the exaggerated 
tales of its size and ferocity which are so widely dis- 
seminated. I have never seen the skin or body of one 
that measured more than twenty-five feet long, nor 
could I ever meet any respectable evidence of the actual 
existence of longer ones. The stories of boas being fifty, 
seventy-five, or even one hundred and twenty feet long, 
are the simple exaggerations of heated imaginations. 
So again, no reliable account of man or any of the larger 
animals being attacked by the boa can be found. The 
skin that was twenty-five feet long I saw in the Museum 
of the Asiatic Society of Calcutta, and its preservation 

8*Arakan, a division of Lower Burmah, on the Indian Ocean. 

62 



there is a proof that it is one of the largest that is 
known. 

The beetles are a numerous and interesting family. 
The trumpeter sounds his ra-ta-ta-ta-ta-ra in loudness, 
tone and length of note precisely like the penny trum- 
pets of children at home. Others resemble the sound of 
the carpenter sawing his boards, and another is exactly 
like the knife grinder in sound. The stick insect is a 
curious affair. It is sometimes eight inches long — legs 
very long — wings preposterously short — the color gray, 
or like a decayed stick or twig. When it flies, its long 
legs are folded closely and parallel to the body, and it 
looks precisely like a withered stick passing quickly 
before you. The leaf insect is a curiosity; some of them 
look like beautiful flowers. I once captured a flying liz- 
ard on the hills of Penang. It was about six inches long 
and had integuments or filaments of its skin extending on 
each side from the fore to the hind legs — precisely like 
our flying squirrel; and, like him, the lizard can dart 
from tree to tree on a descending plane to a considerable 
distance. 

In this reptile we have the rudiments of the fabulous 
dragon, exaggerated by the utmost powers of invention. 

Many beautiful birds are found here. The toucan 
and great grosbeak among others build their nests here. 
The Penang lark has a great many very sweet notes. 
Snipe are abundant and good, being large and always 
fat. There is a small bird always found on the snipe 
ground whose note sounds like the words "did you do 
it? did you do it?" When the sportsman fires his gun, 

^2 



scores of these birds scream out "did you do it? did you 
do it?" — sometimes to the great annoyance of the sports- 
man, especially if he often misses his aim. 

Wednesday, February 20^ 1856. The Malay is not 
a handsome person, nor is the Chinese good-looking, 
yet the children of a Malay woman by a Chinese are 
really quite good-looking. The high cheek bones of the 
mother disappear, the oblique eye of the father is dis- 
placed by a round, bright and not snaky looking eye. 
The face is round and the skin like satin; color like a 
solution of gold laid on a rose colored ground. They 
are always plump. 

It is a singular fact that the children of the Chinaman 
by the Malay, Burmese or Siamese women are far bet- 
ter looking than the progeny of the white man by women 
of those nations. 

The children of Europeans by native women are a 
queer race — always warmhearted and hospitable, they 
are never more happy than when showing their hospi- 
tality to white persons. They resemble our negroes in 
the love of stilted expressions, considering magnilo- 
quence and eloquence as synonyms. They always try to 
secure the hand of a white for their daughters, and to 
this end the mother has her tifHn spread with curries 
that only can be made by them, and their beer is always 
of the coolest. Young men are fond of visiting them 
from the ease that they can there enjoy and from the 
pleasure of romping, which is carried to a certain extent. 
One of the difficulties of the foreigner is to learn how to 
use certain descriptive words. For example : it is a gross 

64 



insult to call one of them "half-caste." You may ask 
them if they are "country born," and no offence is given, 
but to use the word lip lap (Dutch for mixed blood) 
or to call the girls chee chees is very offensive — the latter 
comes from the constant use of the Hindostanee word 
chee! (fie!) which the girls scream out when romping. 

But the name most affected by them is Eurasian — 
being a compound of the nouns Europe and Asia. This 
word is of Calcutta origin. 

A young Englishman had long visited a house where 
the Eurasian daughter. Miss Harriet, was quite a fav- 
orite with him. He had sung with her, romped with 
her, and talked mock sentiment with her, and was re- 
warded with capital tiffins and now and then a pleasant 
romping bout. The mother, having asked her daughter 
how matters stood between her and her admirer, re- 
solved herself to bring the young man "to book." Ac- 
cordingly, at his next visit and after tiffin was over, Miss 
Harriet disappeared from the room; and the mother, 
seating herself near the young man, addressed him as 
follows : 

"You rice and curry eat 'em; hand you squeeze 'em; 
fum fum pinch 'em. What for you no propose?" The 
young man evaporated. 

Another case is quoted to show how recklessly these 
poor creatures rush into the cares of matrimony. 

A young Eurasian, who was employed in a govern- 
ment office as a writer at some sixty rupees ($27) per 
month, being smitten with the charms of the fair Rosa 
Matilda, made her an offer of his "hand, heart and 



fortune." Miss Rosa Matilda simply asked him: "Sil- 
ver tea pot got?" Yes. "Have buggy got?" Yes. "Can 
ask mamma." 

However, many of these Eurasians are quite well 
educated (some being sent to England for that pur- 
pose), and behave with perfect propriety and decorum. 
I have passed many satisfactory hours with this class 
of Eurasians. 

As a general rule, the English officials do not neglect 
the children they have by the illegitimate connections 
they form with the women of the country. 

Mr. Blundell,®' Governor of Penang, Singapore and 
Malacca, has eleven children (illegitimate) born of 
a Burmese woman. He has given them as good educa- 
tions as were to be had in Singapore, Penang or Cal- 
cutta (some of the younger ones are now in England). 
Has given them his name, introduced them to his own 
table, and at last opened the State Ball, given on the 
Queen's Birthday, with one of his illegitimate daugh- 
ters, thus making her the Burra Beebe^^ or Great Lady 
of the Ball. It was a bold and defiant step and gave 
offence to many of the Englishwomen, wives of high 
officials and military men at Singapore, but Governor 
Blundell carried the matter out with a high hand, and 
his bastard mulatto sons and daughters have the entree 



^^From a letter written by Sir John Bowring to the King of Siara and dated 
Apr. 5, 1855 (L. Sr P., vol. 2, no. gf), we learn that Blundell succeeded 
Colonel Butterworth in this office when the latter returned to England. Gov- 
ernor Blundell is mentioned as Governor of Singapore in 1854, also in 33-2, 
S. Ex. Doc. no. 34, p. 182. 

^^Burra means great and honorable; and Beebe (or Bibi) means wife or 
lady. Both are Anglo-Indian words. {Funk & Wagnalls.) 

66 



of Singapore society. Three of his girls are married to 
Englishmen. He gives them 10,000 rupees as a marriage 
portion ($4,500), and they will receive more at his 
death. 

The circumlocution used in Asia to avoid the phrase 
"half-caste" reminds me of a similar state of things 
that existed in Australia before the gold discoveries 
in that country;" up to which period 499 persons out 
of 500 were transports. But you could not use the word 
"convict" or "transport" without danger of a row. The 
questions were put as follows : "What ship did you come 
out in?" for all the ships were transports for convicts; 
or, "Are you a Government man?" /. e., a convict. "Are 
you an old hand?" /. e., have you been reconvicted of 
crime in the colony? Sydney has a very pretty theater 
situated in George's Street. The opening address of 
this theater was written by the celebrated Barrington, 
the notorious pickpocket. It was very witty and full of 
allusions to the conditions of the then inhabitants of 
the place. One couplet has been often repeated, and by 
many who were ignorant of the author, or of the cir- 
cumstances under which it was written. It is as follows : 

True patriots we, for, be it understood, 

We left our country for our country's good.^^ 



®^Gold was first discovered in Australia at Summerhill Creek, twenty miles 
north of Bathurst, in the Macquarie plains, in Feb., 1851, by Mr. Edward 
Hargraves, a gold miner from California. 

^^George Barrington — a truly strange character, born May 14, 1755, at 
Maynooth, Ireland. He was a robber, confirmed pickpocket, and historian of 
Australia. His real name was Waldron. After a chequered career in England, 
Scotland, and Ireland, he was finally shipped to Botany Bay, in New South 
Wales. On this long voyage, he prevented the success of a mutiny among the 
convicts on board, and, on arriving at his destination, he received a pecuniary 

67 



Friday, February 22, 1850. Came down to the plain 
to be ready for the mail from China, en route for 
England. 

Sunday, February 24^ 1856. The steamer Cadiz with 
the mails arrives from China. Write by this mail to 
W. L. Marcy, Secretary of State, Washington;®^ 
N. Dougherty, New York. 

Received a letter from Captain John Pope,^" of the 
U.S. Corvette the Macedonian, now at Singapore. Cap- 
tain Pope wishes to know when I expect the Commo- 
dore to arrive here. He will await his arrival at Singa- 
pore. 

Monday, February 25, 1856. Steamer Noma with 
the mails from England arrived here to-day. Mr. Harry 



reward from the captain of the ship and in addition was favorably recom- 
mended to the governor of the colony. He was freed in 1792. 

A few years later, Governor Hunter authorized the opening of a theater 
at Sydney. The chief actors were convicts, and the price of admission was 
meal or rum. The theater opened on Jan. 16, 1796, with Dr. Young's tragedy, 
The Revenge, and George Harrington wrote the celebrated prologue, be- 
ginning: 

"From distant climes, o'er widespread seas, we come, 

Though not with much eclat or beat of drum; 

True patriots we, for, be it understood. 

We left our country for our country's good. 

No private views disgraced our generous zeal. 

What urged our travels was our country's weal; 

And none will doubt, but that our emigration 

Has proved most useful to the British nation." 

(I ict. Nat. Biogr., s.v., Barrington.) 
^'This is his second dispatch to the Secretary of State. (L. B., vol. i, p. 13.) 
He informs his superior that the French Government has appointed a com- 
missioner to negotiate a treaty with Siam; and that Captain Pope is waiting 
at Singapore for the arrival of the San Jacinto. 

^°John Pope, of Maine, United States Navy, 1816-76. Midshipman, May 30, 
1816; Lieutenant, Apr. 28, 1826; Commander, Feb. 15, 1843; Captain, Sept. 14, 
1855; Retired List, Dec. 21, 1861; Commodore on Retired List, July 16, 1862; 
died, Jan. 14, 1876. In 1845-47, commanded the Dolphin, of the African Squad- 
ron; in 1853-54 and 1856-57, commanded the Vandalia of the East India 
Squadron. (Hasse, Index, pt. 2, p. 1303; Hamersly, op. cit.) 

68 



S. Parkes,'^ H.B.M. Consul for Amoy, China, and his 
wife are passengers by the Noma. Mr. Parkcs is the 
bearer of the ratified treaty with Siam and will proceed 
from Singapore to Bangkok for the purpose of ex- 
changing the ratifications. 

Mr. Parkes was Sir John Bowring's private secre- 
tary when Sir John^^ negotiated the treaty. Sir John 
spoke to the King seated and uncovered, — made some 
six official visits. Guard not wanted. Siamese cooks good 
enough. House comfortable. 



^^Sir Harry Smith Parkes, 1828-85. He was one of the really outstanding 
men in the history of Far Eastern relations. Left an orphan at a young age, 
he went out to Macao, China, to join his cousin, who was the wife of the 
Rev. Charles (Karl) Gutzlaff, the famous missionary to China. Dr. Gutzlaff 
had spent a lifetime travelling in China and in Korea and was one of the 
few foreigners who knew the Chinese language well. Under his tutelage the 
young Parkes likewise learned Chinese, and this, together with his intimate 
acquaintance with things Chinese, proved of great value to the distinguished 
men under whom he served in almost every capacity — men such as Sir Henry 
Pottinger, Sir Rutherford Alcock, Lord Elgin and Kincardine, etc. In 1855, 
Parkes was secretary of the mission to Bangkok headed by Sir John Bowring, 
and in 1865 he became Minister to Japan, succeeding Sir Rutherford Alcock. 
The best and standard Life of Sir Harry S. Parkes is by Stanley Lane-Poole 
and Dickins, London, 1894. 

^^Sir John Bowring, 1792-1872: another of that endless chain of wonderful 
and trained statesmen that Great Britain has always seemed to have at her 
beck and call for service either at home or abroad — capable, patient, energetic, 
faithful. There is no doubt that the history of Great Britain's expansion in 
the Far East is summed up in the lives of her representatives to that region, 
whether consuls, ministers, plenipotentiaries, chief superintendents of trade, 
governors, or missionaries. 

Sir John was philologist, philanthropist, linguist (in the same class with 
Mezzofanti), poet, philosopher, statesman, chartist, and voluminous writer on 
all these subjects. There are extant a number of letters by him to Townsend 
Harris. The best work in connection with his mission to Siam is: The Kingdom 
and People of Siam, luith a Narrative of the Mission to that Country in 1855, 
in two volumes, 8vo, London, 1857 — ^ very comprehensive work which, though 
published so long ago, is still one of the standard works on Siarn. 

The Treaty of Friendship and Commerce between Great Britain and Siam 
was concluded at Bangkok on Apr. 18, 1855; and was to go into effect Apr. 6, 
1856. Sir Harry (then Consul) Parkes had brought the Treaty to England and 
was now returning with the ratified copy. {L. fif P., vol. 2, nos. 26, 30, 31, 32.) 

69 



Wrote per Noma to Captain John Pope and C. W. 
Bradley, U.S. Consul, both at Singapore. 

February <?/, 1856. Visited Alexander Brown and 
Charles Scott, Esquires. 

February 28, 1856. The American ship Daniel 
Sharpe, Captain Parker, sailed for Singapore. 

Saturday^ March /, 1856. The Honorable Com- 
pany's steamer Pluto arrived here from Rangoon via 
Maulmain. 

Monday, March S, 1856. The steamer Chusan from 
Calcutta en route for China arrived yesterday; left 
Calcutta February 25th. 

The Chusan brings new^s, telegraphed to Calcutta 
from Bombay, that a Treaty of Peace between France, 
England and Russia was signed at Paris on the i8th 
of last January. Write to Captain Pope, Singapore, 
and to S. Drinker, Hongkong. 

Tuesday, March 4, 1856. The steamer Pluto left 
for Rangoon. On the ist, 2nd and 3rd of this month, 
the wind blew very fresh from North by West to East 
North East. At 5 :30 A.M. on the second, the thermometer 
in Mr. Currier's verandah stood at 76° ; the coolest I 
ever knew it here. 

Wednesday, March 5, 1856. At 2 P.M. the ther- 
mometer in Mr. Currier's verandah stood at 90°. This 
heat is the greatest I ever knew at Penang, and the range 
of 14° in three days is quite unexampled. (See record 
March 4th.) 

Friday, March J, 1856. At the sessions of Penang, 
just closed, a Chinese was convicted of murder and sen- 

70 



tenced to be hanged on the loth of this month. The 
cause of this murder, and the evidence of one of the 
Chinese witnesses, shows how little they regard the 
beastly crime of sodomy. It appeared that the mur- 
derer had a catamite paramour who was seduced from 
him by the murdered man. 

The witness to prove the murder was the degraded 
wretch of a catamite, who coolly told the tale of his 
own degradation and the fact of his seduction, without 
any hesitation or apparent knowledge that he had com- 
mitted any offence against the laws, or against good 
morals. The authorities here always avoid taking any 
notice of this crime, if they can avoid it; but this case 
was so flagrant that the wretch is to be prosecuted. 

The crime of sodomy is almost universal among the 
Chinese, whether they are in China or in any other part 
of the world ; in fact, it is the universal practice of all 
the people of Asia, as well as those of Arabia, Egypt, 
Asia Minor, etc. The Cingalese are the least obnoxious 
to this charge of any of the nations of the East. 

Monday, March 10, 1856. News has reached here 
of the annexation of the Kingdom of Oude to the pos- 
sessions of the East ]/ndia Company. It was done by 
a proclamation of Lord Dalhousie," Governor Gen- 
eral of India, dated February, 1856. 

This proceeding excites no surprise, as the prelimi- 
nary measures have been progressing for the last four 



^^James Andrew Broun Ramsay, First Marquess and Tenth Earl of Dal- 
housie, i8i2-6o. One of the master builders of the Indian Empire of Great 
Britain. The proclamation annexing the Kingdom of Oude (or Oudh) was 
dated February 13, 1856. 

71 



years. It is the old story — Naboth's Vineyard and the 
Wolf and the Lamb. The lands of Oude are rich and 
fertile, and the people industrious; and, when I was 
in Oude (Lucknow, January, 1855), they were more 
prosperous and thriving than the adjoining lands of 
the Company at Cawnpore, or in the Doab generally. 

The proclamation charges the King of Oude with 
misgovernment and with oppressing his people. But 
who made Lord Dalhousie a judge in this case, or the 
guardian of the people of Oude? It also charges him 
with the religious feuds of the kingdom which have led 
to bloodshed. Were none of these feuds excited by Brit- 
ish emissaries? Were not the inflammatory papers, 
which were abundantly circulated in Oude, printed 
at Calcutta or some other place in the Company's terri- 
tory? Was there any printing press in Oude except that 
of the King at Lucknow? 

Time will answer these questions, and also Truth is 
the daughter of time. 

The Government of Oude has been at peace with 
the Company since 1765. It did not join the Nepalese 
in 1 8 16, when there was an apparent prospect that the 
British could be driven out of Bengal. When the dis- 
asters of Cabul took place in 1847, the Indian Govern- 
ment was shaken to its center. The prestige of its mili- 
tary power had received a grievous blow, and it had 
neither money nor credit, not a rupee would the ban- 
yans^* of Calcutta or Benares advance to the Govern- 



'^*Hindoo merchants or traders, especially those in the foreign trade, acting 
also as brokers or bankers. 

72 



ment. The troops from Bengal, destined for the Bolan 
Pass," could not even reach the Punjab. It was in this 
time of gloom and trouble that this very King of Oude, 
unsolicited, advanced fifty lacs of rupees (five millions) 
to the Government of India. The troops then marched 
— recovered their reverses in Cabul and restored their 
shaking power. What would have been the present 
state of the British power in India but for the gen- 
erous assistance of the King of Oude, is a wide ques- 
tion. 

There has been a constant interference in the affairs 
of Oude by the Indian Government during the last 
forty years. It dates particularly from the late Nepa- 
lese War. 

When a British Resident is forced on any Asiatic 
power, it is only a question of time how long that power 
shall be permitted to exist, before the fiat of annexation 
goes forth, and the government of the native sovereign 
annihilated. 

Oude contains 25,000 square miles and 6,000,000 of 
inhabitants, principally of the Rajhpoot caste. 

Tuesday, March II, 1856. Again up to "Bellevue," 
Mr. Greene's bungalow. 

Friday, March 1 4, 1 8 56. The American ship Anna 
Maria, Captain Rhodes, arrives here in six days from 
Singapore. 

Saturday, March 1 5, 1856. Thermometer 71° at 



^"A narrow gorge in the southwestern corner of British Baluchistan leading 
into Afghanistan. 

73 



6 A.M. Visit Mr. and Mrs. Mackenzie'® at Strawberry- 
Hill, the late residence of poor Sir William Jephcott, 
who died suddenly shortly before my arrival here from 
Point-de-Galle. The furniture, pictures, etc., etc., of 
the bungalow remain as they were in his time, and 
strongly bring him and the many pleasant hours I have 
passed with him to my mind. Mr. Buttery comes up 
to Mr. Greene's. Write to S. Drinker, Hongkong, to 
go by mail now daily expected from Point-de-Galle 
on her way to China. 

Monday, March IJ, l8§6. Mr. Buttery goes down 
this morning. Mr. Mackenzie and Lieutenant Corbit 
call and pass two hours this morning. 

Mr. White comes up this evening. Catch a flying 
lizard — body five inches, head one inch, tail five and a 
half inches; total, eleven and a half inches. Tail is flat 
and broader at the end than in any other part. 

Thursday, March 20, 1 8^6. The mail in from Point- 
de-Galle. Hear that the San Jacinto has been at Galle 
and that she left one day before the mail." She is more 
than a month behind her time. Go down the hill at 



■^^Mr. K. R. Mackenzie, a business man in Chin^, who later, after Townsend 
Harris had concluded a treaty with Japan, sought to visit Yedo on business. 
Townsend Harris, in whom the Japanese placed complete faith to keep 
traders away from Yedo, held out no encouragement, and wrote him from 
Shimoda, on February 7, 1859 (L. B., vol. 4, p. 7) : 

"The creation of a large commerce with Japan must of necessity be the 
work of time. The rich latent resources of the country must be developed ; the 
labor of a large surplus population must be directed to useful employments, 
and lastly, artificial wants must be created among the masses." 

About ten days later, February 18, 1859, the Dutch Minister, J. H. Donker 
Curtius, wrote Townsend Harris from Nagasaki stating that several gentle- 
men had arrived from Shanghai on a visit, among them Mr. K. R. Mackenzie. 
(L. & P., vol. I, no. 142.) 

77 The San Jacinto arrived at Galle on Mar. 6, 1856. (Wood, op. cit., p. 105.) 

74 



I p. M. ; get letters from Captain McDonald and Mr. 
Forbes at Point-de-Galle. 

Good Friday, March 21, 1856. At noon the San 
Jacinto is telegraphed but does not come in to-day. 

Saturday, March 22, 1856. The San Jacinto comes 
in at II A. M. She left New York October 25, 1856, 
[1855]. Consequently she has been 149 days on her pas- 
sage. Two ordinary merchant ships that left the United 
States after the San Jacinto both arrived out before 
her — one in 87 days, and the other [in] 94 days. Our 
men-of-war never hurry. 

Go on board the San Jacinto and am warmly wel- 
comed by all. On leaving am saluted with thirteen guns. 
The steamer Fiery Cross from Calcutta for China 
comes in. Write to S. Drinker and Captain Pope. 

Tuesday [Monday], March 24, 1856. Mail steamer 
from China for England arrives. Write by her to W. L. 
Marcy" and P. M. Wetmore, also to Captain McDonald 
and Mr. Forbes at Ceylon. 

Wednesday [^Tuesday'], March 2§, 18^6. Dine with 
the Hon. W. T. Lewis, Resident Councillor and Acting 
Governor, with Commodore Armstrong, Captain Bell, 
Purser Bradford,^* Fleet Surgeon Wood^° and Lieu- 
tenant Tyler of the marines. Wilson,^^ Lord Bishop of 

^^Dispatch No. 3, dated Pulo Penang or Prince of Wales Island (Z,. B., vol. i, 
p. 14), informing the Secretary of State of the arrival of the San Jacinto, and 
closing with the statement that in his next dispatch he hoped to be able to 
inform the Secretary "on the result of my mission to the Court of Bangkok." 

79T. O. Bradford. 

8°William Maxwell Wood, M.D., already referred to in these notes as. the 
author of Fankivei. This work is indispensable for all that relates to Town- 
send Harris and his mission to Siam (pp. 147-260), but has very little on 
Townsend Harris's work in Japan (pp. 295-320). 

siDaniel Wilson, 1778-1858, Fifth Bishop of Calcutta. {Did. Nat. Biogr.) 

75 



Calcutta, was among the guests. He is a venerable, 
charitable and excellent man, but outrageously eccentric. 
He has a most awkward habit of thinking aloud, and 
as his private thoughts are very queer, the utterance of 
them sometimes leads to ludicrous scenes. 

He is equally odd in the pulpit. On one occasion, 
when he was preaching at the Cathedral, Calcutta, his 
subject was the sin of a lust of money. After illustrating 
in a very ample manner the social and moral evils that 
grow out of this sin, he wound up by saying : 

''There is my brother the venerable Archdeacon" 
(pointing at him) ; "he once sold me a horse for 500 
rupees and the brute was not worth an anna" (two- 
pence), "and I am very much afraid, my brethren, that 
my venerable brother knew it when he sflld him to me!" 
Imagine the scene. 

Thursday \^Wednesday~\, March 26, l8^6. The 
Commodore and Captain Bell go up the Hill to Mr. 
Greene's, and in the evening Mr. Currier takes a number 
of officers up to his bungalow "Mount EUenborough." 
Repairs are required to the engines of the San Jacinth 
that will keep her here until the ist or 2nd of next 
month. 

Saturday, March 2Q, 1856. Mr. Currier comes 
down the Hill, and Lieutenant Lewis and Dr. Semple*^ 
go up. 

Sunday, March 30, 18^6. My old friend Pere 

82As8istant Surgeon of the San Jacinto, of whom Captain (later Rear- 
Admiral) Andrew Hull Foote, of the Portsmouth, speaks to Townsend Harris 
in L. GT P., vol. i, no. 75, dated Hongkong, Nov. 5, 1857. 

76 



Bigandet is to-day consecrated a bishop In partibus 
infidelibus. He leaves soon for Burmah. 

Monday, March 31, 1856. Wrote to C. Hufifnagle, 
Esq., U. S. Consul General for British India at Calcutta. 
Had the nightmare very bad last night. 

Tuesday, April I, 18^6. Gave in charge of Purser 
Bradford of the San Jacinto eleven bags of dollars 
containing $5,420. 

Make all the calls I can and leave cards P. P, C. for 
all kind friends at Penang — the cards will be sent after 
I leave by Mr. Greene. 

Wednesday, April 2, 1856. Early on board the San 
Jacinto, which gets under way at 9:30 A. M. I am now 
fairly on my way to the scene of my diplomatic labors.*^ 

Friday, April 4, l8§6. Arrive at Singapore at 9 130 
P. M. Were directed into the harbor by the blue lights 
and rockets thrown up from the U. S. Corvette 
Macedonian. 

Saturday, April 5, l8§6. Go on shore to the house 
of C. W. Bradley, Esq., U. S. Consul. Call on Governor 
Blundell in company with Captain Bell and the Com- 
modore. The Governor not at home. Afterwards I call 
on M. Gautier,** Consul de France. Monsieur absent, 

s^C/. Wood, op. cit., p. 142; and L. & P., vol. 2, no. 119, in which Townsend 
Harris, on Mar. 7, 1861, certifies (obviously for the use of the Department 
of State) to the principal dates of his voyage from the day he sailed from 
New York to that of his arrival at Shimoda, Japan, Aug. 21, 1856. 

8*Townsend Harris must have been particularly eager to make M. Gautier's 
acquaintance. Charles Wm. Bradley, Sr., U.S. Consul for Singapore, had writ- 
ten to TowQsend Harris a very interesting letter on Jan. 30, 1856. (L. ^ P., 
vol. I, no. 28.) Among other important information, he wrote: 

"Mr. Gautier, French Consul at this port, called on me yesterday, and in 
the course of conversation informed me that his Government were about to 
demand a commercial convention from the Siamese; and that for that pur- 

77 



see Madame and pass an agreeable half hour. Make 
some small purchases of stationery, etc., for Siam, and 
a satin cover^'' for the President's letter. 

Monday, April J, 1 8 56. Wrote W. L. Marcy,'" 
N. Dougherty, S. Drinker and Dr. Macgowan. Am in- 
vited to attend a ball and supper to be given by the 
citizens of Singapore to the French Commodore Mon- 
travel (see private letter book)." Send excuse, as I 
hope then to be in Siam.®* 

pose the diplomatic gentlemen already designated by H.I.M. would proceed 

to Bangkok about the end of next month (February). Mr. Gautier will be one 

of the mission, — probably its Secretary, and the bearer of its fruits to 

France." 

85In L. B., vol. I, p. 7, there is the following entry in Townsend Harris's 
hand: "At Singapore. Paid on Diplomatic a/c Whampoa & Co.'s bill for satin 
cover for the President's letter, and sundry small articles of stationery — $7.40." 

'^''Dispatch No. 4 (L. B., vol. i, p. 14), by which he informed the Secretary 
of State that a French squadron of two corvettes and one steamer was at Singa- 
pore awaiting the arrival of the French Envoy to Siam, who would then pro- 
ceed to Bangkok with a fleet of four vessels. Townsend Harris then voices 
his fears as follows: 

"I hope I shall be able to close my negotiations with the Siamese Court 

before the arrival of the French mission, as its presence would cause much 

delay, if no other embarrassment should arrive. 

"I shall therefore use my best exertions to bring my negotiations to a close 

as speedily as possible." 

In the meantime, ratifications of the English Treaty with Siam (concluded 
by Sir John Bowring on Apr. 18, 1855) had been exchanged at Bangkok by 
Harry S. Parkes on Apr. 5, 1856 {L. & P., vol. 2, no. 26), and had gone into 
effect on Apr. 6, 1856 [L. & P., vol. 2, no. 32). By letter of the same date (Apr. 
6, 1856), Commodore James Armstrong was urging Townsend Harris to be 
quick in selecting the person (Consul Bradley) to be the bearer to Washing- 
ton of the American Treaty to be concluded with Siam { L. & P., vol. i, no. 34) . 

8"The letter to which Townsend Harris refers is lost. Commodore Perry had 
met Commodore Montravel (whose fleet lay at anchor in the roadstead of 
Macao, China) in Aug. 1853, when Perry put in there after his first visit to 
the Bay of Yedo. (See Perry, Narrative, in 33-2, H. Ex. Doc, no. 97, vol. i, 
p. 300; and W. E. Griffis, Perry, p. 344.) 

s^Though Townsend Harris was only about to begin negotiations with 
Siam, the Americans in China had long been on the lookout for the arrival of 
his ship. Commissioner Parker, in writing to Secretary of State Marcy (Macao, 
Apr. 10, 1856) says: ". . . and am most solicitous for the arrival of the 
San Jacinto (reported by the last mail as having left Point-de-Galle on or 
about the 20th ult.), . . ." (35-2, S. Ex. Doc, no. 22, pt. z — in Serial 
no. 983 — p. 761.) 

78 



Tuesday, April 8, l8§6. San Jacinto leaves at 3 
P. M. for Bangkok. Have delightful weather — no dates 
— perfect calm all the way. Pulo Panjang has a small 
islet near it quite covered with guano. Passed Pulo Way 
at midnight. Vast quantities of snakes in the Gulf of 
Siam. Water blue at only sixteen fathoms soundings! 

Sunday, April 1 3, iSsO. We anchored at the bar of 
the River Menam at 1 1 130 A. M. in six fathoms water. ^^ 
We can just see the tops of the trees on shore. 

The Honorable Company's steamer Auckland is 
here with Mr. Parkes, who has not yet completed his 
labors with the Siamese. I fear his presence may delay 
me. Write a letter to the Minister of Foreign Affairs"" 

89Wood, Fankiuei, p. 150. In his letter to the Rev. Stephen Mattoon, written 
on board the San Jacinto the same day (L. B., vol. i, p. 9), Townsend Harris 
says that the vessel "anchored here about 2 p. M." It will be remembered that 
Perry, when he reached Point-de-Galle on his way out to Japan, wrote a letter 
to His Royal Highness Prince Phar-Pen-Clow of Siam (dated Mar. 14, 1853), 
and that, as the result of the courteous answer he received and of other private 
information, "he would have gone to Siam had not uncontrollable circum- 
stances prevented." (Perry, Narrative, in 33-2, H. Ex. Doc, no. 97, vol. i, 

p. 122.) 

^"His name, as it appears in the treaty later concluded by Townsend Harris, 
is: His Excellency Chau Phaya Rawe Nongee Maha Kosa Dhipade, the 
Phra Klang — the last two words meaning "Minister of Foreign Affairs." 

Townsend Harris's letter was dated: "Legation of the United States of 
America to Siam. U. S. Steam Frigate San Jacinto, at anchor off the Menam. 
[Sunday], April 13th, 1856." (L. B., vol. i, p. 10, Dispatch No. i.) 

In addition to the statement in the text, Townsend Harris expresses his 
desire to deliver the President's letter, of which he is the bearer; gives the 
names and ranks of those who will compose his suite ; asks for proper con- 
veyances to move a number of large packages; and trusts that all facilities 
will be afforded the Rev. S. Mattoon to enable him to reach the San Jacinto 
as speedily as possible. 

In signing this letter, Townsend Harris describes himself as: "Envoy Pleni- 
potentiary of the United States of America to Siam, and American Consul 
General for the Empire of Japan." 

Townsend Harris had learned from the experiences of the two Americans 
who had preceded him as envoys to Siam — namely, Edmund Roberts and 
Joseph Balestier; and he began immediately to surround himself with all the 
pomp and ceremony and dignity which have everywhere so much weight, but 
particularly in the Far East. 

79 



announcing my arrival and requesting boats, etc. Also 
write to the Rev. Mr. Mattoon, an American mis- 
sionary residing at Bangkok, requesting him to come to 
me, as I wish him as my interpreter." I sent to him a 
letter from the Rev. Mr. Lowera of New York, re- 
questing him to assist me.^^ 

The Captain and Supra Cargo of the American ship 
Ino come on board. The Ino has loaded rice here for 
China and sails to-day. Mr. Stone of the house of King 
& Co. also came on board. He says the King has pro- 
hibited the exportation of rice and salt. By Mr. Stone 
I send up all the letters and parcels for Bangkok. I also 
give him the letter for the Minister of Foreign AflFairs, 
and desired him to show it to the Governor of Paknam 
and offer to carry it up to Bangkok if the Governor 

9iThe Rev. Stephen Mattoon, an American Presbyterian missionary long 
resident at Bangkok, who became indispensable to Townsend Harris and of 
whom we shall therefore hear a good deal. We quote from the letter referred 
to in the text (L. B., vol. i, p. 9) : 

"I am most anxious to secure your valuable aid not only as interpreter 
but as my adviser in many things, for which your long residence here and 
knowledge of public men peculiarly fit you. ... Of course I shall expect 
to repay you all your expenses for boats, etc., as well as for your services." 

Dr. Mattoon's home was visited by members of the American party on 
May 4, 1856, and is described by Wood, in Fankiuei, pp. 215, 220. 

^^The reference is to Senator Walter Lowrie, born in Edinburgh, Scotland, 
Dec. 10, 1784, died in New York, Dec. 14, 1868. His family moved to the 
United States, where the young man was educated for the ministry, but went 
into politics instead. He was successively State Senator in Pennsylvania, 
United States Senator, and Secretary of the Senate. His early training and his 
earnestly religious nature now led him into the field of foreign missions, and 
in 1836 he was elected Corresponding Secretary of the Western Foreign Mis- 
sionary Society, later known as the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions. 
This post he held for more than thirty years, and it was as Secretary of the 
Presbyterian Board that he recommended Townsend Harris to the Jlev. 
Mattoon, a Presbyterian Missionary in Siam. 

This letter introducing Townsend Harris, who, although not personally 
known to Mr. Lowrie, was "highly appreciated" and cordially recoranr ended, 
is dated at the Mission House, New York, Oct. 12, 1855. (L. B., vol. i, p. 8.] 

80 



wished him to do [so], but to be careful to fully under- 
stand the wishes of the Governor before he took it from 
Paknam. 

Gar fish abundant and very large, pretty gulls, also 
shrike or Indian kite, called jheel. Now make out houses 
of the fishing stations. 

Commander Drought of the Auckland comes on 
board. He cannot salute the Commodore, as he has only 
six guns, and vessels of that number and under are not 
allowed to fire salutes. The Ino sailed this evening — a 
lovely night — the land breeze is very refreshing. 
Thermometer 85°. 

Monday, April 1 4, 1 8 56. The Commodore and 
Captain Bell return the call of Commander Drought 
of the Auckland. 

Mr. Richards, of H. B. M. Surveying Schooner 
Spartan, came on board and kindly promised to send 
me his copy of Admiral Stirling's Treaty with the 
Japanese.^^ 

For continuation of Journal in the order of dates, see 
Journal No. 2. 



98Sir James Stirling ("Knight, Rear-Admiral and Comraander-in-Chlef of 
the ships and vessels of Her Britannic Majesty in the East Indies and Seas 
adjacent") signed a Convention with the Japanese at Nagasaki, on Oct. 14, 
1854; it was ratified by Queen Victoria (Lord Clarendon) on Jan. 23, 1855; 
and ratifications were exchanged at Nagasaki on Oct. 9, 1855 — the very day 
on which Hotta, Bitchiu-no-Kami, was appointed to the Japanese Cabinet! 
(Akimoto, Lord li Naosuke, p. 137.) 

This Convention was concluded for the purpose of "regulating the admission 
of British ships into the ports of Japan." There is a manuscript copy of the 
full text in L. B., vol. i, pp. 176-78, which is followed, on pp. 178-81, by Admiral 
Stirling's orwn explanation of the various articles of the Treaty. The Hong- 
kong Government Gazette, dated Victoria, Saturday, Oct. 27, 1855, carried 
the same material, with the addition of a "Copy of the English Act of Ratifi- 
cation." (L. Sf P., vol. 2, no. 22.) More accessible references are: Perry, 
Narrative, 33-2, H. Ex. Doc, no. 97, vol. i, pp. 388-89; and J. H. Gubbins, 
The Progress of Japan, Appendix 3, pp. 232-33. 

81 



Journal No. 2 

Commencing April IS, 1856 
Ending July 6, 1856 

Tuesday, April 1 5, 1856. On board the San Jacinto 
off the Menam.®* At 9 A. M. a small steamer belonging 
to the King appeared in the offing and soon anchored 
alongside. She is about forty tons and has a small, high- 
pressure engine or locomotive brought out from the 
United States. She was otherwise wholly built and set 
agoing by the Siamese. She is called The Siamese Steam 
Fleet. Dr. Mattoon came on board®** in company with 
Phra Nai Wai (brother of the Prime Minister'^), who 
informed me that he was sent down by the King to wel- 
come me on my arrival. 

I soon learned that the Prime Minister was on board 
and would visit the ship, provided he could come in a 
private capacity, or incognito. A boat was sent for him, 
and he came on board with four younger brothers. 
After a little conversation I learned that the house oc- 
cupied by Sir John Bowring when here was now occu- 

^*In his manuscript, Townsend Harris breaks off at this point to say: "For 
Journal from May 21, 1855, see Journal no. i." 

^^This visit is fully described also by Wood, op. cit., pp. 151-54. 

^®His name, as it appears in the treaty later concluded by Townsend Harris, 
is: His Excellency Chau Phaya Sri Suriwongse Samuha, Phra Kralahom — the 
last two words meaning "Prime Minister." 

83 



pied by Mr. H. Parkes, and that they wished me to send 
up two officers to inspect the house prepared for me to 
see if it would suit me, or whether I would prefer wait- 
ing until Mr. Parkes should leave. On inquiry I found 
that the new house, although sadly deficient, was really 
the best they could give me until Mr. S. Parkes leaves. 
I determined that I would not send anyone up as it 
would lead to a great delay, and I was most anxious to 
get to Bangkok as speedily as possible — that I would 
take the house they had prepared, and that I was to be 
removed to the other and better house as soon as it was 
vacated by Mr. Parkes. 

The Minister said he was not prepared to enter into 
business, so that what I got from him was rather from 
incidental than direct remarks. I gather that the King 
is rather inclined to undervalue our mission, as it does 
not come from a crowned head, etc., etc. By his advice 
I wrote letters to the First and Second Kings (see 
copies).®^ 

The flag of Siam (white elephant on red ground) 
was then saluted with a royal salute of twenty-one guns. 
The [Prime] Minister, whose name is Phra Kalahom, 

9^The letter to the First King of Siam is to be found in L. B., vol. i, pp. 
15-16. Townsend Harris informs the King of his desire to present the Presi- 
dent's letter, thanks him for his kindness to Americans in Siam, and requests 
an early audience. 

The letter to the Second King of Siam is to be found in L. B., vol. i, pp. 
16-17. This letter is not so long as that to the First King. In fact, it plainly 
refers the Second King to that other letter for more complete information. 

The treaty concluded by Townsend Harris gives the names of the two 
kings thus: 

First King: Phra Bard Somdetch Phra Paramendr Maha Mongkut Phra 

Chom Klau Chau Yu Hua; 
Second King: Phra Bard Somdetch Phra Pawarendr Ramesr Mahiswaresr 

Phra Pin Klau Chau Yu Hua. 

84 



declined to be saluted, as he was not on board officially. 
He went over the ship and examined everything very 
minutely and made many very sensible and shrewd re- 
marks. He is the father of the Siamese navy, as he built 
all the ships they have which are after European models. 

He told me I must let the King know how many swords 
and guns and big ships we have, which would greatly 
alter his tone. Still I have hopes of getting a treaty on 
terms that will be satisfactory, and without any bluster. 

Two Americans came down with the Minister, — 
Captain DuvalP* and Mr. Porter, both recently from 
China. Captain Duvall brought me a letter of intro- 
duction from Mr. Keenan, U. S. Consul at Hongkong."® 

After taking some refreshments the Prime Minister 
and suite left for Bangkok. 

The little steamer had the private flag of the King, — 

"^Writing from Shimoda on Apr. 4, 1859, to Mr. E. E. Rice, United States 
Commercial Agent at Hakodate, Townsend Harris says (L. B., vol. 4, p. 32) : 

"Your friend Captain Duvall died miserably in the jungles of Siam, where 
he had gone on a gold hunting expedition. The story about his brave con- 
duct while in command of one of the Siamese ships-of-war was nothing 
but fiction. He never held any such command, nor was he ever in Siamese 
employ." 

^^General James Keenan, of Pennsylvania, U.S. Consul for Hongkong, 
1854-57. He was nominated Feb. 2, 1854, in place of F. T. Bush, resigned; 
reported, Feb. 8, 1854; consented to, Mar. 14, 1854. (Hasse Index, pt. 3, 
p. 1707.) 

Tyler Dennett (Americans in Eastern Asia, p. 283) points out that General 
Keenan carried the American flag over the walls of Canton when Admiral 
Michael Seymour (British) attacked the city (Oct. 29, 1856), but that no men- 
tion of this fact was made in the official reports to the Department of State. 
{Cf., too, Lane-Poole and Dickins's Life of Sir Harry Parkes, vol. i, p. 239.) 

This act of General Keenan, then, constitutes another, and an earlier, in- 
stance of Commodore Josiah Tattnall's "Blood is thicker than water," uttered 
on the occasion of the British reverse at the Peiho forts in northern China, on 
May 28, 1858 — and both these gentlemen were therefore technically guilty of 
breaking the official neutrality of the United States. (For the full details of 
General Keenan's deed, see 35-2, S. Ex. Doc., no. 22, pt. 2 — in Serial no. 983 — 
pp. 1383-99.) 

85 



viz.j on a red field the royal crown supported on each 
side by state umbrellas, closed. 

Mr. Mattoon remains on board the ship with me until 
the King shall send down for me. 

Wednesday, April l6, 1 8 §6. Nothing from Bangkok 
to-day. Had much conversation with Mr. Mattoon re- 
garding my mission. He thinks I shall have no difficulty 
in getting the same terms as the English obtained. Has 
given me the characters of the two Kings and principal 
nobles."° We expect to be sent for to-morrow in the small 
steamer to proceed to Paknam and from thence we shall 
go up to Bangkok in the King's state barges. 

The tide on the bar is about twelve feet. Lowest water 
on the bar is in March, when it is only thirteen feet at 
high water. The highest is in November, when eighteen 
feet is found. 

Vessels can always lie in the roads, as no storms of a 
serious kind ever occur. No hurricane or typhoon was 
ever known in Siam. 

Cambodia is now tributary to Siam, but a portion of 
its territories have been seized on by Cochin-China on 
the east and Siam on the west. 

Chantibon produces most of the spices and fine gums 

looxownsend Harris had taken pains to procure information on these points 
before leaving New York City. (See Journal, entry for Sept. 2i, 1855.) It is 
almost certain (from a study of the h'and writings) that the Rev. Dr. Samuel 
R. House (who had been a missionary to Siam for many years) was the author 
of the four-page unsigned document (L. & P., vol. 2, no. 61), which Mr. 
Heusken (Townsend Harris's secretary) endorsed: "Biography of the King 
of Siam, his family and prime ministers." 

The Rev. S. R. House must also have penned for Townsend Harris a simi- 
lar document {L. & P., vol. 2, no. 18), giving him a list of good books on Siam, 
and making suggestions regarding such practical details as the supply of paper, 
envelopes, tape-ribbon, and presents for the two kings, which last he actually 
assisted Townsend Harris in selecting. (L. B., vol. i, pp. i, 76.) 

86 



of Siam. Black pepper is lately become an article of 
cultivation there, and enough might easily be produced 
to take the place of the Sumatra pepper. 

The white elephant is an object of veneration, but not 
of w^orship. It is considered as a fortunate possession for 
a king — bringing to him good luck. The Siamese annals 
state that the Burmese once made a successful war on 
Siam, to obtain five white elephants. 

Divorce in Siam is the simple will of the husband — 
who can even sell his wife as a slave. The father can 
always sell his son, no matter what his age, etc. Mar- 
riage is a simple sale of the girls, as the sum paid is only 
considered as her dower, when the family is rich. When 
it is poor, they use a part or the whole of the purchase 
money for the payment of their debts. 

No marriage ceremony is performed. At a feast given 
on the occasion, a priest comes and eats before 12 M., 
as he cannot eat after noon. He says some prayers on 
the occasion, but it cannot be called a benediction or 
making a contract. Slavery^" is deprived of some of its 
evils by the laws of Siam. The slave can work for him- 
self, provided he pays his master a certain per cent, on 
the sum paid for him. He can also redeem himself by 
paying the original purchase money, but the owner may 
add any costs he may be put to by the slave, such as 
running away, sickness, or by his failing to pay the sum 
due to his master when working for himself. 

A slave may keep any property which he has acquired 

loiTownsend Harris's interest in slavery is easily understood when we 
rpmember that his mission to Siam and Japan took place in the years immedi- 
ately preceding the Civil War. 

87 



by his own labor or other means. So, also, the wife can 
trade on her own account, and her husband or his 
creditors cannot touch it. 

Sodomy is very common, as is also bestiality. Neither 
is punished with any severity, and never except in the 
case of a priest. 

Adultery is very common, but almost escapes without 
punishment, except when the female belongs to the royal 
family or some of the very high nobles, in which case 
the male offender is punished with death. 

Thursday, April IJ, l8j6. Nothing new to-day, nor 
anything from Bangkok. Very hot. 

Friday, April l8, 1856. I have a letter'"^ this morn- 
ing from the Minister of Foreign Affairs acknowledging 
the receipt of my letter of Sunday and explaining that 
the bamboo house prepared for me is according to strict 
Siamese etiquette of the most honorable kind, as it is 
new and has never been occupied. 

He also writes that he will send out for me on Mon- 
day to take me to Paknam, or, according to its name in 
the court language, Samut-phra-kan, at which place I 
am to meet twenty-two royal boats to take me and my 
suite up in high honor to Bangkok. 

Write to the Minister in reply. ( See copy this date. ) ^"^ 



lo-The manuscript original of the translation of this letter (by the Rev. Mat- 
toon) is still extant. (L. & P., vol. 2, no. 25.) It is dated as follows: "This com- 
munication was written on Thursday the 12th of the increasing Moon, the fifth 
month of the year of the Serpent, corresponding to April 17th, 1856." 

William M. Wood is authority for the statement that on April 17th Town- 
send Harris received presents from the King. {Fankivei, p. 159.) 

i°3£,. B., vol I, p. 17. The substance of the letter from the Minister for 
Foreign Affairs (L. & P., vol. 2, no. 25) and of Townsend Harris's reply is 
given in this Journal entry. 



Concerning slavery. On the death of the father, the 
eldest son succeeds to his rights. When only minors are 
left, an uncle can sell his nephews and nieces, especially 
if they have lived with or have been supported by 
him. 

Saturday, April IQ, l8§6. The little steamer came 
down to-day, and Mr. Parkes in her paid me a visit. I 
had much conversation with him. He finds much delay 
in getting a full understanding as to the meaning of the 
Treaty, and some efforts have been made to change some 
of the articles in Schedules A and B of the Treaty. He 
is now having the line four miles distant from the walls 
(within which foreigners may lease but cannot buy 
houses and grounds until they have resided ten years 
in Siam) measured and marked, and when this is done 
the Treaty is to be proclaimed by the Siamese Gov- 
ernment. 

He fears that I shall find my new house too small and 
says I will require both that and the one erected for the 
French Embassy. 

Mr. S. Parkes recommended me to apply for the house 
occupied by the late Phra Klang. I got Mr. Mattoon to 
write up to his friends to move in the matter. 

Mr. Parkes informs me that I will meet a most 
friendly reception from the Siamese, but that I must be 
prepared for many and some very unreasonable delays 
which will greatly try my patience. 

After taking some refreshment, Mr. Parkes went over 
the ship and saw her armament, machinery, etc., etc., 
and left at half-past two. We gave him a salute of eleven 

89 



guns, although as Consul he only is entitled to nine guns, 
but Captain Bell had been informed that Mr. Parkes 
had been saluted with that number by the Auckland 
when he disembarked at Bangkok. 

The weather is very hot. The thermometer ranges 
about 82° at night, and from 88° to 90° during the heat 
of the day. A pleasant breeze springs up about 2 P. M. 
and blows until 4 A. M. 

I am told the heat at nights is more oppressive on 
board ship than it is at Bangkok, although the ther- 
mometer rises to 96° there during the day. 

It is an old saying here that those who come here for 
business should bring one ship loaded with patience, 
another loaded with presents, and a third ship for carry- 
ing away the cargo. 

Mr. Mattoon has made a careful translation of the 
Foreign Minister's letter to me {i.e., the Phra Klang). 
About 8 P. M. heavy clouds arose in the north (in the 
direction of Bangkok) , and the lightning was very vivid 
for more than an hour with an occasional sound of dis- 
tant thunder. The lightning was almost all vertical, de- 
scending quite to the edge of the horizon. Some bolts 
were of a deep red, others yellow in color. Mr. Mattoon 
thinks the storm was over Bangkok. It is the beginning 
of the rainy season. 

Sunday, April 20, 1856. Mr. Mattoon preached a 
most excellent sermon at half-past ten to the ship's com- 
pany. He had an attentive audience, and was earnest 
and clear in his discourse. 
The schooner sent down for the presents anchored 

90 



near the ship this morning, but they will not be put on 
board till to-morrow. 

Boats came off from her with eggs, fowls, onions, 
plantains and a few mangoes for sale. About noon an- 
other boat from Paknam came alongside with a present 
of dried fish and cocoanut oil, as a present from the King 
to the ship's company. The boat had two rudders, one 
on each quarter. 

I shall send up in the schooner one case of cordials, 
one ditto cherry brandy, the "diplomatic trunk,""* and 
two barrels of flour, which I borrowed from the ship 
and am to return it in Hongkong. I take the flour to 
make bread for the party, as neither bread nor flour is to 
be had at Bangkok. 

Monday, April 21, 1856. At 7 A. M. the little steamer, 
The Siamese Steam Force,^"^^ with two Cochin-Chinese 
boats, each rowed by thirty men, came alongside and 
brought five nobles, one of the third rank and four of 
the fourth rank. Of the latter, one went on board the 
schooner, one to each of the Cochin-Chinese boats, and 
one to the steamer, where the other third rank noble re- 
mained. A joint note was received written in the name 
of the Phra Nai Wai, etc., explaining that the boats 
were sent to convey part of my suite, for fear the steamer 
should be too much crowded. The steamer had two flags 

i°*This trunk was recently in the possession of Mrs. Sarah C. W. Harris, of 
New York City, who died Feb. 5, 1927. 

lo^Under the caption "A Royal Siamese Machinist" (Prince T. N. Chau Fa 
Khromakhun Isaret Rangsan), the New York Tribune gives an interesting 
account of the building of a Siamese steamer entirely by native talent. 
{Tribune, n^orning ed., Saturday, April 7, 1849, p. 2, col. 3, quoting from the 
Singapore Free Press of Oct. 19, 1848.) William M. Wood, op. ciu, p. 153, 
identifies this Prince as the then Second King of Siam. 

91 



on the bow: the flag of Siam, a white elephant on a blue 
field ; the other was the particular flag of the King, — his 
crown, supported on each side by royal umbrellas, — and 
was hoisted on the stern. The boats, which were some 
fifty feet long, had each four flags on the stern, red, 
blue, pink, white. 

The schooner came alongside, and the articles hereto- 
fore noted and the packages of presents were all put on 
board and the marines sent to the two boats. After leav- 
ing Penang a large number of the marines were on the 
sick list, but as soon as it was known that a guard of 
marines was to go up to Bangkok, they all speedily 
recovered. 

At 10:20 A. M. we started, the ship saluting me with 
seventeen guns. 

The air was from the north and, as our course was 
also north, it made a fine refreshing breeze, which was 
most grateful after the great heat we had suffered in the 
ship. As we passed H. M. Surveying Schooner,^"® she 
saluted us by dipping her flag, which courtesy was 
answered by the band playing "God Save the Queen." 

About eight miles from the ship we entered into the 
pass between the fishing stakes. These are stout saplings 
and from the strong tide which was then running were 
constantly swaying to and fro. Large quantities of shell 
fish were adhering to the poles. The white ibis, or paddy 
bird of the Indian Archipelago, were collected in num- 
bers. Some perched on the stakes, others in larger 



loexhe Spartan; cf. above entry for Apr. 14, 1856. Willian M. Wood, op. cii., 
p. 160, ascribes this interchange of courtesies to H. M.'s Brig Saracen, 

92 



numbers were collected on the little patches of sand, 
seen here and there. At the very entrance of the river 
was a building roofed with tiles and standing some ten 
feet above the water on strong posts. On the staff was a 
flag with blue, red and blue in horizontal stripes and 
having the white elephant. This building is a sort of 
lookout, and is also a refuge for benighted persons in 
boats. About three miles above is Paknam. This place 
is strongly fortified with long lines of batteries on both 
banks and on an island nearly in the middle of the river. 
The batteries appear to be in good order, and are well 
supplied with guns. The position of these defences ap- 
pears to be judiciously selected, but of this only a mili- 
tary man could judge. A short distance above the forti- 
fied island is a very pretty pagoda, crowning another 
islet. It does not contain any images, but is a place of 
great resort at certain seasons of merrymaking, when it is 
covered with cloths of various colors. 

On approaching the landing place a number of flags 
were seen fluttering in the wind. Soldiers were seen 
under arms, and a large number of people collected. As 
soon as we had anchored, a person in a tawdry uniform 
with the black hat of the West on his head came on board 
and invited me to land, which I did, in company with 
the Commodore, my secretary and some three others. As 
I ascended the steps, the guard, which lined both sides 
of the brick pathway, presented arms, and the bugles 
made a most diabolical noise. The uniform was red 
pantaloons and jacket, black shako, cross belts and bare 
feet. 

93 



About fifty yards from the landing was a building, 
open on all sides, and built after the exact manner of 
the Pondoppo of Java, and in its interior consists of 
three stages or degrees, the upper one occupying more 
than half of the whole area, and is the post of honor. 

It was here that Mr. Balestier met the first instance 
of uncivil treatment, as he was stopped on the second 
stage, and there he was compelled to take the refresh- 
ments offered to him."^ I was aware not only of the 
custom, but also of the manner [in which] Mr. Balestier 
was treated, and was determined not to submit to such 
treatment, had it been attempted. But my reception was 
quite different. I was met on the upper stage by the 
Phra Nai Wai and a brother of the Prime Minister, 
who was of higher rank than the Phra Nai Wai. They 
were very cordial, shaking hands and inviting pie to be 
seated, etc., etc. 

The Phra Nai Wai requested the band might land 



lO'^Mr. Joseph Balestier went up the River Menam on Apr. 3, 1850. In his 
long report to the Hon. Daniel Webster, Secretary of State, dated Washington, 
Nov. 25, 1851, he tells the story as follows (33-1, S. Ex. Doc, no. 38 — in Serial 
no. 618 — pp. 10-11): 

"At the second port, about midway between the mouth of the river and 
the capital, where preparations had been made on a large scale to receive 
the embassy, I was informed that the commanding officer or governor of the 
place was taken suddenly ill, and I was attended by men of low rank, who 
seated me on the second platform of the building I was in, thereby intimating 
to the crowd that I was a person of inferior rank; for, in that country, 
officers of high rank occupy the upper platform of the floor; those of inferior 
rank, the second platform; and, finally, the third or lowest part of the floor 
is resorted to by persons of low rank. It was only after I returned to my 
barge that I was made aware of this rule of etiquette, and, consequently, of 
the affront put upon me . . ." 

This episode had already been reported by Mr. Balestier to the Hon. Clayton, 
Secretary of State, but much more briefly and with minor differences. {lb., 
p. 51, dated U. S. Flagship Plymouth, Gulf of Siam, Apr. 30, 1850.) 

94 



and play during the meal which they had provided, and 
that when the marines came up (their boat was about a 
mile astern when we arrived) that they also might 
land. 

We soon atter sit down to a table abundantly sup- 
plied with soup, fish, poultry, pork, vegetables, etc., etc., 
followed by plenty of fruits and various preparations in 
sugar, etc. 

The Phra Nai Wai proposed to salute the American 
Flag with twenty-one guns, and borrowed an ensign to 
hoist on the Fort during the salute, and requested that 
we should order another American flag to be hoisted on 
the little steamer during the same period. All of which 
was done, and when the salute was over the band struck 
up "Hail, Columbia." The Siamese of all ranks are 
greatly attracted by our band, and, when the men went 
to another building, they were followed by large crowds 
to see them eat, etc. I here saw the Siamese women for 
the first time. Their scanty clothing is almost the same 
as that of the men, except a cloth which is thrown over 
the neck, with the ends falling down over their bosom 
which it partially conceals, when the wind does not blow 
it about. They have the same ungraceful way of cutting 
the hair, — /. e., very short except on the crown of the 
head, where it is about three inches long and stands up 
like bristles. On examination, we found the Kanyu^°' 
boats were not of the style usually sent when similar 
persons are to proceed up to Bangkok, and Mr. Mat- 



losxhere is a town of this name in northern China ; and perhaps the refer- 
ence in the text is to some kind of Chinese boats. 

95 



toon was of [the] opinion that they did not expect us 
to use them, or rather, they expected we would prefer 
going up in the steamer; which, in fact, was the case, 
for on our transit from the ship to Paknam we had can- 
vassed the matter, and we agreed that it would be more 
agreeable to go up in the steamer which would reach 
Bangkok before six o'clock, P. M., while the boats 
would probably not reach there before eight o'clock. 
Mr. Mattoon formed his opinion of their intentions from 
the fact that the boats were not decorated with cloth 
of gold, banners, etc., etc., as is usual on such occasions, 
and also because the number was not as great as that 
named by the Minister, of Foreign Affairs in his letter 
to me, — viz., twenty-two. 

The Phra Nai Wai inquired after my health and age, 
and the health and age of the President, and some other 
and similar questions. He told me that when I embarked 
I should be saluted with seventeen guns. 

I then ordered the marines, band and servants to go 
on board and afterwards embarked myself, receiving 
similar honors as on my landing. Soon after the steamer 
got under way, the promised salute of seventeen guns 
was fired from one of the forts on the left bank of the 
river. Some of the guns seemed by the report to be very 
heavy pieces. The powder appeared to be poor, as the 
smoke from a single discharge was almost equal to the 
smoke of a whole salute from the frigate. 

A lively scene was now seen. The Kanyu boats, some 
of them full fifty feet or more long, with high prows 
and sterns, propelled by the paddles of some fifty men, 

96 



all shouting and striving not only to pass each other but 
the steamer also. The strife was animated, as you could 
see by their countenances and eyes, while the air seemed 
to be filled by a whirlwind of arms, paddles and naked, 
screaming savages. 

The tints of the green are very beautiful and rich, 
among which the light pea green of the mangrove 
arrests the eye from the moment you get near enough to 
the land to distinguish shades of color, and this con- 
tinues up the river for some distance, but is now (above 
Paknam) mixed with the deeper greens of the casuarina 
littorea and nipah palms, from which [come] the 
ataps so largely used in the Indian Archipelago and the 
peninsula for making and covering their houses. It is a 
pretty palm, and is difficult to distinguish from the 
young cocoanut, but it never grows up into a boll with a 
verdant head of waving fronds, but remains lowly and 
lovely and most useful to man. It is impossible to over- 
estimate the advantages which are drawn from the 
common varieties of the palm. 

It furnishes materials for building the house and 
the boat, with cordage and sails for the latter; fishing 
lines and seines; refreshing and cooling drinks in the 
hottest day; it furnishes oil and champagne \^ine, with 
as much brandy as may be desired. Its produce of sugar 
resembles the maple of our country, while it forms an 
important part of each meal, furnishing the vessels in 
which both food and drink are placed. The above are all 
literal, and no doubt other uses are made which do not 
at present occur to me. 

97 



We now went on rapidly, as we had wind, tide and 
steam all in our favor. 

A few miles above Paknam and you begin to meet 
with the houses of the Siamese peasantry. These are 
generally very neat and far superior to the house oc- 
cupied by the same class in India and China and, of 
course, to those of the Malays. The houses are elevated 
on posts some six feet above the ground, which [not 
only] secures a greater degree of dryness (an important 
consideration in a damp country), but [also] secures 
the inmates from the carbonic acid gas or malaria which 
is exhaled during the night and collects on the ground 
until it is some feet in depth. Most travellers give as a 
reason for this elevation of the house so far above the 
ground that it is a means of protection against reptiles 
and noxious animals and insects. This reason is no doubt 
quite satisfactory to those who like to have their nerves 
agitated by the dangers they read of, but careful exam- 
inations prove that in this case (as in most analogous 
ones) it is a better reason than childish fear of snakes 
and toads that induces them to build their houses some 
height above the ground. But to return to the house — 
the roof is quite as steep as a French chateau ; the sides 
are covered in with very neat panel work made of very 
small pieces of wood, indeed the smaller the prettier 
in Siamese eyes. The roof is covered with a neatly made 
thatch made from the nipah palm. About ten miles from 
Paknam the river makes an extraordinary curve or 
curves quite like that in the Connecticut River at Mount 
Holyoke. It is about twenty miles around this bend, but 

98 



the Siamese have cut a canal, practicable for boats, in 
the direct line of the river, which saves some ten miles 
of distance, but we were compelled from the size of our 
conveyance to follow the river. During the dry season, 
— i.e.f from December to May, a dam is erected across 
the lower end to prevent the salt water from entering 
the canal and thus injuring their cultivations ; but during 
the rains such is the volume of rain water that the river 
is always fresh even down to Paknam, and ships some 
four miles from the mouth are said to take fresh water 
from the surface during this season. 

The entrance to this canal is near a sugar plantation 
and just below the fort of Paklat. On arriving at Paklat 
the steamer was stopped, and a number of boats came 
alongside bearing an abundant supply of the various 
fruits in season from the Commander of the place. It 
was here that Mr. Balestier landed for the second time 
on his way up, as is usual when the transit is made in 
boats. Above the fort is the great iron chain which the 
Siamese stretch across the river in times of danger, and 
is thought by them to be a perfect barrier to the river. 
The chain is on and attached to logs to float it to its 
place, and powerful windlasses are erected on the left 
bank to heave it across and to its place. 

When Sir James Brooke^"® came up, the chain was 



lo^Sir James Brooke (1803-68), born at Benares, India — another of the 
famous empire builders of Great Britain. He later became the Rajah of Sara- 
wak, on the northwest coast of Borneo. (An interesting sketch in Diet. Nat. 
Biogr.) 

In 1850 he was commissioned to conclude a treaty with Siam, but he was 
received (only a few months after Mr. Balestier, L. & P., vol. 2, nos. 31 and 61) 
with hostile demonstrations, and negotiations were broken off in a manner that 

99 



stretched across and he was taken through a small canal 
which the Siamese cut around the end of the chain. 

The scenery was now beautiful in the extreme, the 
tide being a spring, and nearly high water hid all the 
mud banks. Trees hung over the stream in many places 
with their branches touching the water. Here we saw, 
in addition to those noted before (except the mangrove) , 
the cotton tree, the feather bamboo, areca"° and cocoa 
palms, pandanus spiralis, with others unknown to me. 
The light of the declining sun had its rays softened by 
thin clouds and seemed to give life and freshness to 
everything which, with the delicious coolness of the air, 
seemed like a paradise after the dreadful heat we had 
endured at the anchorage outside the bar. 

Boats of all sizes, from the tiny affair of some seven 
feet long by fifteen inches wide, holding a single person, 
up to those paddled by some fifty men, were seen darting 
about in all directions. Here was a boat laden with wood 
or coal propelled by a Chinaman standing erect and 
facing the bow; pushed two oars and seemed to be in- 
different about us or our craft. There were boats of the 
Siamese who all squatted as we approached, out of re- 
spect. Hundreds of neat cottages were seen peeping 
through the rich foliage, with frequent wats or temples, 
near which clusters of priests in their yellow robes were 
seen, while men, women and children would occupy 
every post of vantage to see us and hear the band. Now 



made matters more difficult for those who followed him — namely, Sir John 
Bowring, Sir Harry Parkes and Townsend Harris. (Lane-Poole and Dickins, 
op. cit., vol. I, p. 190; Bowring, Siam, vol. 2, pp. 209-10.) 
i^'The areca or betel-nut palm. 

ICG 



we began to meet the floating houses which are erected 
on a raft of bamboos some two feet above the level of the 
water. These houses have a neat appearance, and, when 
kept in order, are far preferable to the houses occupied 
by the laboring classes in Europe and America. I 
omitted to note that when we stopped at Paklat to re- 
ceive the presents of fruit, the head man asked, as a 
favor, that the band might play, and appeared much 
pleased with the music. 

We now began to find the wats larger and finer. Raft 
houses more frequent and the number of boats larger. 
Presently we saw the masts of square-rigged vessels, and, 
to our sincere pleasure, the "Star Spangled Banner" 
waving in the gentle evening breeze."^ One must be far 
from home and among strangers to appreciate the in- 
tense emotions that fill the heart at the sight of the 
national flag. Abstractly, it is but so much bunting of 
divers colors, but as a flag it represents country and 
home and friends and all the dear thoughts that are 
associated with those ideas. 

The flag was hoisted on the ship lanthe, which was 
receiving some repairs, preparatory to loading a cargo 
for China. 

I have before noted the fine ships which the Siamese 
have built, and I now saw a new specimen — it was the 
complete fusion of the junk of China with the ship of the 
West. Her foremast was rigged as a ship, the main 
hoisted the enormous single sail of the junk, while the 

iiiWood, op. cit., p. i6o: "On our way in, we passed several merchant ships 
at anchor, all of which were being loaded by Mr. King, an enterprising Ameri- 
can merchant of Bangkok. ..." 

lOI 



mizzen was bark rigged ; the bow was open and had its 
two enormous goggling eyes of the junk, but out of the 
open space projected the bowsprit and jib booms of the 
ship of the West. 

About 6 o'clock we came in sight of the Portuguese 
Consulate, which had hoisted its flag in our honor; and, 
a short distance above, a high flagstaff with a new bam- 
boo-house pointed out our new residence. As soon as we 
had anchored, a boat came off and a Portuguese as inter- 
preter welcomed me and desired me to land. On ascend- 
ing the steps from the river 1 was welcomed by the 
Phra Klang in a very cordial manner. Here I also met 
Dr. Bradley"^ of the American Presbyterian Mission, 
also Mr. D. O. King,"' and Mr. Stone, both Americans. 
The Phra Klang now invited me to enter the house. I 



ii^Xhe Rev. D. B. Bradley, who is also referred to as belonging to the Ameri- 
can Missionary Association {L. & P., vol. 2, no. 61, p. 4), and to the Congrega- 
tional Mission (Wood, op. cit., p. 190). As in so many other cases in the Far 
East, the Rev. Bradley was at the same time both missionary and physician. 
For the story of his vain effort to cure the Queen of the First King of Siam, see 
Wood, op. cit., pp. 248-51 ; and Bowring, Siam, vol. 2, pp. 411-21. 

ii^David O. King had established himself at Shanghai, where he served as 
Consul for Prussia. Some time before the date of this Journal entry, he had 
freed some Siamese vessels that had been captured by the Chinese at Shanghai, 
and the King of Siam had in gratitude appointed him Consul and Commercial 
Agent of Siam at Shanghai. (L. & P., vol. 2, no. 23, Mr. King to Townsend 
Harris, Bangkok, Jan. 28, 1856; and L. & P., vol. i, nos. 30, 32.) 

Naturally, Mr. King soon desired to visit the country which he officially 
represented. He reached Bangkok some time in Nov., 1855. Writing from 
Canton on Dec. 18, 1855 {L. Gf P., vol. i, no. 25), S. Drinker warns Townsend 
Harris against Mr. King: 

"I wish you were at Siam now. David King from Shanghai has gone down 
there to try and get the King's business at Shanghai. I am afraid he will be 
medHling in your business with the 'King, and making a treaty on his own 
hook." 

Mr. King's own letter to Townsend Harris (see above) is a tirade against 
the Prime Minister of Siam, and the latter's attitude towards Mr. King is 
therein portrayed as so hostile that there was small danger of Mr. King's ob- 
taining a treaty "on his own hook." 

102 



found a large room intended as a public and dining 
room. Back of this, two large bedrooms with Chinese 
bedsteads of a rich description, good beds, pillows, 
bolsters, or Dutch wives, and silk mosquito curtains. 
These rooms were appropriated to Commodore Arm- 
strong and myself. Four other bedrooms, each with two 
beds, properly furnished, accommodate eight of the 
officers. 

Two of our company went to the house of Mr. Mat- 
toon, and the purser went to the house of Mr. D. O. 
King (an American merchant who has established a 
branch of his house here, having others at Canton and 
Shanghai) . I found the house to be airy and clean, having 
some appliances for comfort in the shape of bathing 
rooms and water closets, but I have no private room for 
writing or conversation, except my bedroom, which has 
a doorway but no door. I closed it after a fashion with a 
small flag, which was brought up for our procession. 

After looking around the house and getting over the 
bustle of arrival and landing baggage, I went to see the 
quarters of the marines, band and servants, etc., etc., 
which are very comfortable, and each man is supplied 
with a good mattress made of quilted cloth wadded with 
cotton, and to each man are given two sheets. 

This over, the Phra Klang came to my room bringing 
a man of Portuguese descent (who is, as he told me, a 
general) as interpreter."* 

He spoke but very little English, but by speaking 



ii^This must be the strange individual who is called Gabrielle by William 
M. Wood {op. cit., p. 162). 

103 



Spanish I got along pretty well. The Phra Klang was 
anxious to know how far my instructions went and what 
we wanted, etc., etc. I avoided giving him any particular 
information, saying that my mission was of the most 
friendly kind ; that the President had a great esteem for 
the King and was anxious to strengthen the ties of friend- 
ship already happily existing, and to increase the inter- 
course between the people of the two countries, etc., etc. ; 
and finally that, when I met the Ministers together, I 
would more fully explain matters, as I could then have 
the assistance of Mr. Mattoon, who was competent to 
interpret correctly between us. 

The Phra Klang asked me if I had a copy of our 
treaty with Japan."° I replied that I would send him a 
copy when I reached China, as I was unwilling that they 
should see that treaty at present. We continued in con- 
versation until near eight o'clock, when dinner was 
served. We sat down to a table handsomely spread with 
French porcelain, white and gold, and plenty of new 
table silver of English make. The food and fruit were 
abundant, but the cooking was bad, meat almost raw 
and everything surcharged with onions, garlic and leeks. 

Soon after, some of the men were seized with cholera 
morbus; which is not to be wondered at, as they had 
eaten fruit and drunk cocoanuts to an unreasonable ex- 
tent, one man having drunk one hundred cocoanuts be- 
tween Paknam and Bangkok. In addition to all this, 
they ate heartily of fresh pork at Paknam, and drank of 
the very bad water at this place. Now, to all this, add 

J^i^^The treaty concluded by Commodore Perry, Mar. 31, 185+. 

104 



exposure to the sun for some hours and the only wonder 
is, not that some were sick, but that all were not so. 

I went to bed about ten o'clock and was long kept 
awake by the excitement of the day and the novelty."' 

List of Suite: 
Commodore Armstrong 
Lieutenant Lewis U. S. N. 

" Rutledge 

" Carter " 

" Tyler U. S. Marine Corps 

Fleet Surgeon Wood U. S. N. 

Assistant Surgeon Daniels " 
Purser Bradford " 

Chief Engineer Isherwood " 
Mr. H. J. C. Heusken Secretary to Envoy 

Mr. Van den Heuvel " " Commodore 

i6 Marines U.S.N. 

8 Bandsmen " 

1 Quarter Master " 
4 Servants 

2 Apprentices 

In all 42 persons. 

Tuesday, April 22, iS^O. It rained in the night, and 
we find a prospect of a rainy day, and in fact it rained 
very steadily until three P. M. Seven persons were found 
sick this morning, three officers and four marines. One of 
the latter was considered as being dangerously ill, but 
happily he and all the others were in the way of re- 
covery before night. 

ii^The voyage up the River Menam and the arrival at Bangkok are de- 
scribed at full length in Wood's Fank<wei, pp. 159-74. 



Mr. Mattoon was also ill. He came to me about ten 
o'clock. He says that the King is decidedly indisposed 
to receive me in the same manner he did Sir J. Bowring, 
and that the President's letter must be sent to him 
through the nobles and that then he can appoint persons 
to receive me. I learn that he has been much annoyed by 
the number of letters which Mr. Parkes has written to 
him, or rather the labor it has thrown on him, and 
that he declares he will not receive any more. In fact I 
am informed by Mr. Mattoon that Mr. Parkes took a 
letter this morning to the Prince (the King's brother)"^ 
to be forwarded to the King, and that the Prince refused 
to forward it until Mr. Parkes informed him that it was 
simply an answer to some questions about the presents, 
etc., etc., which the King had asked through a messenger, 
and that, being unable to give an answer then, the mes- 
senger went away and thus Mr. Parkes was compelled 
to write. On this the Prince consented to take the letter 
to the King. 

I wrote to the Phra Klang (see copy),"* requesting 
a private interview with the King, etc., etc. 

During the morning the following American mission- 
aries called on me: 



ii^The King's younger half-brother and favorite. His full name, as it ap» 
pears on his visiting card (L. Sf P., vol. 2, no. 63) is: Prince Pra Chau Nong 
Ya Ter Krom Luang Wong Sa Tirat Sanit. The treaty later concluded by 
Townsend Harris has it: Krom Hluang Wongsa Dhiraj Snidh. 

iisThis letter {L. B., vol. i, p. 19) not only requested a private audience with 
the King, but also that this audience should take place before his public re- 
ception. Townsend Harris expressed his desire to be accompanied on this occa- 
sion by Mr. Heusken and the Ilev. Mattoon, and to receive permission to 
present a copy of the President's letter. 

106 



Mr. Telford,"^ Mr. Ashmore"^ and Mr. Chandler"" 
of the Baptist Mission, and Mr. Bradley of the Presby- 
terian Mission. 

I feel somewhat dispirited by the unfavorable mood 
of the King and fear it will cause me much delay, if not 
defeat my object, — but Nil desperandum is my motto; 
and, by unchangeable good humor, I hope to shame them 
into kinder treatment, and the King is said to [be] 
very capricious in his moods and he may as suddenly 
turn around in my favor. The greatest difficulty exists 
in the fact that the King is totally ignorant of the power 
and greatness of the United States, and he will remain in 
that state unless I can have a private interview and con- 
vince him that we are to be both feared and respected. 
Captain Smith and a surgeon from the steamer Auck- 
land called; and in the evening Mr. King, Captain 
Duvall and Mr. Porter, all Americans, called on me. 

About seven this evening Prince George Wash- 
ington,^"^ son of the Second King, called on me, having 



^^^The Rev. Robert Telford and the Rev. William Ashmore were both mem- 
bers of the Chinese Department of the Baptist Mission. Mr. Ashmore was 
shortly to leave Siam for China on account of the ill health of Mrs. Ashmore, 
and his last service in Siam was held (in the Chinese language) on Sunday, 
May 4, 1856. (Wood, op. cit., pp. 193, 213.) 

i20Mr. John H. Chandler was a type founder and printer and a member of 
the Siamese Department of the Baptist Mission. (L. & P., vol. 2, no. 61, p. 4.) 

Stephen Mattoon, Samuel J. Smith, and John H. Chandler were among the 
six American missionaries who had signed a letter exculpating and defending 
Mr. Joseph Balestier on the occasion of the failure of his negotiations in 1851. 
Said letter of defence was signed by every American citizen resident in Bang- 
kok (z. e., the six missionaries) and by the only English firm doing business 
there — that of Daniel Brown. (32-1, S. Ex. Doc, no. 38 — in Serial no. 618 — ^^pp. 
14-15, 75-) 

For a brief account of the American missions in Siam, read Bowring, Siam, 
vol. I, pp. 381 If. 

121 A young man eighteen years of age. (Wood, op. cit., p. 210.) 

107 



the Rev. Mr. Smith of the Baptist American Mission as 
his interpreter.^" He had with him a Siamese officer of 
the rank corresponding to ours of major, and some other 
persons, among others a soldier of his father's. 

He brought me a kind message from his father, with 
his regrets that he could not see me until after my public 
reception, and that, as soon as I had been received in 
audience by the First King, he should expect to see me 
often, etc., etc. He also brought a message to the Com- 
modore and his officers requesting them to visit him 
privately, as he could not receive them publicly until I 
had had my audience. 

The Prince now asked for a musket, and one being 
brought, he ordered the Major^^^ to put the soldier 
through the manual, which he did, giving all his orders 
in the English language. The performance was very 
creditable, both to the soldier and to his officer. 

At the Prince's request a marine was put through the 
manual by a sergeant. The band played "Hail, 
Columbia," etc., etc., much to the Prince's satisfaction. 

A good deal of conversation then passed, but all 
political subjects were carefully avoided. The Prince 
left about nine o'clock, and I then retired; had a good 
rest. The weather was rainy during the night and so cool 
that I was glad to have warm clothing over me. 



^22Samuel J. Smith, a member of the Siamese Department of the Baptist 
Mission. For the services conducted at his house (in Siamese) on Sunday, 
May 4, 1856, see Wood, op. cit., pp. 193, 210, 213-14. (C/. L. & P., vol. 2, no. 6i, 
p. 4.) 

i2SMeaning the Siamese officer who accompanied Prince George Washing- 
ton; while the "soldier" similarly refers to the Siamese soldier just mentioned 
as belonging to the Second King. 

108 



Wednesday, April 2^, 1856. The schooner came up 
this morning, and I had the trunk and two cases of 
cordials brought to me. The two barrels [of] flour were 
sent to Mr. Mattoon's, and the twelve large cases I put 
in the godowns of Mr. D. O. King (see note to him) . 

Mr. A. F. Moor, Portuguese Consul, and his secre- 
tary"* called on me. He is a very pleasant person and 
speaks English with great fluency. 

Mr. Mattoon came in and informs me that the King 
declines a private interview before my public one, and 
refers me to his Ministers. He says that Sir John Bow- 
ring was an old correspondent of his and that he admitted 
him to a private audience, not as envoy, but as an old 
friend. Mr. Mattoon also informs me that the King 
wishes me to deliver the President's letter to the Nobles, 
who, after examination, will, if it be in proper terms, 
deliver it to him. We shall see about this. Mr. Mattoon 
suggests that I should see the Minister of Foreign Af- 
fairs, the Prime Minister and the Prince, to which I 
assented, and we go about 4 P. M. 

Mr. Parkes called on me, and we had a long and 
pleasant conversation. He has a prospect of being de- 
tained here quite as long as I am. 

The Second King has sent me a most kind letter, ac- 
companying a present of eighty-seven large dishes of the 
most beautiful fruits of Siam. The quantity is enormous 
— in fact, quite enough for the appetite of full five hun- 
dred men. It came down in boats finely decorated and 
under the charge of a high noble, who spoke excellent 

^-*The Consul's secretary was J. Da Silva. (L. Sf P., vol. 2, no. 61, p. 4.) 

109 



English. This kingly present called forth the warm ap- 
plause of the Commodore and all the gentlemen of my 
suite. The grammar of the letter was perfect, and the 
calligraphy quite puts all ours to shame; each letter is 
as perfectly formed as though it had been written by a 
writing master and, moreover, was all the King's, both 
matter and manner."' 

Second King's Letter 
[The royal device] 

To His Excellency Townsend Harris 

Envoy Plenipotentiary of the U. S. Am. to Slam, &c. 

Dear Sir: 

Your kind favor of the 15th Inst., announcing your safe 
arrival off the Bar, has been received. 

It affords me pleasure to welcome you and your suit[e] to 
our country. 

Please accept the accompanying fruit. 

I am anticipating the pleasure of seeing you in due time, of 
which you shall be informed. 

With best wishes for yourself, and the gentlemen of the 
Steamer, believe me. 

Yours truly, 

P. S. Phra Pin Klau Chau 

YU HUA. 

Second King of Siam, &c. 
Palace of the Second King, 

Bangkok, Siam, April 22nd, 1856. 



i-^The original here quoted in full is L. & P., vol. 2, no. 33. (See illustration.) 

Townsend Harris answered this letter on Apr. 23rd, expressing his appreci- 
ation of the King's welcome and gift. (L. B., vol. i, p. 21.) 

It may here be mentioned that Commodore Perry, too, corresponded with this 
Second King of Siam. (See 33-2, H. Ex. Doc, no. 97, vol. 2, pp. 191-97.) 

Also, beginning with this letter of the Second King, the entries in the manu- 
script Journal are for some pages written by Mr. Heusken, Townsend Harris's 

no 






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A HOLOGRAPH LETTER FROM THE SECOND KING OF SIAM 
Dated, Palace of the Second King, Bangkok, Siam, April 22, 1856. 



This evening'''^ I started accompanied by Dr. 
Mattoon, Dr. Wood, Lieutenant Carter and my 
secretary, in two barges to pay a private visit to the 
Phra Klang, Minister for Foreign Afifairs. His Ex- 
cellency received me very kindly, offered us segars and 
thea [tea],^" usual reception in Siam. His palace is 
built in a mixed European, Chinese style, the reception 
room [is] covered w^ith carpets, and furnished with 
chairs, sofas, large mirrors, etc.^^^ I explained to him the 
nature of my mission, the extent of my powers, titles 
etc. [He] inquired after the usual form of addressing the 
President. I told him his title was merely "The President 
of the United States," this being the highest rank in our 
country and equivalent to that of Emperor or King. He 
suggested that, Siam being a small country and the 
United States a good, friendly and powerful nation, to 
include in the treaty to be made an article wherein the 
United States should bind themselves to act as arbiter 
in case of any difficulty arising between Siam and any 
other nation. I replied that the United States would al- 



secretary. Mr. Heusken was .a Hollander, and, though not perfect in his Eng- 
lish, had been hired as secretary by Townsend Harris with a view to his 
future services in Japan, where a knowledge of the Dutch language would be 
and was essential. 
i26Meaning at about 4 p. M. (See above in this day's entry.) 
i27Mr. Heusken had originally spelled this word "thee," then changed it to 
"thea" — a confusion due to his knowledge of French. 

128'p'his visit to the Minister of Foreign Affairs is more fully reported by 
Mr. Wood, op. cit., pp. 174-77. The Minister himself is thus described {ib., p. 
175): 

"The Prah Klan, about forty years of age, was a heavy, solid, sober-faced 
man, dressed in a blue figured silk mantle, fastened around the waist by a 
yellow silk sash, and received us in an easy and dignified manner, but seemed 
disappointed that a larger number of officers had not come, and immediately 
inquired the reason." 

Ill 



ways willingly act in the above mentioned capacity, and 
consider it as the highest honor that could be paid to the 
wisdom and power of their government; so even they 
offered to act as mediators between the now belligerent 
powers of France, England, Turkey and Russia; and 
that, by making it an Article of the Treaty, would infer 
that the Government of the United States were only 
willing to act in the capacity of arbiter conditionally, 
which, considering it as a high honor they are always 
ready to accept, makes the Article in question quite 
superfluous. 

From there we called on Krom Luang Wong [Sa] 
Tirat Sanit, the King's brother and Chief Physician to 
the royal family/'^ His Highness seems to be fifty years 
old, has a very benevolent face, his features are quite 
Bourbonic and [bear] a striking resemblance to those of 
Louis XVL After explaining to him my titles and mis- 
sion, he kindly suggested to write a note to the Phra 
Klang, [asking] on which of the nobles I had to call be- 
fore my public audience to the King in order to give no 
offence to His Majesty and to conform myself to the 
rules of Siamese etiquette. He spoke about the Siamese 
being a jungle people, and not so advanced in civilization 
as the nations of the West, hinted at Mr. Balestier's 
mission and said the old bridge being a bad one, he was 
confident that the new one was strong and sufficient to 

i-^We have already given the full name of Prince Krom Luang. Again Mr. 
Wood gives a full description {op. cit., pp. 177-78), and says of the Prince 
[ih., p. 177) : 

"Prince Wongsa was a short and very fat man, with a broad, benevolent 

and somewhat jocular face, though at the time of our call the expression was 

rather sad." 

112 



carry us over, anticipating the good result of the Treaty. 
[He] was highly delighted at making Dr. Wood's 
acquaintance (he, the Prince, having received some 
years ago a doctor's diploma"" from the New York 
faculty), and requested to consult him on his brother's 
disease. I told the Prince I had heard of him many and 
many times before I ever dreamt of visiting his country, 
and left him most favorably impressed with his reception 
and manners. 

Paid a visit to Khun Phra Nai Wai, Prime 
Minister."^ The magnificence of his house exceeded my 



i30Mr. Wood more accurately says that Prince Krom Luang was a member 
of the New York Academy of Medicine {op. cit., pp. 150, 177, 247) ; while Max 
von Brandt states that in the Prince's reception room there hung his diploma as 
an M. D. from Philadelphia {Dreiunddreissig Jahre in Ost-Asien. Erinnerun- 
gen eines deutschen Diplomaten, 3 vols., Leipzig, Georg Wigand, 1901, vol. i, 
P- 255)- 

isiThis is an error for Phra Kalahom. Compare Wood, op. cit., pp. 178-82. 
This officer was, by general consent, considered the chief diplomat of the 
Siamese Court. 

We have already ascribed to the Rev. Dr. Samuel R. House document 
L. & P., vol. 2, no. 61. On page 3 thereof he says: 

"The Prime Minister, Chau P'ya Pra Kalahom, or P'ya Sri Suriwongsa as 
he is sometimes called, understands English but little, and with him an inter- 
preter will be necessary. He is a man of great ability and shrewdness — the 
very embodiment of Siamese address and intrigue — has a great deal of 
energy of character — to his enterprise Siam owes her numerous square- 
rigged merchant vessels that have taken the place within the last sixteen 
years of her junks, and to him mainly, alone I had almost sa^d, is owing the 
success of the late British negotiations for a liberal treaty. . . ." 

So much for a characterization of his official conduct. Mr. David O. King, 
the enterprising American merchant who had recently established himself at 
Bangkok, gives equally interesting sidelights on his personal conduct and in- 
fluence, in the course of a letter to Townsend Harris, written at Bangkok on 
Jan. 28, 1856 (L. & P., vol. 2, no. 23, pp. 2 and 4) : 

". . . but the country is really ruled by the Prime Minister, a wily, deep, 
rapacious fox; and, as the King was placed on the throne by his family, they 
have gone on increasing in wealth and importance until they now fill every 
post of importance in the land; with all their wealth and influence they are 
extremely jealous of foreigners. . . . This Prime Minister's family were at 
the bottom of the ill treatment Mr. Balestier received 'ere. . . ." 

113 



most sanguine expectations. It is built quite in the Euro- 
pean style, large mirrors, encased in frames richly gilt, 
cover the walls ; pendules, thermometers, engravings of 
the London Exhibition, and the illustrated battles of the 
everywhere-to-be-found Emperor Napoleon. His ante- 
chamber leads into a spacious hall supported by pillars, 
his bedroom [is furnished] with silk mosquito nettings 
and crimson curtains of state. A Sharpe's rifle hangs on 
the wall ; fine bath and washing rooms. His house must be 
two hundred feet deep, — the annexed brick houses of his 
retainers, which form a whole street, not included. His 
Excellency received me in as dignified a manner as any 
Prime Minister of a European Court. He was suffering 
from his nervous system and apologized for not re- 
ceiving me at my arrival at the house prepared for my 
reception. He made the same remarks about mediation 
as the Phra Klang had previously done. I told him that 
my conditions for the Treaty were entirely based on that 
made with the English, with a few exceptions. He re- 
plied that so much as they possibly could concede was 
conceded to the English; that he had no fear of the 
Treaty [not] being made to the satisfaction of both 
parties; but, no such a thing as law being known in 
Siam, he was afraid of its conditions [not] being kept. 
I told him it would prove beneficent to both nations. He 
replied he was perfectly well aware of that, [but] to 
make the people understand it was another question. His 
most ardent desire was to make the people happy. He 
confessed their ignorance and inferiority to the nations 
of the West. I told him to hope and persevere and good 

114 



would come of it at last. [I] threw out a hint about the 
tin mines, — if American citizens found and worked 
them, to pay lo per cent. ; he was satisfied to include this 
in the Treaty. Workmen, Chinese or Siamese, could 
always be found when paid high wages. He was afraid 
the Siamese were too indolent. I made a comparison 
with the pepper trade on the coast of Sumatra, how 
much better it might be got in Siam. He told me the 
taxes were too high to sell it, but even at the price, taxes 
included, he calculated it would amount to considerable. 
I assured him the Siamese pepper would find eager 
buyers. [I] hinted I wanted no monopoly in opium 
trade. On being asked if there were often changes in the 
dynasty, he uttered the real republican sentiment that 
kings who claim their title by right of birth, often forget 
they originated from the people, consider themselves 
as superior beings and don't lend an ear to the sufferings 
of their subjects, — so there was often a change at the 
fourth generation of princes of the same dynasty. On 
taking leave, the soldiers were drawn out. On gliding 
down the peaceful waters of the Menam, silvered by a 
bright moonlight, in our stately gondolas pulled by 
thirty oarsmen, one would almost fancy to be on a visit 
to the city of St. Marcus, and if, instead of floating bam- 
boo-houses and Chinese shops lighted with fanciful 
paper lanterns, the stately palaces of Venice's patricians 
had lined the shore, the illusion would have been com- 
plete. A fine effect was produced by the graceful 
pagodas with their fine tapering spires, shaming in 
elegance the most refined works of Grecian architec- 

115 



ture. Each king builds himself a pagoda for his mem- 

Thursday, April 24, 1856. Received a visit"' from 
the Prime Minister, Minister of Foreign Affairs, and 
Prince Krom Luang Wong Sa Tirat Sanit. Entertained 
them with music and had the guard drawn out when 
they left. Sent my secretary with a letter to the Minister 
of Foreign Affairs before he called, inquiring"* when 
I should be received by the King, and also as to what 
princes and nobles I could visit with propriety before 
my public reception."^ 

At the visit before noted, I was told I was to have my 
audience on Wednesday next, and also that I was re- 
quested to visit two princes to-morrow morning. 

In the note of yesterday evening at the Foreign Min- 
ister's,"® it is omitted that I was then informed that the 
President's letter would be received in the same manner 
as was that of Her Britannic Majesty. This was most 
welcome news to me, as it quieted my mind about an 
absurd question which ruined the mission of Mr. 
Balestier. 

I gave Prince Wong Sa, etc., a copy of my full 



i32Heu9fcen had written "for his last resting place" ; Townsend Harris cor- 
rected it to "for his memory." Though it is quite certain that Townsend Harris 
wrote the original draft of his Journal (he at least jotted down the rough 
notes), his secretary seems to have been permitted a good deal of liberty in 
writing the clean copy of the Journal into the blank books in which it has come 
down to us. 

isscompare Wood, op. cit., pp. 182-83. 

i34Beginning with this word, the manuscript is again in Townsend Harris's 
hand. 

isesee L. B., vol. i, p. ai. 

i86Referring to the series of visits which he paid on Apr. 23rd, setting ou 
at about 4 p. m. {v. s.). 

116 



powers/" The company remained with me until half- 
past twelve M. 

I then called on Mr. Moor, the Portuguese Consul, all 
the Baptist missionaries, Mr. Parkes, Mr. Mattoon, and 
Mr. King. 

Friday, ^^^ April 25, 1856. Paid a visit"' to Somdet 
Oong Noy, Chief Councillor, and the chief of the old 
party opposed to progressive principles. His Excellency 
received me, however, in the most cordial manner. 
Our band played several national airs; the Som- 
det's table was bountifully furnished with the beauti- 
ful fruits of Siam, a golden teapot and golden water- 
monkey and several other dishes and boxes made out 
of pure gold and mounted with precious stones. We 
had an opportunity of seeing some of the ladies, wrapt 
in yellow scarfs. They gave us some Siamese music, 
which from a distance sounded rather sweet and con- 
trasted favorably with the ear-deafening noise given 
us by his band of male musicians. The Somdet seemed 
very favorably inclined to the Americans, and willing 
to concede to them all the privileges obtained by the 
English. Paid a visit to Somdet Pia Yumarat, Chief 
Justice, who received me very well and presented me 
and each of my suite with an ornamented water-monkey 
brought by him to Bangkok when second in command 
in a military expedition to Laos, a distant province of 



is^These "full powers" for Siam are dated Sept 8, 1855, and are signed by 
President Franklin Pierce and Secretary of State William L. Marcy. The 
original document is at The College of the City of New Yprk. 

issQegiQniQg with this word, the manuscript is written in Heusken's hand. 

i«9Wood, op. cit., pp. 185-88. 

117 



the Siamese Empire. Visited Dr. Mattoon, where Prince 
Wong Sa sent me word to call on him, if convenient."" 
His Highness, having observed the quality of our sugar 
was not a very good one, made me a present of a 
superior quality, which, however trifling the value may 
be, was a fine attention of a man of his rank and station. 
Saturday, April 26, 1856. Paid a visit to the French 
Bishop,"^ who bade me a cordial welcome and expressed 
in a toast his hopes that my mission might prove bene- 
ficial and glorious to my country; he said that patience, 
which he learnt I had, was a cardinal virtue here, and 
[which] Mr. Balestier, had not; etc. Visited Mr. 
Moor, the Portuguese Consul, and the Baptist mis- 
sionaries. This evening the Bishop sent me a copy of 
his Siamese dictionary. I returned him my best thanks 
for this beautiful present in a letter. The Somdet Oong 
Noy"^ paid me a visit to-day accompanied by his son- 



i4o^hat took place at this visit is related below, in the entry for Saturday, 
Apr. 26, 1856. 

i^^Mgr. Jean Baptiste Pallegoix, Bishop of Mallos and Vicar Apostolic of 
Siam, 1840-62. By letter dated Bangkok, Apr. 26, 1856 (L. & P., vol. 2, no. 36), 
he sent Townsend Harris a copy of his dictionary de la langue Thai — a gift 
which Townsend Harris acknowledged by letter of the same date (L. B., vol. i, 
p. 22), praising the dictionary as "a noble monument of your Lordship's learn- 
ing and industry." 

The Bishop's modesty in describing his dictionary of 30,000 words — a life 
work (he had arrived in Siam about 1830) — may be judged from the full title 
of the work: Dictionnaire siamois — latin — frangais — anglais . He wrote also: 
Description du royaume Thai ou Siam, Beaune, 1853 and Paris, 1854. (Cath. 
EncycL, s.v., Siam.) 

i42\yood, op. cit., pp. 188-89. Sir John Bowring, in speaking of the Com- 
missioners with whom he had had to deal, thus describes Somdet Cong Noy 
{Siam, vol. 2, pp. 226-27) : 

"The Commission was composed of the Somdetch om Fai, the first regent, 
and his brother, the Somdetch om Noi, the second regent of the Kingdom. 
These occupy the highest official rank. The second Somdetch [om Noi] is 
the receiver-general of the revenues, and was notoriously interested in the 
existing system, by which production, commerce, and shipping were placed 

118 



in-law, and about twenty of his slaves, treasure bearers 
and music band. I am told, I am the first foreign minis- 
ter to whom the Somdet ever paid this attention, he 
being considered one of the proudest nobles of the 
realm and having an instinctive antipathy against all 
foreigners and foreign nations. 

P*' availed myself of the occasion to introduce some 
statistics of our country. Told him we had two millions 
of militia — three millions of firearms — forty thousand 
cannon — fifteen thousand merchant ships. Our gold 
mines yield over fifteen hundred piculs of gold annually. 
He said Siam had gold mines, etc. I told him that many 
very rich tin mines, not worked, were in Siam, and 
that Americans would come and work those, as well 
as coal and other mines, if permitted. That they would 
not require to purchase, but would lease, paying a rent 
of lo per cent, of the product. I was glad to present this 
matter to him, in this casual manner, to let it work on 
his mind, as I mean to bring it into the Treaty if I can, 
and desired he might have previous notice 'of it. He 
did not seem to receive it very favorably, but he is astute 
and cunning and would not let his sentiments ap- 
pear, whether they [were] favorable or not. He asked 



at the mercy of the farmers of the various revenues, who paid the price of 
their many and vexatious monopolies either to the Royal Treasury, or to 
the high officials through whom those monopolies were granted. The two 
Somdetches had been long the dominant rulers in Siam. Their names will be 
found in all the commissions and councils by which have been thwarted 
the attempts made by various envoys from Great Britain and the United 
States to place the commercial relations of Siam with foreign countries on 
a satisfactory basis." 

i*^Beginning with this word, the manuscript is again written in Townsend 
Harris's hand. 

119 



if we raised sugar in the United States, and I answered 
some, but not all we wanted. He then asked why no 
American ships had been here for eighteen years? I 
answered that the duties were too high ; that they could 
buy sugar cheaper in Manila (which was the fact owing 
to the old monopolies) ; that twenty American ships 
loaded each year at Manila. That in order to have a 
good trade in Siam, the merchant must live here and 
pick up his cargo by detail, by the catty and picul, as 
there were no large markets where a cargo could be 
purchased at once, etc., etc. He a,sked about the size 
and population of Japan, and its size as compared 
with Java, Ceylon, England and the United States. 
He asked me to send him a fine Japanese sword from 
Japan, giving me the length, scabbard, etc., etc., not 
being very delicate, although it is to be a present from 
me. 

When at Mr. Mattoon's on Friday evening, I had 
some conversation with Mr. King about details which it 
was desirable to introduce into our treaty, etc., etc. I was 
then (about 9 P. M.) sent for by the Prince, who wished 
to see me. It appears that when Sir John Bowring was 
here he told the Siamese that the governments of the 
United States and France had been informed of the 
treaty that he came to make, and they would make com- 
mon cause in demanding and (as I understood) in en- 
forcing it. 

I was asked if this was true? When the President first 
knew of the treaty made by Sir John? When the Presi- 
dent was informed of the accession of the present 

120 



Kings? etc., etc. (see letter on file)."* To all of which 
I replied that I did not know, as I was absent from the 
United States when these things took place, and that my 
government had not given me any information on these 
points. I was also asked when I was appointed to come 
to Siam. I answered, in September, 1855. I then gave 
the Prince a copy of the President's letter to the King, 
and begged him to observe my willingness to grant every 
request they had made of me, as I had also done by giv- 
ing them a copy of my full powers. 

The Prince then introduced the subject of the United 
States being the friend of Siam, in case of any trouble 
with any of the Western powers (meaning England). 
To this I replied as I had before done to the Prince and 
Foreign Ministers. 

While with the Somdet Oong Noy on Friday morn- 
ing, he strongly recommended Mr. Mattoon as the best 
person to be American Consul, saying he knew the Siam- 
ese language, customs, etc., etc. That he was a discreet 
good man ; that they had full confidence in him; that he 
never lied; and that he never got angry, all of which 
I assented to and believe him the best person for that 
place that the government could select."^ 



i4*Th5s is L, & P., vol. 2, no. 35, dated at the Ancient Royal Palace, Bangkok, 
Friday evening, Apr. 25, 1856. In addition to those mentioned in the text, there 
were in this letter other questions (asked in the name of the First King), 
which endeavored to connect Townsend Harris's appointment as Envoy to 
Siam with the knowledge of Sir John Bowring's success that had reached the 
United States. 

The endorsement on page 4 of this letter reads: "received from the Prince 
in person and answered verbally informing him I was appointed in September, 
1855, and to the other questions [I answered] that I had no knowledge." 

"^See below, Journal for May 28, 1856, and note 191. 

121 



Sunday, April 2], l8§6. This morning received a 
present from Somdet Oong Noy of a large number of 
very sweet cocoanuts (the finest I ever drank), and the 
fruit of the Palmyra palm : the size of a small cocoa- 
nut, rich purple color like the eggplant. 

When opened, a fine tender fruit is found, like very 
young nipah palm. It is oval and flat in sh^pe, about 
three inches long and two wide and three fourths in 
thickness — taste, cool and refreshing. 

I argue favorably from these attentions from the 
Somdet, as [he] has never before done the like, and is 
considered as the head of the "Old Siam" party and 
policy. Still, nothing certain can be relied on such atten- 
tions, as he is most astute and cunning, and possesses a 
large share of the duplicity of an Oriental diplomatist. 

The Second King has to-day sent me a present of 
mangoes of two kinds. One of the sorts, the durian 
mango, is the finest I ever tasted. These were grown in 
the King's garden.'"' 

Attended divine service at the house of Dr. Bradley 
of the Presbyterian Mission."^ All the missionaries and 
most of the white population were present, numbering 
between thirty and forty. 

Service is held at the house of each of the mission- 
aries in turn, following the alphabetical rule. 



i46Descriptions of and anecdotes connected with the durian (that strange 
but most delectable of Oriental fruits which at first is so positively repellent) 
are to be found in Wood, of. cit., pp. 187-88; Edmund Roberts, Embassy, p. 
333; U. V. Wilcox, in Japan for Mar., 1926, p. 20, etc., etc. 

i47Dr. Bradley's note inviting the members of the Townsend Harris suite 
to attend services at 4:30 P. M., is L. & P., vol. 2, no. 37. {Cf. Wood, op. cit., 
pp. 190-91.) 

122 



I am told there are five inflections or tones on each 
word in Siamese, and that while in sound there is but 
a very small difference, in sense there is a large one. I 
am also told that the word for angel and teapot is the 
same, and the difference of meaning is produced by the 
delicate inflection. 

A missionary preaching to a Siamese audience was 
horrified at hearing his congregation burst out into 
the most uproarious laughter. On demanding the reason 
he was told that he had said, "And the Lord sent his 
teapot unto Joseph" in place of "sent his angel," etc., 
etc. 

It now rains regularly every afternoon, at four to 
six o'clock, and continues during the night. The days 
are pleasant, as the sun is slightly obscured by clouds, 
but there is no rain in general. 

Monday, April 28, l8^6. Heavy showers during 
the night, which continued until ten this morning. 

Composed my address to the King. Find it hard work 
to reconcile my republican ideas with the strong lan- 
guage of compliment I must use. 

Mr. Mattoon came in at 11 A. M. Says the Prince 
wishes to see me this evening to arrange the ceremonial 
of my presentation, etc., etc. 

Mr. Mattoon informs me that my audience is again 
postponed until Thursday, ist of May. The reason 
for this is that the Siamese consider this an unlucky 
month for the transaction of business, and although 
Thursday is not a new month with them, yet, as it is 
so with us, they think that may remove the unlucky 

123 



influence."^ They say they are unwilling to detain me 
until their month is over. 

I am to go to Mr. Mattoon's, in order to see the Prince 
at four o'clock. 

Opened the cases containing the presents"' of books 
and portraits. All in good order except one book, which 
was injured by a nail which had been carelessly driven 
into the box. The fireflies here are very abundant. In 
a tree in front of my bedroom they congregate in great 
numbers, and at night they seem to assume most singu- 
lar forms — now like a huge bird, then a dancing jack, 
etc., etc. ; but the most singular thing about them [is] 
that the light emitted by them was all simultaneous, an 
instant flash and the same period of darkness. The period 
was about the time of an ordinary pulse, say eighty per 
minute. This unity of action obtained among all the 
insects, from the lowest branches to the topmost spray. 
For fear my senses might deceive me, I called the atten- 
tion of Commodore Armstrong and Dr. Wood to the 
sight, and they received the same impressions as myself. 
I have before seen the same thing at Penang. 

When in Java, I was travelling one hot and very dark 
night; my road lay through paddy fields most of the 
way; the rice was then headed out. 

On this occasion I saw more of these firefly insects 
than I had ever seen before. Then I saw a very singular 
effect of the light from them. The impulse appeared to 



^^^Compare Wood, op. cit., pp. 182, 200. 

i*^The two complete lists of the presents for the First and the Second King 
respectively are to be found in L. & P., vol. 2, nos. 41 and 42 ; and in Appendices 
II and III. 

124 



proceed from one side of the paddy field and advanced 
in a regular line and at a rapid rate across the breadth 
of the field, so that it was like waves of light moving 
regularly across it. I frequently stopped my carriage 
to see this beautiful sight. It was continued for miles 
through the various rice fields that I passed that night. 

Called on Prince Wong Sa by his request at 5 P. M. 
and made arrangements in detail for my reception, etc., 
etc., etc. 

The Prince informed me that the Second King will 
receive me on next Frida}'^, the day after the First King's 
[reception].^"" I do not now enter the details of these 
arrangements as they may possibly be altered. 

The Prince also told me that I had made a most 
favorable impression on Somdet Oong Noy; that the 
Somdet said he liked my appearance and my mode of 
talking. I told the Prince that I was very glad to hear 
this, as I feared the Somdet would be my chief obstacle, 
etc., etc. He told me not to fear, that he and the Somdet 
were old friends and that he would bring him over to 
me, etc., etc. 

Tuesday, April 2g, l8^6. Opened the case contain- 
ing the oval mirror for the Second King in order to get 
out some prints which are to be divided between the 



is°Compare Wood, op. cit., pp. 200-201. The rough draft of the details here 
agreed upon is in Townsend Harris's hand (L. & P., vol. 2, no. 40). Earlier in 
the day, Mr. Mattoon had written Townsend Harris that the Prince was de- 
tained at the palace of his sick brother, and that therefore it was uncertain 
whether Townsend Harris would be able to call on the Prince that afternoon 
(L. & P., vol. 2, no. 38) ; but later in the day, Mr. Mattoon hurriedly sent Town- 
send Harris a very brief note (L. Sf P., vol, 2, no. 39) announcing that the 
Prince had returned to his home. Thus Townsend Harris's call was made at 
5 P. M., instead of at 4 P. M., as originally scheduled (see above). 



two Kings. I was quite relieved on opening this case 
to find the mirror quite safe and the gilding as bright 
as when I saw it in New York. I had feared that the con- 
cussion of the ship's guns in firing salutes might have 
broken the plate (as is often the case) , but all was safe. 

Indeed, I owe this probably to the kindness of Com- 
modore Armstrong, who gave orders that no shotted 
guns should be fired for exercise while the mirrors were 
on board, although the standing orders of the Navy De- 
partment require that the men shall be exercised at 
target firing as often as (I think) once a month. 

An unlucky mistake has occurred. I had a cask con- 
taining cut-glass globes, chimneys, etc., etc., for a pair 
of chandeliers, which I am to present to the First King, 
but instead of this cask one containing glass for my use 
when I arrive in Japan came up. I availed myself of the 
kindness of Mr. King who instantly dispatched a whale 
boat to the San Jacinto for the proper package, and I 
expect it will arrive to-night, so that it will be in good 
time."^ The other package was returned to the ship by 
Mr. King's schooner which goes down in the morn- 

Mr. Chandler has kindly taken charge of the opening 
and arranging the presents for the Kings, and, as he is 
perfectly competent, it takes a great charge off my mind, 
and I cannot sufficiently thank him for his aid. 

i^^The necessities of the case were explained by Townsend Harris in a 
letter to Captain Bell, who had been left on board the San Jactnto while Com- 
modore Armstrong was in Bangkok with Townsend Harris. (L. B., vol. i, 
p. 22.) 

i^^Meaning that the wrong package would go down the river the following 
morning — i. e., Wednesday, Apr. 30, 1856. 

126 



Went to dine at Mr. Mattoon's with Dr. Wood and 
Lieutenant Carter. The Commodore does not like to 
go out; but, being sent for, went to the Second King's 
for a private visit, taking with him some five of our 
suite, the band, and half a dozen marines. He stayed 
until 8 P. M. and returned much pleased with his visit. 
After dinner at Mr. Mattoon's, went to visit the fine wat 
near his house. The buildings at a distance look very 
beautiful. The green and yellow tiles of the roofs ; the 
hooked ornaments representing the tails and wings of 
dragons, which decorate all the terminal points of the 
roofs and gables ; the pagodas with their beautiful out- 
lines and, at a distance, apparent gorgeousness of detail 
in color and adornment ; the delicate spires which spring 
up in every direction; abundant statuary of men and 
beasts and birds, real and imaginary; the finely placed 
houses for taking the air near the water; the grounds 
so well laid out and kept and bearing every variety of 
sacred or flowering tree — all these form an ensemble 
not easily forgotten. 

But many of these things look best at'a distance. The 
ornamental work of the pagodas, so beautiful in form, 
color and detail, falls off into coarsely wrought figures 
of men, beasts and flowers, made of mortar and broken 
bits of porcelains. How much like the scenery of a 
theater, so gorgeous by gaslight, so rough and coarse by 
daylight! 

A visit to the interior of the wat, — i. e., the principal 
one, for there are several in the enclosure, showed us 
something better. The court was crowded with grand 

127 



figures of genii brought from China. In the arcades 
or cloister surrounding the court of this wat, we counted 
one hundred and thirty golden figures of Budh in his 
posture of meditation. 

The wat has some fine columns of marble and a rich 
pavement of the same. The doors and windows were 
richly decorated with the elaborate drawing and tracery 
of the Siamese, all done in gold. Inside, the walls were 
covered with paintings, descriptive of the life and ac- 
tions of Budh and his principal apostles. Before the 
throne were a great number of votive figures, four of 
which bore royal umbrellas, two of which were of 
gold and two silver, all solid. As you leave this wat 
the roof and gable covering the main gate is worthy of 
observation, and for beauty and richness of detail is 
fully equal to anything I ever saw. It is composed of 
representations of fruits, flowers, etc., etc. Here also 
you see the cool marble seats erected under the shade 
of a ficus religiosa, which from its coolness seems to 
invite quiet and repose. The Buddhist gentlemen have 
a marvellously'good eye for all such spots. Afterwards 
we returned to Mr. Mattoon's, took tea, and then our 
departure for our home, which was some two miles dis- 
tant down the river. 

Neale, in his Munchausen history of Siam (London, 
1852),"' says that the floating houses of Bangkok are 

'^^^Narrative of a Residence at the Capital of the Kingdom of Siam, ivith 
a Description of the Manners, Customs, and Laivs of the Modern Siamese, by 
Frederick Arthur Neale, formerly in the service of His Siamese Majesty. 
London, 1852, i vol., 8vo. This was one of the works on Siam recommended 
by Consul Bradley, of Singapore, in his letter of Jan. 30, 1856 {L. & P., vol. 1, 
no. 28). 

128 



seventy thousand in number, and that the whole of 
Bangkok (except a few named houses) is built on rafts. 
From all I see and from all I can learn, I think there 
are seven thousand, not seventy thousand floating houses 
in Bangkok, and I know that more than nine tenths of 
the whole city is built on terra firma. 

I learn that Neale was actually in Bangkok for a 
few weeks, and this increases my astonishment at his 
gross errors in matters of fact, that required no great 
labor to ascertain the truth. In America we call Balti- 
more the Monument City, New York the Empire City, 
and Cincinnati Porkopolis. In the East, Calcutta is 
called the City of Palaces (I think the City of Large 
and Dirty Houses would be a more correct name). 
Now, I think Bangkok should be called the City of 
Flagstaffs. From every palace, from every wat, from 
the house of every noble, you see them springing 
up in every direction by hundreds, if not by thou- 
sands. 

A very bad feature is the gambling houses. This vice 
is legalized and farmed out. It is said there are more 
than three hundred of these hells among the floating 
or raft houses, and on the mainland they are said to 
be numbered by thousands. Neale represents the raft 
houses as forming streets, crossing each other at right 
angles. I cannot find anywhere more than one tier of 
raft houses. 

Wednesday, April SO, 1856. Settled the order of bur 
procession for to-morrow for my audience, which is 
as follows : 

129 



Thursday^"^ May I, 1856. The boats will arrive 
about II A. M., when the procession will be formed as 
follows : 

1 The President's letter in a special boat; 

2 The Envoy, Interpreter and Secretary in a boat 
bearing the American Flag; 

3 Commodore Armstrong in a boat; 

4 The gentlemen of the suite according to their 
rank in as many boats as required ; 

5 The band in a large boat; 

6 The guard in a large boat; 

7 On arriving at the palace landing place, a salute 
will be fired which will be returned by the band 
playing "God Save the King"; 

8 After landing, the procession will be formed 
again in exactly the same order as in the boats, 
with the exception that the American Flag borne 
by the Commodore's coxswain, and supported 
by two boys, will be placed between the band 
and the guard; all gentlemen will be carried 
on chairs; 

9 On arriving at the Hall of Justice, the band. 
Flag and guard will halt, and the remainder of 
the procession will proceed on to the Audience 
Hall; 

10 On arriving at the Audience Hall, the proces- 
sion will be formed in four lines, as follows: 
Commodore Armstrong, Mr. Harris, Mr. 
Mattoon, Mr. Heusken; 

Dr. Wood, Lieutenant Rutledge, Purser Brad- 
ford, Lieutenant Carter, Mr. Isherwood, Lieu- 



i^^Beginning with this word, the manuscript is again written in Mr. Heus- 



ken's hand. 

130 



tenant Tyler, Dr. Daniels, Mr. Van den Heuvel, 
Dr. Bradley, Mr. Chandler, Mr. King. 
By request of the King the three last mentioned 
gentlemen join the procession. 

1 1 The procession, having fairly entered the Hall, 
will halt, and make one bow, being uncovered ; 
it will then proceed up the Hall in the same 
order to a place marked by a table, when the 
procession will halt, and, after bowing again, the 
gentlemen will be seated. Commodore Arm- 
strong occupying a cushion on the left in front. 

Mr. Harris will then place the President's let- 
ter (which he has borne from the entrance of the 
Hall) on the table and remain standing by it. On 
receiving a signal he will advance and present 
the President's letter to the King, after which he 
will return to his place and, still standing, will 
read his speech, on the completion of which 
(which will be known by his bowing and 
handing a paper to Mr. Mattoon) the gentle- 
men will please rise again, bow and be reseated. 

12 In marching up the Hall and in being seated, 
gentlemen are requested not to crowd on the rank 
in front, and to cover their file leader. 

Mr. Harris does not know whether the chairs 
will be borne singly or two or more abreast. 

This afternoon the Second King's son came with a 
message from his father; being overcome with fatigue 
I could not receive him. 

Thursday, May 1, 1856. We left the house of [the] 
Embassy at i P. M. in the order before alluded to, ex- 
cept that the guard and band preceded the President's 

131 



letter. There were scarcely boats enough, the boat for 
the presents being intended likewise for me, which I 
declined, and took passage in another. In order to honor 
us an oarsman gave at every ten or twelve strokes a loud 
yell, which was responded [to] by the others with a low 
growling noise. Arrived at the palace of Somdet Phra 
Paramendr Maha Mongkut, Major King of Siam, 
we were carried in sedan chairs to the reception hall, 
where some refreshments were served to us. All along 
the road we passed through a double file of soldiers, 
dressed in a most fantastic manner. Some companies 
were armed with long poles, furnished at the top with a 
round knife, others with battle axes, crossbows, old flint 
muskets. Some wore long gowns and looked like women, 
others looked like the Swiss montagnards of a Chatham 
theater. Twenty elephants, each with a howitzer on its 
back, of Spanish manufacture of two centuries ago. A 
salute was fired of twenty-one guns. Arrived at the Hall 
of Justice, the nobles, who had escorted me from the 
House of Legation, fell on their knees as soon as the 
door was opened, made three salaams and preceded us 
up to the throne, crawling on hands and knees, among 
a crowd of nobles all prostrated in the same manner, and 
dressed in rich gowns interwoven with gold. Everyone 
had the insignia of his rank, — viz., a gold betelnut box, 
gold teapot, swords, etc., near him. The Hall of Justice 
is a large building of immense height, built in the form 
of a cross, the centrum supported by four slender and 
most graceful looking pillars, rather in the Egyptian 
style. Between the four pillars, the white state um- 

132 



brella of nine stages; at the upper end of the hall, the 
throne richly carved and gilt. The throne has no steps, 
the King entering it outside the hall, and has no com- 
munication whatever with the hall but the opening of 
the throne where the King is seen sitting. His crown 
consists of a blue velvet cap surrounded by rich precious 
stones and mounted with a yellow feather. He had in his 
hand a sword presented to him by the United States. On 
each side of the throne two state umbrellas of seven 
stages and ten others of five stages. Immediately under 
the throne, four swordbearers and two guards armed 
with a rifle. Two cushions were provided for the Com- 
modore and myself, my suite had to sit or lie down on 
the floor, covered with rich Smyrna carpeting. Hav- 
ing gone through the ceremonial as alluded to in the 
program and presented His Majesty with the Presi- 
dent's letter"" (I could hardly hand it to him, the throne 



icsQn Sept. 20, 1855, W. Hunter, Assistant Secretary of State, wrote a letter 
to Townsend Harris (L. & P., vol. 2, no. 17), then at New York, in which he 
stated that a package would be forwarded containing Townsend Harris's In- 
structions and Other Papers (L. Sf P., vol. 2, nos. 1-6 incl.), and also the origi- 
nals of the President's letters to the King of Siam and to the Emperor of 
Japan. Secretary Marcy's first dispatch to Townsend Harris, dated Sept. 12, 
1855, seems to have had enclosed therein copies of these two letters (Z,. Sf P., 
vol 2, nos. 14 and 15 respectively). 

For the text of President Pierce's letter to the First King of Siam, dated Sept. 
12, 1855, see Appendix I. 

During the visit which Townsend Harris paid to Prince Krom Luang on 
Monday, Apr. 28, 18.56, at 5 p. M. (see above), the details of his audiences 
with the First King and the Second King had been agreed upon. The presents 
(the more bulky ones) were to be sent to the Palace on Wednesday, Apr. 30th, 
the day preceding the audience; the books and pictures were to be taken by 
Townsend Harris on the day of the audience; while the complete list of the 
presents was to be placed under the silk cover of the President's letter (L. & P., 
vol. 2, no. 40). 

For the complete lists, of the different sets of presents for the two Kings 
(L. & P., vol. 2, nos. 41 and 42), see Appendices II and III. Wood, Fankiuei, 
pp. 201-07, gives a good account of this audience. 



being so high), on a signal given I read my address as 
follows : 

"May it please Your Majesty, 
I have the honor to present to Your Majesty a letter of 
the President of the United States containing a most friendly 
salutation to Your Majesty, and also accrediting me as his 
representative at your court. 

"I am directed to express, on the President's behalf, the 
great respect and esteem that he feels for you, and his warm 
wishes for the health and welfare of Your Majesty, and for 
the prosperity of your dominions. 

"The fame of Your Majesty's great acquirements in many 
difficult languages and in the higher branches of science, has 
crossed the great oceans that separate Siam from the United 
States, and has caused high admiration in the breast of the 
President. The United States possesses a fertile soil and is 
rich in all the products of the temperate zone. Its people are 
devoted to agriculture, manufactures and commerce. The 
sails of its ships whiten every sea ; its flag is seen in every port ; 
the gold mines of the country are among the richest in the 
world. 

"Siam produces many things which cannot be grown in the 
United States, and the Americans will gladly exchange their 
products, their gold and their silver for the surplus produce 
of Siam. 

"A commerce so' conducted will be beneficial to both 
nations, and will increase the friendship happily existing be- 
tween them. 

"I esteem it a high honor that I have been selected by the 
President to represent my country at the court of the wisest 
and most enlightened monarch of the East, and if I shall suc- 
ceed in my sincere wish, to strengthen the ties of amity that 
unite Siam and the United States, I shall consider it as the 
happiest moment of my life." 

134 



The King opened a commonplace conversation; 
asked how many treaties had been made between the 
United States and Eastern nations; how long the actual 
President would remain in office; the number of our 
states, etc. Gave to me and each of the officers his visiting 
card. After the audience we partook of a dinner dressed 
up in^the European style, and returned to our house at 
sunset. At the end of the audience a large curtain is 
drawn concealing the throne from our sight in three 
strokes, and at every stroke the crouching nobles make a 
salaam by raising their joined hands to their foreheads. 
During the audience segars were handed to us by the 
King's nephew on his knees. 

Friday, May 2, 1856. Left in the same order as yes- 
terday for the Second King's palace; had a salute of 
twenty-one guns. His soldiers were in much better order 
than the First King's. Some, dressed in the European 
style, preceded us as a bodyguard and were the best 
drilled troops I ever saw. The field pieces in firing the 
salute were beautifully served. The Hall of Audience is 
less splendid than the First King's. I was pleased to see 
some of the highest peers I had seen at the First King's 
present at his brother's audience, as Prince Wong Sa and 
Somdet Oong Noy. My address reads as follows : 

"May it please Your Majesty, 

"I am to deliver to Your Majesty a most cordial and 
friendly salutation from the President of the United States, 
and to assure you that the President is aware of the kind 
manner in which Your Majesty has received the Americans 
who have visited Siam for many years past. The United 

135 



States does not hold any possessions in the East, nor does it 
desire any. The form of its government forbids the holding 
of colonies. The United States therefore cannot be an object 
of jealousy to any Eastern power. Peaceful commercial re- 
lationS; which give as well as receive benefits, is what the 
President wishes to establish with Siam, and such is the 
object of my mission. 

"A new state of the American Union has lately sprung into 
existence, from which the voyage to Siam can be made in one 
month. 

"This makes the United States the nearest neighbor that 
Siam has among the Caucasian races and is a strong reason 
for uniting the two nations. 

"The fame of Your Majesty's great acquirements in 
languages and in the higher branches of science (acquire- 
ments so unusual among Oriental nations) has reached the 
United States and has caused great admiration. If I can suc- 
ceed in my earnest wish to draw more closely the bonds of 
friendship that unite Siam and the United States, I shall 
esteem it as the happiest event of my life." 

The King inquired after our health, said he knew all 
the names of the Presidents with the exception of the late 
President and wanted to know the actual Vice-Presi- 
dent's name. The audience over, we partook of our din- 
ner and returned.^^® 

Saturday, May ^, l8^6. The officers not yet invited 
to the Second King's private audience went to-day to see 
His Majesty.^" Dined at Prince Wong Sa's without 
our host,^'^ he being detained at the First King's audi- 
ence. 



i56\^7^ood, Op. cit., pp. 207-08. 
iBTT^Yood, op. cit., pp. 208-10. 

J^ssBeing obliged to attend this "political dinner" at Prince Krom Luang's, 
even though the Prince was detained elsewhere, Townsend Harris missed the 

136 



Monday, May 5, l8s6. Commodore Armstrong left 
this morning in the steamer The Siamese Steam Force 
accompanied by Lieutenant Rutledge, Lieutenant Car- 
ter, Chief Engineer Isherwood, Assistant Surgeon 
Daniels, Commodore's secretary Van den Heuvel and 
some marines."^ I paid visits to all the Ministers and 
called this evening on the Somdet. 

Tuesday, May 6, 1856. Arrived Captain H. Bell, 
Lieutenant Williamson, Lieutenant Bryant, Master 
Bowen, Assistant Surgeon Semple and Captain's clerk 
Ashe/^" 

Wednesday, May J, 1 8 56. The Second King sent 
word for the newly arrived officers to call on him, which 
they did and remained till late in the evening. 

Friday, May Q, l80. The First King gave a festival 
called Rak-na, or festival of opening the agricultural 
labors of the year. A large roof, stuck on poles, was 
erected for the performances, during which the King, 
sitting on an estrade surrounded by the princes of the 
royal blood, transacted business. Under the estrade the 
most wealthy and noble dignitaries of the realm attended 
the performances, all kneeling from the beginning to the 
end. On my arrival the King told me that the commis- 
sion for the commissioners appointed for me was drawn 
up in Siamese and now in the act of being translated into 

dinner party given by the Rev. and Mrs. Bradley to Townsend Harris and 
the officers of his embassy, the gentlemen and ladies of the several missions, 
and to Mr. and Mrs. Harry S. Parkes (£. Qf P., vol. i, no. 37). 

issxownsend Harris had arranged for their departure by writing three let- 
ters on Saturday, May 3, 1856: one to the Rev. S. Mattoon {L. B., vol. i, p. 
23) ; a second to the Minister of Foreign Affairs (ib.) ; and a third to the 
First King {ib., p. 24). 

^^°Wood, op. cit., p. 220. 



English. Chairs were provided for us. Refreshments 
consisting of Siamese sweetmeats, fruits, wines, coffee, 
seasoned meat and segars, duly served. On the King's ex- 
pressing a wish for our band being sent for, this was 
complied with, and our band and the King's orchestra, 
vocal and instrumental, played together different tunes 
at the same time, which created a most barbaric con- 
fusion, the singing women each [being] armed with two 
long flat sticks, which they struck every time together, 
accompanying this with some lamenting cries just the 
same as the poor girls in New York on a wintry night 
produce by crying "Hot Corn." So much for the sing- 
ing part. The instrumental consisted of different drums, 
bells and wooden hautboys, if this name may be given to 
them. The stage itself was in the centrum of the build- 
ing; no decorations except an artificial mountain, or 
clouds, I could not make out. The play was a prince 
being in love with a princess and seeing in a wood a 
young girl sent out by the princess to cut a very rare 
plant; some sacrifices by the princess and her court to an 
idol, etc., etc. The performers are all young girls from 
eight to fourteen years of age; trained for their profes- 
sion from their most early childhood, have a wonderful 
flexibility in their arms which they bend, without twist- 
ing them, in the wrong way. The dances consist in very 
slow but graceful movements especially with the arms, 
and instead of dancing as in our ballets on the uppermost 
end of their toes, they slowly proceed on the downmost 
part of their heels. They were all painted white and had 
black wigs on, gold dresses and crowns with dragon 

138 



wings glittering with precious stones. Some looked very 
well, their limbs exceedingly well rounded off and well 
proportioned. Had generally very small feet support- 
ing a well formed and, according to the lines of beauty, 
in thickness increasing leg. I remarked a good deal of 
precision in their combined movements. Every time the 
performers entered or re-entered the stage, they crawled 
first, until arrived opposite the King's seat, and made 
the usual Eastern salutation. The King presented our 
band with four piculs each, which I first refused, but on 
his repeated request complied with. 

The word 'Vat" means all the ground within the en- 
closure of their temples, houses where the priests live, 
detached buildings, etc., etc. 

Omitted'": 

Sunday, May 4, 1 8 56. Attended divine worship at 
the house of Mr. Mattoon.'"' 

Monday, May 5, 1856. Wrote to the King,'" urging 
the appointment of commissioners to meet me, 
stating I had been twenty-two days in the country. I 
learned in the evening that a grand row had taken place, 
about the business of Mr. Parkes who had so wearied the 
King by his letters, etc., that he got enraged, blew up all 
his court and ended by closing the palace gates against 
all the world. My letter was not presented until 



i^^Beginning with this word, the manuscript is again written in Townsend 
Harris's hand. 

i^^An invitation had been received from the Second King for the officers to 
visit him privately; but it was not accepted on the ground that it was Sunday 
(Wood, op. cii., pp. 215-20). We shall see that also in Japan Townsend Harris 
made it a rule never to conduct any official business on Sunday. 

^8^L. B., vol. I, p. 25, which was presented on May 7th (see below). 



Wednesday, May J, 1 8 §6, when I was told the King 
would give me a private audience on Thursday or Fri- 
day, and then would inform me who were the commis- 
sioners, etc., to treat with me. This promised private 
interview ended in merely inviting me to visit his 
theater.^*'* When I entered, he invited me to the foot of 
the estrade on which he was walking about, shook me by 
the hand and said, ''good-bye/' which is his English for 
''How d'do." 

Saturday, May 10, 1856. Am told the Royal Com- 
mission is now being translated, as the King has now a 
strange fancy for executing public documents connected 
with Americans and English in the English language. 
This must cause more delay^"^ and I think is so intended. 

I am convinced I shall not be able to do anything 
until the English have left. The Siamese cannot enter- 
tain two ideas at the same time. 

Sunday, May II, 1856. Attended divine service at 
the house of the Rev. Mr. Smith who read a capital 
sermon by the Rev. Mr. Williams of the Baptist 
Church, New York. 

Monday, May 12, 1856. Mr. Chandler sends down 
for my secretary to assist him in copying the Royal Com- 
mission, which he has only completed translating this 
morning.^*"' 



i840n Friday, May 9, 1856. (See above, and Wood, op. cit., pp. 240-44.) 
i85This delay is the theme of L. B., vol. i, p, 36 (Townsend Harris to Com- 
modore Armstrong, May 7th) ; of L. Sf P., vol. i, no. 36 (the Commodore's 
answer, May nth) ; and of L. Sf P., vol. 2, no. 45 (Mattoon to Townsend Har- 
ris, May 8th). 

issMr. Chandler's letter (L. & P., vol. 2, no. 44, written early in the morning 
of May i2th) expresses the hope that Townsend Harris will send Mr. Heusken 

140 



Mr. Chandler is an excellent, good man ; what he docs, 
he does well, but he is not reliable as to time. 

With Captain Bell, the officers and marines visited 
the great wat in the palace enclosure. Found an endless 
number of idols (over seven hundred it is said), six 
hundred priests and the idol par excellence of the world. 
It is a recumbent Budh, of the enormous length of one 
hundred and fifty feet, richly gilt, and the soles of the 
feet a perfect bijou of decorative mother-of-pearl work. 
I never saw anything of the kind more beautiful. The 
figure is pretty well proportioned. It reclines on the 
right side, supporting the head on the right hand — the 
elbow being bent to a right angle. 

Subsequently visited the temple where worship is per- 
formed. Rich gold and silver state umbrellas, etc., etc., 
before the altar. The decorations of the temple were rich 
and in good taste. 

The patterns were rather elaborate than grand, with 
a detail that bore the closest inspection. 

Numberless pagodas of all sizes decorated the numer- 
ous courts through which we passed. 

The courts neatly paved with sandstone flags neatly 
cut; large figures in granite from China representing 
gods, heroes, men, genii, animals, rostral columns. 
Chinese triumphal arches, fine bronze griffins and num- 



to make two English copies of the document appointing the Treaty Commis- 
sioners, which Mr. Chandler is nearly through translating from the Siamese. 

Mr. Wood states {op. cit., p. 230) that it was thought negotiations would be 
opened on this day (May 12th), but that it was found a mistake had been 
made in the translation. 

141 



berless similar objects, which would require weeks to 
examine and describe. In the courts ornamental trees 
and shrubs were frequent. Artificial ponds, with ditto 
rocks, in the best Chinese manner, are also there. The 
sides and roof of the building called the "Library" are a 
gem of Siamese decorative architecture. The court and 
floor of one of the temples is paved with marble tiles 
from China, of the cool dove color. This wat covers 
many acres of ground and is kept very clean, not a usual 
thing in Siam. 

In this enclosure stand the three pagodas before noted 
as erected by the Kings of the present dynasty. A fourth 
is in the course of erection by the present King. As to 
these pagodas, which show so prettily from the river, I 
can justly say that a close inspection does not add to their 
beauty. Here we saw the Budh in the jungle where his 
wants were supplied by wild animals. An elephant 
presents him with water, a baboon gives him fruit — 
both animals being in the attitude of adoration. 

Next went to the wat on the opposite side of the 
river, near Mr. Mattoon's, which I have already de- 
scribed. 

Dined and passed the evening at Mr. Mattoon's. At 
9 P. M. the Prince sent for me. He says the Royal Com- 
mission will be signed to-morrow and that I shall meet 
the Commissioners on Wednesday. Mr. Parkes is to 
leave early on Thursday morning. When he is gone I 
shall think business has commenced with me. 

Tuesday, May 1 3, 1856. Breakfast with Mr. Tel- 
ford. Complete pro fortna of Treaty as I wish it, and 

142 



give it to Mr. Mattoon to finish the little that remains to 
be translated. The forts on both banks of the river, just 
above the embassy, are called Phra-cha-mit and Pit- 
patch-nuck. It is these forts vs^hich mark the limits above 
which men-of-war are not to pass. In front of Phra-cha- 
mit I this morning saw a human right hand, which had 
been cut off at the wrist, stuck on a bamboo and drying 
in the sun. I am told that forgery is punished by cutting 
off a part or the whole of the hand, which is then stuck 
up at this place. 

Full one half of the children die before they are one 
year old, owing to the unwise mode of treating them. I 
have seen a Siamese woman pull her nipple from the 
mouth of her child and insert the end of her lighted 
cigar. 

Visited Phra Klang with Captain Bell and his offi- 
cers. White elephants modelled in clay, well done. 

Pull up river with Mr. King, go up five miles, beau- 
tiful scenery. Visit paper mill. Paper from bark of tree, 
macerated in lime water, afterwards comminuted and 
spread on frames made of bamboo splints. Creeks or 
canals every fifty yards — bridges — steep ascent — then a 
slab or pole — no hand rail — frequent falls. 

I to-day saw the offerings or consecration ot the 
lingum. It is formed of clay, natural size. Is placed in 
small shrines near the river. Its accurate form makes its 
exhibition a filthy one. I am told they are to be found 
everywhere. They are [offered] as a means of recovery 
from the venereal [diseases], for a continued virility, or 
as a thank offering for recovery. 

143 



Returning down the river at eight o'clock P. M., the 
scene was very beautiful. The air, cool and balmy, was 
loaded with the perfume of flowers. The moon silvered 
over every object and softened the harsher features of 
them. Boats of all descriptions were darting about. The 
deep drum of the wat was booming its call for prayer. 
Tom-toms were marking the seats of mirth and pleasure. 
High up in the air twin lights marked the walls of the 
Palaces of the Kings. Now an immense blaze of light, 
with the clashing of musical instruments, called our 
attention to some cause of more than ordinary merry- 
making. 

On drawing near, we found two large buildings, open 
on all sides, were illuminated by every possible means 
known to the natives. Single lights, chandeliers, pyra- 
mids of lamps, vessels filled with a resinous gum and 
set on fire — all these and other means were used to pro- 
cure a perfect illumination. A full band of actors, danc- 
ers and musicians were exercising their calling, to give 
pleasure to the crowds that were assembled. 

The occasion was the cutting [of] the long hair of a 
boy some ten or twelve years old. It is something like a 
mark of approaching puberty, this having the hair cut 
so as to form the round crest or comb on the top of the 
head, and may be said to resemble the toga virilis of the 
Romans. 

This crest of hair is only cut ofif in cases of mourning 
or when a man becomes a priest. 

Wednesday, May 14, 1856. This was the day the 
Prince had fixed for me to meet the Siamese Commis- 

144 



sioners, but in the morning he sent to me to say he could 
not give me the meeting,- as His Majesty had not drawn 
up the full powers. The King resembles Sully's descrip- 
tion of James I of England, — "The most learned fool in 
Christendom." His Majesty is pedantic beyond belief, 
and that too on a very small capital of knowledge. Add 
to this the fact that he is much given to women, and a 
solution is found for the delay of all useful business. It 
may be said that [he] resembles Solomon only in the 
chapter of wives and concubines. 

This afternoon visited an old and respectable noble, 
— Boudin. It was at his house that Mr. Roberts was 
lodged when he was in Siam. After the usual routine 
questions and answers, we were invited to enter a new 
building, where a sumptuous repast in Chinese and 
Siamese styles of cookery, served up in European dishes, 
was set out. Among a vast variety of other things, we 
had bird-nest soup, beche-de-mer^^'' sharks' fins, eggs 
from Japan and many preparations of fowl and fish 
which we could not name. A dessert of fruit followed 
of the finest descriptions. 

Spent the evening at Mr. Mattoon's, where all the 
white persons had assembled to meet Mr. and Mrs. 
Parkes who are to leave in the morning. 

The evening was a lovely one, and our band added 
much to the pleasure of the occasion. 

^^''Beche-de-mer, or sea cucumber, as it was called, because of its shape. Like 
sandalwood, it was in great demand in China in the early days of our Pacific 
trade. For a description of the various kinds of these sea slugs of the South 
Seas, read Greenbie and Greenbie, Gold of Ophir, p. 49, note. 



Thursday, May 1 5, 1856. This morning Mr. Wil- 
liamson, Mr. Bryant and Mr. Bowen go back to the 
ship in company of Mr. Parkes, etc."* 

I am quite unwell, having many boils, etc., etc., in- 
digestion, etc. 

The Second King sent for me this morning. I did not 
go, being too unwell. 

Friday, May 16, 1856. This morning I have the 
welcome news that I am to meet the Commissioners this 
P. M. at the house of the Prince. Four o'clock is the hour 
fixed on. 

At"^ the meeting with the Commissioners,''" found 



issSir Harry S. Parkes had brought back from England the ratified copy of 
the Treaty with Siam concluded by Sir John Bowring on Apr. i8, 1855. 

On Tuesday, May 13, 1856, he had signed a series of Supplementary Articles 
(given in full in Bowring's Siam, vol. 2, pp. 230-47). On Wednesday, May 14th, 
he had had his audience of leave (Wood, Fankivei, p. 230), and on Thursday 
the 15th he left Bangkok 

On the same day (May isth), an audience was granted to the Portuguese 
Conaul, who had been waiting for this privilege more than a year (Wood, 
ib.), and on the i6th, the American negotiations began to make progress — 
which fully bears out Townsend Harris's presentiments in this connection — 
namely, that business would really commence with him only after the departure 
of Mr. Parkes (see above, entry for May 12, 1856). 

is^Beginning with this word, the manuscript is again written in Mr. Heus- 
ken's hand. 

i^oThe original document appointing the five Commissioners to negotiate 
the Treaty, and granting them full powers, is L. & P., vol. 2, no. 47, dated May 
16, 1856. 

At the top of page i (of this six-page document) are two rectangular stamped 
seals: the left-hand one bears (in addition to Siamese printed writing) the 
Latin legend, Maior Rex Siamensium, written by hand of the First King; the 
right-hand seal bears (in addition to Siamese printed writing beneath the 
Arabic numeral 120) the Latin legend Secundum Rex Siamensium, written by 
the hand of the Second King. 

At the end of the document (on p. 6) there are two elliptical seals: the left- 
hand one bears across the face of it the signature of the First King, as follows: 
"S.P.P.M. Mongkut, the First King of Siam"; the right-hand seal similarly 
bears the signature of the Second King, as follows: "S. P. Pawarendr Ramesr, 
the Second King of Siam." 

The handwritings of these two sets of seals not only correspond from the 
one set to the other, but are also to be compared with the handwritings in 

146 



that tlie Phra Kalahom, who had always affected to en- 
tertain the most friendly feeling towards Americans, 
was my chief opponent : wished to have the article about 
opium,"^ which I left out as contrary to the wishes of my 
government, inserted ; the article stipulating protection 
to Siamese subjects"^ when in the United States, erased 
as unnecessary, — considering the Siamese living in 
foreign countries as cut ojf from the Siamese nation. 
The reason this article appears in the English Treaty is 
that, the English having possessions adjoining and in the 
neighborhood of Siam, many of their subjects are living 
there and engaged in trade. My three amendments to 
the English Treaty were all rejected."^ 

They were decidedly opposed to American citizens 
and actual residents of Bangkok having residing agents 
in any part of the Siamese dominions,"* and their being 

L. & P., vol. 2, no. 48 (by the First King) and in L. & P., vol. 2, no. 33 (by the 
Second King). 

The "full powers" of Townsend Harris for negotiating a treaty with Siam 
were dated Sept. 8, 1855, and were signed by President Pierce and Secretary 
of State Marcy. The original document is now at The College of the City of 
New York. 

i^^Bowring's Treaty (Apr. 18, 1855), Art. VIII, says, in part (L. & P., vol. 2, 
no. 29) : 

"Opium may be imported free of duty, but can only be sold to the Opium 
Farmer or his agents," etc., etc. 

This portion of the British Treaty appears verbatim in Art. VII of the 
American Treaty as adopted by the Senate — which was Art. VIII in Townsend 
Harris's original draft {L. & P., vol. 2, no. 53). 

i^^Bowring's Treaty, Art. I. In Art. I of the American Treaty this matter 
was replaced by clauses promising to Siamese vessels on the high seas the aid 
of American men-of-war without, however, committing a breach of neutrality; 
and to Siamese vessels in foreign ports the aid of the American consuls at said 
ports. 

i7S£,_ gf p ^ ypj 2^ jjQ j^ These amendments formed part of six propositions 
advanced by Townsend Harris (L. & P., vol. 2, no. 55) ; the other propositions 
finally found place in the Treaty. 

i74Xhis was the substance of Amendment i. 



allowed to visit the coasts adjacent to the Menam and 
islands under their annual pass without procuring a 
special passport for that purpose."^ Willing to grant 
the lease of mines, but only for a period of five or ten 
years. On my representing that it would be an absurdity 
for a man spending say 150,000 piculs in laying shafts, 
labor, etc., etc., and when at last the mine began to yield 
being obliged to give it up, they would not yield;"® 
wished to have the Treaty take effect eighteen months 
after its date,"^ and consuls appointed at the same time. 
I told them the Treaty was in operation now, and I had a 
right of appointing a consul at once in virtue of Mr. 
Roberts's Treaty."^^* Insisted on having an Article in- 
serted [of] the United States being arbiter in case of dif- 
ferences with other nations, and American men-of-war 
rendering the same assistance to Siamese vessels which 
they would render to vessels of their own nation in case 
of piracy, etc, etc.; postponed for consideration. The 
reason they gave for rejecting my amendments was, "they 
would willingly grant them, but by doing so had to give 

i^^xhis was the substance of Amendment 2. 

i^^This was the substance of Amendment 3. 

i^'^Art. XI of the Treaty as adopted by the Senate (Art. XII in Townsend 
Harris's original draft) provided that the treaty "shall take effect immediately." 
The Siamese had a precedent for their desire to postpone in Art. XII of the 
British Treaty signed by Sir John Bowring on Apr. 18, 1855, which provided 
that that Treaty should take effect from Apr. 6, i856^almo8t a whole year 
after it was signed and sealed. 

i"Mr. Roberts's Treaty (1833), -Art. X: 

"If hereafter any foreign nation other than the Portuguese shall request 
and obtain His Majest^s consent to the appointment of Consuls to reside 
in Siam, the United States shall be at liberty to appoint Consuls to reside 
in Siam, equally with such other foreign nation." 

The "such other foreign nations" was in this case Great Britain, by virtue of 
Sir J Bowring's Treaty. 

148 



other nations an equal share." I proposed having my 
amendments drawn up as Additional Articles, as granted 
exclusively to Americans in reciprocation for the assist- 
ance given to their vessels by American men-of-war. 
They replied that whatever they granted to Americans, 
they had to grant to other powerful naval powers, as 
France and England, 

Adjourned, appointed to meet next Tuesday, 
promised me a copy of Mr. Parkes's explanations."^ Ap- 
plied for a private interview with the King for to- 
morrow. 

Saturday,'-^'' May IJ , 18^6. Quite unwell — many 
boils and gastric derangement. 

Desired Mr. Mattoon to say to Prince Wong Sa 
that I would withdraw all the amendments I had offered 
and take the Treaty as it stands in the English version, 
except the clause about consuls. 

Sunday, May l8, 18^6. Attended service at the house 
of the Rev. Mr. Telford. 

Very unwell. 

Monday, May IQ, 1856. Still unwell. Sent for by the 
Prince this afternoon, ^^^ who said they would consider 
my amendments, and hoped to give me satisfaction. The 
Americans are in error in supposing Mr. Roberts's 

i^^See above, entry for May 15, 1856, and note 168. For another account of 
this day's negotiations, see Wood, op. cit., pp. 230-31. 

isoBeginning with this word, the manuscript is again written in Townsend 
Harris's hand. 

isixhe Prince made his wishes known to the Rev. Mattoon, who wrote to 
Townsend Harris (L. Sf P., vol. 2, no. 46). It was the Prince's desire to learn 
thoroughly Townsend Harris's views, in order to present them to the nobles 
that evening. Townsend Harris was closeted with him from i P. M., when the 
Prince returned from the First King's Palace, to 9 p. m. 

149 



Treaty secures [for the United States] every concession 
that may be made by the Siamese to any other nation. 

It secures any reduction of duties and the right to 
appoint a consul, when that right is granted to any 
nation except Portugal, but it does not put the United 
States on the footing of the most favored nation. With 
the Prince to 9 P. M. 

Tuesday, May 20, 18^6. At the Prince's, who pro- 
duced a most absurd farrago of nonsense which he 
wished to have introduced into the Treaty. It is a history 
of Siamese diplomacy for the last thirty years, giving the 
names of the nations sending and the envoys sent, etc., 
with a great deal more of similar matter. 

I told the Prince that it did not comport with the dig- 
nity of the United States to have the name of any third 
nation, or of its envoys, inserted in a mere commercial 
treaty; that I came to negotiate for my own country on 
terms of equality; that I could not take anything as a 
favor and because it had been granted to England, etc., 
etc. Could not bring him to any definite point on any 
subject. Left at 8 P. M. 

Wednesday, May 21, 1856. All the Commissioners 
present. They had all the talking to themselves, as they 
would only hear Mr. Mattoon interpret [not] more than 
half a dozen words of my reply when they would all 
open on him. The Prince is not as cordial as formerly. 

The Prime Minister advanced a proposition which 
will serve to show their ideas of reciprocity. He said, 
"We love the Americans, for they have never done us or 
anyone else in the East an injury"; that they were not 

150 



seeking conquests in the East; [that] the American mis- 
sionaries had been of vast use to them, teaching many 
valuable arts, etc., etc. The English, on the contrary, 
were rapacious tyrants who were seizing on the whole 
of Asia. They had made the Treaty with Sir John Bow- 
ring, not because they liked the English, but because they 
feared them. 

"Now," said the Prime Minister, "you who are our 
friends and whom we esteem, surely you will not ask 
as much from us as we were forced to give to our 
enemies?" I told him that we acted on a different prin- 
ciple; that we treated our friends best and not worst; 
that their friendship would be a sorry thing for us if we 
were not allowed as much as they gave their foes. 

I discover the Commissioners cannot do any single 
thing without first consulting the King. The Prince more 
cool than he was last night. 

Left at half-past ten P. M. 

Thursday, May 22, 1856. This afternoon meet all 
the Commissioners again at the house of the Prince. A 
stormy time at first. They tried every possible means to 
get me to give up the English Treaty as a basis, — argu- 
ments, taunts, sneers and bluster, all were tried on me, 
but I refused to move. They then refused to grant the 
three concessions I asked, ^^^ except on terms which would 
destroy them. Thinking quite time enough had been 
wasted, I gave them my ultimatum, — viz., the Treaty as 
I had given it to them in Siamese, striking out the re- 
ciprocity clause from Article I and inserting that United 

i82Xhe three amendments referred to above. 



States ships-of-war and United States Consuls should 
aid and assist Siamese vessels so far as could be done 
without a breach of neutrality. 

After much and very useless talk, they agreed to give 
me an answer on Saturday evening. 

Left at 9 P. M.''' 

Friday, May 2^, l8s6. Much better in health, go 
out with Mr. Telford to visit some of the w-ats. 

Saturday, May 24, 1855 [/<^5<^]. At 5 P. M. meet the 
Prince. He proposes to insert the preamble of the Treaty 
made by Mr. Roberts. I object that it is not gogd Eng- 
lish, being ungrammatical, and that it would be 
laughed at. 

The object of this is to get me to glorify the Kings^®* 
more than was done in the English Treaty, which would, 
as they think, exalt them in the eyes of England and 
France. I steadily refuse, and at last, after much ill 
humor on the part of the Prince, he agrees that the Treaty 
be engrossed in triplicate, as I gave it in on Thursday 
last.^" 



i830n the same day as this "stormy" conference, the First King sent a kind 
autograph letter to Townsend Harris, accompanying a gift of sweet tamarinds 
"grown at Northern Laos Country" (L. & P., vol. 3, no. 4S) — a courtesy which 
Townsend Harris acknowledged on the following day — {L. B., vol. i, p. 28). 

is*The Preamble of Mr. Roberts's Treaty is not In bad English- -certainly 
there are no ungrammatical constructions in it. And as for glorifying the 
Kings, the only expression that might be so construed is the reference to "His 
Majesty the Sovereign and Magnificent King," and the other minor high-flown 
expression that the commercial intercourse thereby established would continue 
"as long as heaven and earth shall endure." The rest of the Preamble of the 
Roberts Treaty is written in as plain and matter of fact English as that of 
the Bowring and Townsend Harris Treaties, though differing from the stereo- 
typed form in which such documents were drawn up by the middle of the 
century. 

^85Meaning as finally agreed upon on May 22nd. The treaty negotiations 
were really brought to a close at the meeting of May 24th (see also Wood, 
op. cit., p. 232), and it was on this day that Townsend Harris announced that 
he would leave on the 31st of May. 

152 



My mind is greatly relieved and I hope this is the end 
of my troubles with this false, base and cowardly people. 
To lie is here the rule from the Kings downward. Truth 
is never used when they can avoid it. A nation of slaves, 
each one must crawl prone on his belly in the presence 
of some superior, and in turn he strives to increase the 
number of his prostrate inferiors. This custom causes 
them to seek the company of those inferior to them- 
selves. I never met a people like them, and hope I may 
never again be sent here. The proper way to negotiate 
with the Siamese is to send two or three men-of-war of 
not more than sixteen feet draft of water. Let them 
arrive in October and at once proceed up to Bangkok 
and fire their salutes. In such a case the Treaty would 
not require more days than I have consumed weeks. 

Sunday, May 2^, 1 8^0. Attended service at the 
house of Dr. Bradley. I am now quite recovered. 

Monday, May 2b, 18^6. Sent paper to the Prince so 
that both versions shall be on the same kind of paper. 

Mr. Heusken busy with the copies of the Treaty. 

Mr. Mattoon came at ii A. M. to say for the Prince 
that he wanted still to change the preamble of the 
Treaty to that used by Mr. Roberts. 1 again refused, say- 
ing we had already nearly finished two copies. Mr. Mat- 
toon tells me the Treaty is to be executed on Thursday at 
the Hall of Justice. 

I omitted in Saturday's journal to say that the Phra 
Klang came in to the Prince's on Saturday evening, and 
that I then gave him notice I should leave on Saturday 
the 31st, and requested him to let tne have the steamer. 

153 



At 3 P.M. a letter from Mr. Mattoon''' saying the 
Prince wished me to write a letter giving my reasons for 
declining to take Mr. Roberts's preamble, so that he 
might show it to the King. I wrote accordingly. (See 
copy.) 

At 6 P. M. another note^" requesting that in one of the 
three copies of the Treaty I would name the Kings of 
Siam first; agreed to. 

Tuesday, May ZJ, l8§6. The Second King, with a 
large retinue of boats, visits the forts in our vicinity. 
Salute him with our band. The Prince passed in his 
boat. Captain Bell took off his hat and bowed to him. 
The Prince only gave him an angry stare in return. The 
King, I am told, bowed very politely to all. This after- 
noon the Prince requested me to delay my departure 
until Monday, saying the King had not the letter to the 
President ready, nor could he give me an audience of 
leave, as he had engagements for all the time. These 
were mere childish pretences, as plenty of time exists 
between this and next Saturday morning to do all they 
require, and moreover I told the Prince last Saturday 
that I must leave next Saturday. I accordingly sent 
word that I should much regret not having an audience, 
but it was absolutely necessary I should leave on Satur- 
day, as the bread was running short in the ship, and that 
if I did not go before Monday I should lose the June 



i86£_ Sf P., vol. 2, no. so, which contains also Prince Krom's detailed sugges- 
tions as to the arguments which should appear in Townsend Harris's reply. 
This reply Townsend Harris wrote on May 27, 1856, addressing it to the Rev. 
Mr. Mattoon {L.B., vol. i, p. 28). 

i87j[,_ grf p,^ vol. 2, no. 49, also from the Rev. Mr. Mattoon. 



mail fom China. Finished the copies of the Treaties and 
compared them. 

Wednesday, May 28, 1856. Sent my secretary with 
my copies of the Treaties to the Prince's that he might 
have them compared and then attach the two versions to- 
gether. Mr. Heusken engaged at this until 4 P. M. 

The Prince in trouble wishes me to write him a letter 
with my reasons for not staying over until Monday. 

Wrote it and sent it to Mr. Mattoon. The reason the 
Prince wishes this in black and white is that he may 
show it to the King, as they are such a set of unsanctified 
liars that the King would not believe him without some 
proof like this. In my letter (see copy) /^^ in addition to 
what I said yesterday, I wrote that the King's letter to 
the President could be given to the consul, who would 
forward it in a proper manner. This is the first hint I 
have given of my intention to appoint a consul. 

This evening I made out a commission^^^ for Mr. 
Stephen Mattoon, a native citizen of the State of New 
York, as American Consul for the Kingdom of Siam, to 
reside at Bangkok. Also wrote a letter to the Minister of 
Foreign Affairs, informing him of Mr. Mattoon's ap- 
pointment and making the usual requests.^®" 

Both these papers were dated the 30th of May, as I 
wished them to follow the signing of the Treaty. 

I consider Mr. Mattoon as peculiarly well fitted for 
the office of consul. He speaks the language like a native, 



i8ai,.B., vol. I, p. 31. 

is^L.B.j vol. I, p. 34, which, however, he dated May 30, 1856. 

i80I,.B., vol. i,^. 32. 



he knows the people well — their manners, customs, laws, 
prejudices, etc., etc., having lived here nearly ten years. 

He is of a mild quiet temper, firm on any point of 
principle, and winning in his manners. His reputation 
for veracity is well established, and the Siamese never 
doubt his word. He is popular with both of the Kings 
and the nobles.^^^ 

Thursday, May ZQ, l8^6. This being the day fixed 
for signing the Treaties, I went to the Old Palace (the 
residence of the Prince) and met all the Commissioners 
except the Prime Minister. The Treaty was then sealed 
with all our seals and afterwards signed, — making one 
hundred and eight seals and as many signatures. This 
took over three hours. The Prince then delivered to me 
two copies of the Treaty and I gave him one, at which 
moment a salute of twenty-one guns was fired from 
the Prince's battery or fort. All was smiles and good 
humor.'®^ 



isiTo this estimate of the Rev. S. Mattoon, we should add that of Wood 
{op. cit., p. 194) : 

". . . and part of the chain of these successful events was the planting 
of American missionaries in Siam, for the confidence reposed in them ex- 
tends to kindred Western people. It was very evident that much of the 
apprehension they felt in taking upon themselves the responsibilities of a 
treaty with us would be diminished if they could have the Rev. Mr. Mattoon 
as the first United States Consul to set the treaty in motion." 
See also, Journal, Apr. 26, 1856. 

i^^And so ended Townsend Harris's negotiations for the Treaty with Siara. 
Some years later, in the course of a letter to Robert Chilton of the Department 
of State, dated Yedo, Aug. 8, i860 (L. B., vol. 5, p. 12), Townsend Harris 
made the following disillusioned reference to his present success: 

"Are you aware that the only acknowledgment of my services in making 
the commercial Treaty with Siam (May, 1856) is contained in Dispatch no. 
8, dated August rg, 1858, in which I am informed that printed copies of the 
Treaty would be transmitted to me?" 

On July 16, 1856, the Second King wrote to Commodore Perry (then .111 

156 



I then announced to them that I had appointed Mr. 
Mattoon American Consul which, contrary to my ex- 
pectations, was very well received. They all congratu- 
lated both him on his appointment and me on my 
fortunate selection. 

I was agreeably surprised at this, as I expected a con- 
test with them on this point, although I had the clear 
right to make the appointment, and it was for their in- 
terest to have him immediately. Another message from 
the King. He wishes me to leave on Saturday evening 
so that I can have an audience in the morning. I pro- 
posed that he should give me an audience on Friday 
night. After this the Second King sent to ask me to 
visit him on Friday night; he was informed of the state 
of my engagements with the First King. 

Friday, May 30, 1856. Signed Mr. Mattoon's Com- 
mission and sent it to him; also thirteen cards under 
cover, P. P. C, addressed to various persons here. 

The First King came down at noon to visit the forts 
Phra-cha-mit and Pit-patch-nuck; as he turned into the 
Ban-kok-noy, by the Residence, the band played "God 
save the King," and, in company with Captain Bell and 
the others of my suite, I went to the landing platform 
and there made our bows to the King, who returned the 
same in a cordial manner. 

Went up to Mr. Mattoon's and settled my accounts 



America) and spoke of Townsend Harris's Treaty as follows (33-2, H. Ex. 
Doc, no. 97, vol. 2, p. 408) : 

"The American Envoy had the honor of making a liberal treaty of com- 
merce and friendship, which I trust will prove mutually advantageous." 



with him."^ At two P. M. the Second King sent for me 
to visit him, which I promised to do after dinner. The 
First King sent me word he would give me my audience 
of leave early to-morrow morning, and that his boats 
should be sent for me at 7 A. M. 

At 5 P. M. went to [the] Second King with Mr. Mat- 
toon, Dr. Wood and Mr. Lewis; Dr. Semple and Mr. 
Heusken joined me an hour afterwards. I found matting 
spread for me to walk on from the outer gate of the 
Palace up to what the King calls his English House. I 
was most kindly received by the King, who speaks ex- 
cellent English, showed me a great many books, prints, 
arms, chemicals, etc., etc., all of European or American 
origin ; a curious clock showing the hour of the day, day 
of the week, idem of month and month of the year and 
finally the age of the moon. The hour of the day was 
marked on a lapis lazuli globe, elevated above the clock 
and revolved on a pivot, while the red tongue of a 
green and gold serpent marked the actual hour. This 
complex piece of work is kept in order, cleaned, etc., 
etc., by the King himself. Had a good deal of conversa- 
tion about the United States, the Presidents, and the 
officers of the Peacock who were here in 1833. The King 
remembered not only the name of every officer, but 
also his baptismal name, and asked after most of them. 

He handed me a receipt"* for the presents I brought 



i^^it being the end of the month, Townsend Harris settled accounts with Mr. 
Heusken {L.B., vol. i, p. 84) and (on the assumption that "May 3" should read 
"May 30") also with Mr. Mattoon, to whom he paid the sum of $500 for his 
services as interpreter {L.B., vol. 1, p. 82). 

^^*L.B., vol'. I, p. 45, dated May 29, 1856. 

158 



him from the President, and also gave me a list^®° of the 
contents of four cases he had put up containing presents 
from him to the President. The cases were very neatly 
marked and, as he said, done vs^ith his ow^n hands. 

He gave us tea, coffee, and chocolate, fruit, sweet- 
meats, etc., etc., making the tea, etc., himself — asking 
each one how he liked to have it, with or without milk, 
etc., etc. Two of his wives were present while we were 
in the tea room and joined freely in the conversation, 
but they were prostrate on the floor, literally grovelling 
on all fours. Left about half-past seven and returned to 
my quarters, and packed up everything so as to be ready 
for an early start to-morrow morning 

Saturday, May 31, 1856. Up at five o'clock. Bathed 
for the last time in fresh water. Put up all night articles, 
etc., etc., and took breakfast at six o'clock. 

The boats from the King, instead of coming for me at 
seven o'clock, did not reach me until after eight o'clock. 

Started in company with Captain Bell and Dr. 
Semple; stopped for Mr. Mattoon and Lieutenant 
Lewis, reached the upper landing at ten minutes before 
nine, found armchairs for Captain Bell and self, and 
ordinary sedans for the others. About one quarter the 
number of troops were out now that were present when 
I had my first audience. We went to the Hall of Justice, 
where I was kept waiting nearly two hours before I was 
admitted, although the King knew that this delay would 
probably prevent my reaching the San Jacinto to-night. 

Was received in the old Audience Hall — a finer in- 



i^^L.B., vol. I, p. 43, also dated. May 29, 1856. 



terior than the other where I was first received. A very 
large number of nobles and princes was present. The 
King was seated on a low throne about two feet above 
the floor. He asked me how soon I should leave, whether 
I went to China direct or via Singapore. Spoke about 
his regret at not having time! to write to the President 
or to prepare presents for him. As to the last, I told him 
the letter and presents could be delivered to the Consul 
who would forward them in a proper manner, etc., etc. 
This brought up the appointment of Mr. Mattoon as 
Consul, and the King said he thought only the President 
could appoint, as the Commission was to be signed by 
him. Told him that all envoys, as well as commodores, 
could fill vacancies or new consulates for the time being, 
— i. e., during the pleasure of the President. 

He then conversed aside with the nobles in a low tone 
about this matter, and finally ordered the Pia Yumarat, 
or Lord Mayor^'"' as he calls him, to prepare a proclama- 
tion acknowledging Mr. Mattoon's appointment. 

Soon after, the King rose and told me he would grant 
me a private audience, and would send for me as soon 
as he was ready. 

Soon afterwards he sent for me, Captain Bell and 
Mr. Mattoon. We were conducted to a small house fitted 
up and furnished in European fashion. Here he wel- 
comed me with a shake of the hands and saying, "Good- 
bye." After we were seated he poured out a glass of 
wine for each of us and took one himself, giving as a 



^^'''Townsend Harris has already referred to this person as Somdet P'ia 
Yumarat, the Chief Justice (see Journal, Apr. 25, 1856). 

160 



toast the President of the United States, wishing him 
health and happiness and hoping that the Treaty just 
concluded would lead to mutual advantages, etc., etc. 
He then asked when the new election for President 
would take place, when the new President would be 
sworn in, etc., etc. 

He gave me a blue velvet envelope which he said 
contained my Credentials! and requested me to open 
and read them. There were two papers : one a receipt^" 
for the presents; and the other an apology for not 
sending presents and writing a letter to the Presi- 
dent, with a short history of the negotiations.^^^ The last 
document must have taken twice as much time as would 
have sufficed for writing to the President direct. 

So much for his excuse of "want of time." I was now 
delayed over an hour by the most frivolous and pedantic 
conversation I ever listened to, and satisfied me he was 
quite as weak-minded as pedantic. He enumerated all 
the languages he could speak — the various sciences he 
lias a small smattering of — the learned societies of which 
he was a member, and the various individuals he corre- 
sponded with in various parts of the world, and honored 
me by asking me to correspond with him from Japan. It 
was now half-past twelve and I was most anxious to get 
away. But no — I must wait while he wrote, a gossiping 
letter to Sir John Bowring, informing Sir John that I 
would show him my credentials, as he persisted in call- 
ing the two papers in the blue pocket. At last, as there 



i07£,. B., vol. I, p. 41. 

188/;,. B., vol. I, p. 37, and Wood, op. cit., pp. 232-34. 

161 



must be an end to all things, I got away a little past one 
o'clock. I went down for the steamer in the King's boat, 
but, as the tide was strong against us, did not reach her 
until two P. M. I omitted to mention that at this inter- 
view I gave the King the Nautical Almanac for 1856, 
1 857 and 1858; and just before I left, he gave me a silver 
gilt segar case filled with segars. I shall smoke those 
and send the case to the Secretary of State. 

On board the steamer I received a letter from the Phra 
Klang to Governor Marcy, giving the Siamese official 
account of my arrival, transit from the ship, salutes, 
boats and boatmen, with the dresses of the latter and all 
the other important matters which are gravely written 
in the archives of Siam. With this was a translation. 

At twenty minutes past two we hauled down the flag, 
which I gave to Mr, Mattoon, received three hearty 
cheers from our countrymen whom we left there — re- 
turned the cheers — the band played "Hail, Columbia," 
"The Star Spangled Banner" and "Yankee Doodle," 
and so we left Bangkok,^^^ greatly to our satisfaction. On 
we went in the little steamer Royal Seat Siamese Steam 
Force for half an hour, when we had to stop to fix the 
machinery. Then on again for another half hour — an- 
other stop and another fix. Before this, it was clear that 
we could not reach the San Jacinto to-night, so we took 
it all quietly. 

Arrived at Paknam at seven P. M. The Governor re- 
ceived us with all respect and kindness, gave us tea, 
coffee, cakes and fruit at once, and then had a hearty 

i99Compare Wood, op. cit., p. 263. 

162 



meal prepared which was ready at eleven P. M., but 
only a few ate, as most of us preferred sleeping, which 
we did very comfortably. No mosquitoes, and the air 
was quite fresh. 

Sunday, June 1, 1856. Up at five A. M. The Gover- 
nor had tea and coffee for us, and showed me a fine lot of 
fruit which he had prepared as a present for me — there 
were some thirty trays of it. 

Started at half-past five A. M.; when outside were 
overtaken by a heavy thunderstorm. The rain was very 
heavy. No compass on board, and it was so thick noth- 
ing could be seen at one hundred yards from us, so we 
had to come to an anchor. 

Soon afterwards the fog lifted and we saw the San 
Jacinto, and finally and happily got on board at half- 
past seven o'clock. 

Some bills had to be adjusted and paid, and arrange- 
ments made about two Siamese boys that the Prime 
Minister has put under the charge of Commodore Arm- 
strong to learn English, etc., etc. One of the lads is the 
son of his nephew and grandson of the Somdet. 

At noon precisely we got under way. Something 
wrong about the machinery, as we only go about four 
and three-quarters miles per hour. 

Monday, June I [2]^ 1 8 56. Steaming along very 
slowly; see Pulo Way; squalls of rain and wind E. 
of South.'^"'* 

Tuesday and Wednesday, June J and 4-, l8^6. En- 

zooQn this day Townsend Harris wrote Dispatch No. 5 to Secretary of State 
Marcy, which gives the complete history of his mission to Siam, and a careful 
outline of the Articles of the Treaty (L. B., vol. i, pp. 46-57). 

163 



gaged in making copies of various papers to be sent with 
the Treaty. Heavy rain Wednesday.^"' 

Thursday, June 5, 1856. This evening finish copy- 
ing papers. Last evening saw Pulo Obi ; and this morn- 
ing, weather fine but a dead calm until noon when the 
wind comes out from S. W 

It is now clear we shall not reach Hongkong in time 
for the mail, which is to leave Tuesday the loth current 
at two P. M.'°' 

Friday, June 6, 1856 Sight Pulo Condore. Dead 
calms. 

Saturday, June J, l8§6. At noon stop engines for re- 
pairs. No matter about this, as I find I cannot save the 
mail. 

Close to Pulo Supatu. 

Sunday, June 8, 1856. Engines started at two A. M. 
Day very hot. Thermometer, 87°. No wind.^"^ 

^oiOn Wednesday, June 4th, Townsend Harris wrote Dispatch No. 6 to 
Secretary Marcy, marked "Confidential" (L. B., vol. i, pp. 58-65). He explains 
the initial delay as due to the "inferior" titles borne by the President of the 
United States and by himself as contrasted with those of Queen Victoria and 
Sir John Bowring; sketches (unfavorably) the character of the First King; 
and gives a vivid picture of the fear of the English entertained by the Siamese. 

On this same day (June 4th), Townsend Harris's thoughts turned to the 
work ahead of him in Japan, and he wrote to Commodore Perry (33-2, H. Ex. 
Doc, no. 97, vol. 2, p. 191) : 

"I should have mentioned before that both the Kings of Siam inquired 

after you and your welfare. They are both aware of your services to your 

country, and of your opening Japan, and I do not hesitate to say to you that 

your expedition to Japan was one of the great causes that led to the English 

and American Treaties with Siam." 

2020n June 5, 1856, Townsend Harris wrote Dispatch No. 7 to Marcy, in 
which he described the mineral and other resources of Siam, the chief articles 
of import and export, and the manner of carrying on business in that country. 
(L. B., vol. I, pp. 66-69) 

203On the following day, Monday, June 9, 1856, Townsend Harris wrote 
Dispatch No. 8 to Marcy. While informing him of the appointment of the Rev. 
Mr. Mattoon, Townsend Harris launches into a eulogy of his appointee, and 
urges adequate remuneration and proper housing. (L. B., vol. i, pp. 69-72.) 

164 



Tuesday, June 10, l8^6. The mail leaves Hong 
kong to-day at two P. M., aad here we are about four 
hundred miles off. 

Wednesday, June II, 1 8 56. At noon we are 1 85 miles 
from Hongkong. We shall not, probably, reach there 
before eight P. M. At five P. M. wind breezes from N. E. 
Set square sails. 

Thursday, June 12, l8§6. We have had a fine wind 
from N. E. all night, and when I went on deck at seven 
A. M. found the Asses Ears in sight. Eight A. M. Chinese 
pilot came on board. 

Find my knowledge of the coast of some use, as Cap- 
tain Bell often refers to me. English frigate in sight at 
9 A. M. standing out. 

When she sees us, she wears and runs towards Hong- 
kong, keeping us close company. 

At one P. M. anchor near E. Point opposite Coal De- 
pot. U. S. Sloop Levant here. I am soon visited by Gen- 
eral Keenan, U. S. Consul, Mr. Bradley from Singa- 
pore, Mr. Armstrong^"* and Rev. Mr. Johnson. Get 
my letters and papers — a large bag of them. 

General Keenan invites me to take up my quarters on 
shore with him, which I gladly accept, and go on shore 
at four P. M. — fine large rooms and cool situation. 

Friday, June I^, 1856. The excitement of arriving 
here and reading my letters (which was not completed 
till one A. M.) prevented my sleeping, and I got up at 
six A. M. quite worn out. 

Visit the Governor Sir J. Bowring with Commodore 

20*Of the banking firm of Armstrong & Lawrence (see note 41). 

165 



Armstrong, Captain Bell and Captain Smith''"" of the 
Levant. Pleasant interview. Accept invitation to break- 
fast with him on Tuesday at eight and a half A. M. 

Mr. Drinker'"^ and Mr. Strachan call on me this 
evening. Go to bed at eight and a half P. M. and at once 
to sleep. 

Saturday, June 1 4, l8§6. From previous fatigue and 
want of sleep I did not awake until I was called at half- 
past nine. This prevented doing any work until noon. 
Hard at work all day writing.^°^ 

Tuesday, June I'J , 1856. Breakfast with Sir John 
Bowring, Commodore Armstrong, Captain Bell, Cap- 
tain Smith of Levant. Dr. Parker present.^"^ Heavy rain. 

Sir John gives me the late Dutch Convention with 
Japan to copy."°^ 



206Wiiiiam Smith, of Kentucky. 

Midshipman, Mar, 4, 1823; Passed Midshipman, Mar. 23, 1829; Lieutenant, 
Mar. 3, 1831; Commander, Sept. 12, 1854; Commodore, July 16, 1862; Retired 
List, Jan. 19, 1865; died, Apr. 29, 1873. (Hamersly, List, ed. 1901.) 

He commanded the Vixen, of the Home Squadron, 1851-52; the Levant, of 
the East India Squadron, 1857-58. (Hasse, Index, pt. 3, p. 1530. In pt. 2, p. 889, 
S.V., Levant, however, it is stated that Smith commanded the Levant from 1855 
to 1858.) 

206 Sand with Drinker. See note 40. 

207On this day Townsend Harris received a letter also from the Rev. D. J. 
Macgowan, dated Ningpo, June 8, 1856 (L. Gf P., vol. i, no. 39), in which the 
latter compares the Siamese and the Japanese, urges Townsend Harris to 
visit all the ports on his way to the "Rising Sun," and asks him to procure for 
him some Japanese books. 

208peter Parker, the missionary-physician who was at various times Secre- 
tary, Interpreter, and Charge of the American Legation in China, and finally 
Commissioner. In a letter to Townsend Harris dated Canton, Dec. 18, 1855 
(L. fef P., vol. I, no. 25), Mr. Drinker says: 

"People think Marcy had much better made you Commissioner to China 

than old Parker, which appointment gives general dissatisfaction." 

208in his Dispatch No. 9 to Marcy (£. B., vol. i, pp. 73-75, dated Hongkong, 
July 3, 1856), Townsend Harris says that Sir John (now Governor of Hong- 
kong) had favored him with an authentic copy in French of the Convention, 

166 



Sunday, June 22, l8^6. It has rained steadily and 
heavily for the last nine days. Do not go out at all ex- 
cept on Tuesday 17th. 

Hard at work the whole week getting my papers ready 
for Mr. Bradley.^^° 

Monday, July [June] 23, 1856. Send by W. C. 
Bradley, Esq., the following letters, under cover to 
N. Dougherty: 

Joseph Evans 
Commodore Perry 
H. Murray 

Mrs. Langlois and Mouse 

II a a u 

Miss Caroline D. Langlois 
E. P. Russell 
R. L. Crooke 
N. Dougherty 



(( 




(( 


u 




« 


M 


rs. 


Richard Schell 


P. 


M 


. Wetmore 


(< 


u 


u 



June 4, 


1856 




u 






25 






2 






25 






u 






16 






u 






7 






14 






25 






14 






9 






25 





and that he was therewith transmitting to the Department a translation of the 
same. 

Three days later (on Friday, June 20, 1856), Sir John Bowring kindly fur- 
nished Townsend Harris with more information of great importance — a state- 
ment concerning the fish trade of Siam and the Dutch monopoly of trade with 
Japan (Z,. Sf P., vol. 2, no. 64). 

2ioFor earlier history of Consul Bradley, see note 55. The wish which he 
expressed in his letter to Townsend Harris dated Jan. 30, 1856 (/.f.)> ^^s an- 
swered, for here we see him about to return to the United States as special 
bearer of dispatches. His special passport, signed by Townsend Harris, is 
dated June 20, 1856 (L. B., vol. i, pp. 88-89) '■> his Instructions, June 25, 1856 
(L. B., vol. I, pp. 87-88). 



167 



Henry Grinnell June 8, 1856 

B. A. Harris^^^ " 16 " 

W. L. Marcy (private) " ' 

The following per mail : 



(( 



Mrs. Eliza Harris'^' " 4 

Captain McDonald " 18 



The rain has happily ceased to-day, and Mr. Heusken 
started for a visit to Canton and Macao. I learn from 
Commodore Armstrong that it will require twelve to 
fifteen days' more work to get ready to start for Japan. 

Tuesday and Wednesday, June 24 and 2^, l8^6. Fair 
weather. Greatly disappointed in not being able to get 
over to Macao. 

Thursday, June 26, 1856. 5 .'30 P. M. start for Macao 
in J. B. Endicott's^" new steamer Lilly. Reach there in 
four hours, fifteen minutes. Find a large party at Mr. 
Drinker's, where I stop. 



-i^Miss Bessie Anne Harris, niece of Townsend Harris, who for so many 
years cared for the Letters and Papers of her uncle and who finally presented 
the valuable collection to The College of the City of New York — an institution 
which under the name of Free Academy was founded by Townsend Harris in 
1847. See The Establishment of The College of the City of Ne<w York as the 
Free Academy in 1847. Toiunsend Harris, Founder, by Mario Emilio Cosenza, 
published by The Associate Alumni of The College of the City of New York, 
1925. 

2i2Perhaps the reference is to Elizabeth Mayer, the second wife of John 
Watson Harris, one of Townsend Harris's older brothers and his business 
partner before he left for the Far East. 

2i3Captain James B. Endicott, for many years residing near Canton. While 
Captain of the American ship Ruparell, five Malays of his crew killed (Dec. 
24, 1854) a Chinaman on shore at Cumsingmoon in a fight over women (35-2, 
S. Ex. Doc., no. 22, pt. i — in Serial no. 982 — pp. 540-60). Later Captain Endi- 
cott commanded the Spark {ib., p. 560: Jan. 19, 1855). 

168 



Friday, June 2'J, l8^6. Still fine weather. Call on 
French Legation, or [viz.], 

Comte Rene de Courcy, Charge d'Affaires 

Comte Kleczkowski, of French Legation^^* 

Mr. P. Stewart''' 

Governor Guimaraes, Governor of Macao^" 

Mrs. Loureiro 

J. B. Endicott (no see) 

Mrs. Hunter 

S. B. Rawle — very sick — paralysis'" 

Saturday, June 28, l8^6. Receive calls from Comte 
de Courcy, Comte Kleczkowski, Governor Guimaraes, 
Mr. Stewart, Mr. Troplong, French Consul [at] Manila 
[and] fiance de Katy.'^* Mr. Heusken reaches here 
from Canton. 



2i4Comte Michel Kleczkowski, Secretary of thie French Legation. When M. 
de Courcy returned to Europe in 1857 (Z,. & P., vol. i, no. 62), Kleczkowski 
became First Secretary, and he served in this capacity under M. de Bourboulon, 
the French Minister Plenipotentiary in 1858 {L. & P., vol. i, no. 87). 

Kleczkowski afterwards became Charge d'Affaires at Pekin and, on his 
return to France, was made Professor of Chinese at the Ecole Nationale des 
langues orientales vivantes. In 1876 he published at Paris, in 2 volumes, a 
Cours graduel et complet de Chinois parte et ecrit. 

2i6Mr. Patrick Stewart, whose house is mentioned in the story of Captain 
Keppel's rescue of a young and foolish Englishman, who had been imprisoned 
at Macao in 1849 by orders of Governor Amaral (33-2, H. Ex. Doc, no. 97, vol. 
1, p. 301). 

^i^Isidoro Francisco Guimaraes, an officer of the Portuguese Navy and His 
Faithful Majesty's Governor of the Province of Macao, Timor and Solor. 

217S. B. Rawle, of Pennsylvania, U. S. Consul for Macao from 1856 to 1858. 

He was nominated on Mar. 11, 1856, in place of R. P. De Silver, resigned; 
consented to. Mar. 17, 1856. (Hasse, Index, pt 3, p. 1742.) 

He was a member of the firm of Rawle, Drinker & Co., Hongkong. (L. ST P., 
vol. I, no. 136, W. W. Whittlesey to Townsend Harris, dated Chicago, tth. 
4, 1859.) 

2i8The reference is to Catherine Ann Drinker, oldest of the four children 
of Henry Sandwith Drinker. Miss Drinker married Mr. Thomas AUibone 
Janvier on Sept. 26, 1878. She died rich in years and in honors, on July 19, 1922. 

169 



Write to-day the following letters : 

C. C. Currier dated July 3, 1856 
S. N. Greene " " " " 
William Hunter " " " " 

Wrote to Armstrong & Lawrence requesting them to 
ship four cases of presents for the President from the 
Second King of Siam to the Collector of the Port of 
New York, and to take five bills of lading. Also wrote to 
Captain Bell asking him to order the delivery of the 
four cases of presents now on board the San Jacinto to 
Messrs. Armstrong & Lawrence. A slight shower this 
morning, but weather still very fine. 

A Chinese brought a wildcat for sale to me. It was in 
a basket of openwork covered and lashed in a manner 
that of itself was a curiosity. The legs were so lashed 
that they were as stiff as sticks ; muzzle lashings enough 
to hold a dozen mad dogs — the poor creature could not 
open its mouth nor move a limb. It could wink and that 
was all. The body was very long — of a dirty yellow and 
spotted precisely like a leopard, except the spots were 
nearly round instead of angular in shape. On examina- 
tion I found [that] the pencil of hair on the tip of the 
ear, and which I had always seen in wildcats, was want- 
ing, and I expressed a doubt about the originality of the 
ivildness, but I was groaned down. The basket, as I 
said before, was cpen ; you could see, but not touch. 

On hearing the groans, I made a more careful survey 
and lol the spots were forged/// 

The Chinaman had procured a species of resin, very 

170 



dark colored, and with this and the aid of a hot iron had 
made the spots ! — manufactured out of a poor harmless 
"roof scrambler" a fierce wildcat ! I tore the basket open, 
and the forgery was soon made manifest, and I gained 
great applause. 

Monday, June 30, 1856. Still enjoying the delicious 
weather on the Praya Grande at Macao. Heard a story 
of a countryman who commanded an American clipper 
loaded for London. While going down the China Seas, 
his dearly beloved wife died. He did not like to let the 
fishes feed on her. He was a temperance man and had 
no spirits on board. What to do? 

On reflection he remembered he had some cassia oil 
on board. The recollection inspired the man! He pro- 
cured a large water cask in which he headed up the re- 
mains of his dear wife, and then filled up the cask with 
cassia oil! It was worthy of the best days of Egyptian 
embalming. His triumph in cheating the fishes assuaged 
his grief for his loss, and he ate a hearty dinner. The man 
was consoled. On his arrival in London, he went at once 
to the consignees of the oil, and like an honest man told 
them what he had done and asked, "What's the damage?" 
In reply he was told £1,000!!!! He was near joining 
his truly dear wife. It appeared that the oil had from 
various causes been very high in China and had come to 
an excellent market in London. In the end he paid £900, 
$4,500. 

It is said that he then drew forth the remains of his 
wife and had her buried in London. And it is also said 
that he carefully put up the oil in its original jars and 

171 



took it home with him to America, where peradventure 
it is now being consumed in various shapes.^" 

Wednesday, July 2, 1856. Remained at Macao until 
six P. M. Went on board Lily. Mr. Heusken nearly left 
behind. Started at seven twenty-five; went Cap-Sing- 
Moon passage, arrived at eleven twenty-five P. M., and 
at 12 :oo at my quarters with General Keenan. 

Thursday, July ^, 1856. Go on board San Jacinto. 
She expects to sail Monday [the] 7th. Meet the Commo- 
dore on shore. General Keenan has a new jurisdiction 
case. Attend to various matters. Write Nos. 9 and 10 to 
[the] Department,"'" also write P. M. Wetmore, New 
York. 

Friday, July 4, 18^6. Attend to closing dispatches 
for Mr. Bradley and the duplicates to be forwarded by 
the August mail. 

General Keenan has a large dinner party in honor 
of the day. Do not attend, as I wish to avoid all such 
affairs which are sure to run into excess of noise and 
drinking. Twenty-two sat down to table, and some of 
them remained until two A. M. of the next day. The San 
Jacinto was finely decorated with flags and fired a 
national salute at noon. 



2i0On this day, President Franklin Pierce nominated Townsend Harris Con- 
sul General for Japan (8. Ex. J'l, vol. lo, p. 112). 

220Dispatch No. 9 {L. B., vol. i, pp. 73-75) tells of his arrival at Hongkong; 
of the repairs to the San Jacinto; of the receipt from Sir John Bowring of a 
French translation of the Dutch Convention with Japan, etc., etc. 

Dispatch No. 10 (L. B,, vol. i, pp. 75-85) gives an accurate account of his 
disbursements to date, under the three headings of presents for the Kings of 
Siam, expenses of the Mission to Siam, and salary of Mr. Heusken. 

Dispatch No. 11 of same date (L. B., vol. i, p. 86) encloses duplicates of 
the Siam Treaty, and of former Dispatches Nos. 5-10 incl. 

172 



There are many American ships in the harbor, and 
were finely dressed and most of them fired salutes. A 
poor man lost his left and three fingers of his right hand 
in firing on board the Sam Willets. 

Saturday, July §, 1 8 §6. Give to C. W. Bradley, Esq., 
American Consul at Singapore, the dispatches and 
Siamese Treaty with his passport"^ as special bearer of 
dispatches and letter of instructions, and also gave to 
General Keenan the duplicates of the Treaty and my 
letters to be forwarded by the mail of August loth. 

Hired a cook and his mate at sixteen dollars per month 
for the two; a tailor and washman at fourteen dollars 
per mensem each. I am to furnish them their food on 
board ship and after my arrival at Shimoda, and after 
one year, if they do not wish to stay longer, I am to give 
them a free passage to Hongkong. 

Busy in picking up a few articles of furniture — hard 
to be obtained. 

The word now is that the San Jacinto will be ready to 
sail on Monday evening next. 

Sunday, July 6, l8^6. Visit San Jacinto. Learn she 
cannot leave before Wednesday next. Mr. Dixon, of 
China, sends me a North China Herald of June 2ist, 
with account of a visit to Nagasaki and Shimoda by 
some Americans (Mr. Cunningham,^" late Vice-Consui 
at Shanghai, among others). Great compliants of high 



22iThis passport was signed by Townsend Harris, and is dated June 20, 
1856 (I, B., vol. I, pp. 88-89). 

222Edward Cunningham: U, S. Vice-Consul at Shanghai, 1852-54; Acting 
Consul, 1856 (Hasse, Index, pt. 1, p. 458). 



prices and unwillingness to give supplies or permit 
trade. The following are the quotations of prices : 



Firewood per picuJ 

Chickens each 

Eggs 

Sweet potatoes per catty 

White rice per picul 

Brown sugar per picul 

Beans per catty 

Exchange: i,6oo cash per Mexican dollar; 

I ichibu given for $i, or 66 2/3% discount. 

They offered to barter silver watches and revolvers, 
but were not allowed to do so, it being plain the authori- 
ties prevented the traffic. 

San Jacinto will not leave before Wednesday morn- 
ing, 9th instant. 

See Book No. 3 



Shimoda 


Shanghai 


278 cash 
672 " 
18 " 


300 cash 
1 80 & 200 " 
6 " 


II " 


10 " 


4,440 " 
$i6>^ 
15 cash 


3,500 " 

$SV2 

10 cash 



174 



Journal No. 3 

Commencing July 7, 1856 
Ending February 25, 1857 

Journal No. [3] 

Monday, July J, 1856. Write to H. Redfield, Esq., 
Collector of the Port of New York,^^^ enclosing to him 
a bill of lading for the presents for the President from 
the Second King of Siam. Also to W. L. Marcy,^^"* giving 
him a copy of the above letter and also a bill of lading. 
Make various calls : Sir John Bowring, C. Anstey, Esq., 
Attorney General, Captain Twiss, R. A., C. Turner, 
Esq., Barrister, and several others. See about some 
purchases."** 

Tuesday, July 8, 1 8 §6. Settle my accounts with Arm- 
strong & Lawrence by giving them a draft on Purser 
Bradford for $525. Engage a butler or head boy at fifteen 
dollars per month — but fear he will not go as he cannot 
get security for the advance, and without that he cannot 
or will not go. Finish all my affairs at two P. M., and 



--^Hemon J. Redfield. The letter itself ( L. B., vol. i, p. 87), however, is 
dated July 8th. The four cases containing the presents for the President of the 
United States were shipped by the Redgauntlet. 

-2*Dispatch No. 12 (L. B., vol. i, p. 86), likewise dated Hongkong, July 8th. 

2260n this day. President Pierce's nomination of Townsend Harris as Con- 
sul General to Japan was received by the Senate, read, and referred to the 



return to my quarters at Consul Keenan's. Weather 
very hot; covered with prickly heat. 

Wednesday, July Q, 1856. This morning the butler 
Assam completed his security and I advanced him three 
months wages or forty-five dollars. Go on board at eight 
A. M. Find the engineers have not yet completed their 
work, so that we cannot get away to-day. All my people 
come on board. 

Thursday, July 10, l8§6. The San Jacinto got under 
way at five A. M., but after running one mile came to a 
dead stop. Cause — the propeller has lost the keys that 
confine it on the shaft — has slipped down so far that it 
overlaps the outer stern post to which it gave several 
blows that shook the whole ship. It has been determined 
to put the ship into dock at Whampoa for repairs. She is 
to be towed up"* there on Saturday next by the steamers 
Canton and Willamette.'^" 

A trying delay for me. I am losing some fourteen 



Committee on Commerce (S. Ex. J'l, vol. lo, pp. 112, 115). And at the other end 
of the world, on the following day (Tuesday, July 8, 1856), the French mis- 
sion concluded a treaty with Siam; cf. the extract quoted above (note 84) from 
Consul Bradley's letter dated Singapore, Jan. 30, 1856 {L. £f P., vol. i, no. 28). 

226For an account of this "tow" on Saturday, July 12th, and of the chagrin 
of the Americans as they passed the British Frigate Nankin, see Wood, Fank- 
ivei, p. 274. The chagrin was due to the fact that, in order to enter the dock 
at Whampoa, the San Jacinto had to be lightened so as to draw not more than 
sixteen feet of water. All coal, water, provisions and even the guns had to be 
removed ; and we can all feel the chagrin of the Americans when, not moving 
proudly on her own steam, but "humbly dragging in the wake of two steam- 
boats," the San Jacinto had to pass in review, as it were, and the band of 
the British Frigate Nankin struck up "Hail, Columbia." No wonder the in- 
tended compliment felt like a satire! 

227The American ship Willamette, Captain William Curry. On the evening 
of Jan. 31, 1856, she was towing a Chinese junk from Hongkong to Canton. 
When near the second bar inside the Bocca Tigris, she was fired upon by 
several mandarin boats. (Consul O. H. Perry to Dr. Parker, Canton, Feb. 16, 
1856: 35-2, S. Ex. Doc, no. 22, pt. 2 — in Serial no. 983 — pp. 755-57.) 

176 



dollars per day salary besides the wages of my servants, 
some sixty dollars per month.^" 

Friday, July II, 1 8^6. Rainy. Go over to Macao"" 
in the Lilly. Leave at four P. M. and arrive at eight 
twenty. Captain Hildreth of the American ship Sancho 
Panza on board. 

Monday, July 14, 1856. The weather has been so 
showery and uncertain since my arrival. I have not made 
any visits to-day; it sets in for a storm apparently. 
Barometer, 29.55, wind fresh from N. N. E. 

Tuesday, July 15, 1856. Blowing quite sharp. 
Barometer, 29.38, much rain ; wind veers from N. N. E. 
to S. E. by S. Impossible to go out. 

2280n this day, Townsend Harris also wrote to Secretary Marcy (L. B., vol. 
I, pp. 89-90), informing him that the San Jacinto had to be put into dock for 
repairs, and impatiently adding that he would avail himself of the first oppor- 
tunity of a passage to Japan without waiting for the San Jacinto. 

On July 10th, also, the overland mail left Hongkong in the steamer for the 
Red Sea ; and on board the steamer was Consul Charles William Bradley, Sr., 
special dispatch bearer to far-off Washington, D. C, taking home the Treaty 
just concluded with Siam (Wood, op. cit., p. 273). And so, after seven years 
of service in the Far East — as U. S. Consul successively at Amoy, Ningpo, and 
Singapore — Bradley started on the long-wished-for journey home. His earnest 
plea had been written to Townsend Harris on Jan. 30, 1856 {L. & P., vol. i, 
no. 28 ) : 

"I am not advised, Sir, whether you have brought a Secretary in your 
suite ; but, if not, I shall be much obliged if you can give me that post, and 
send me home as bearer of the Treaty. ... I must return to the United 
States during the coming Spring — (my salary of $1,000 per annum being too 
little, by half, for a decent but most economical subsistence,) — and if I can 
be sent there in the capacity of which I have spoken, it will save me the 
expense of a voyage, — a matter which I can illy afford." 
220 At Macao Townsend Harris stayed with the Drinkers, who had a sum- 
mer home in that city and a >winter home at Hongkong. It was on one of these 
visits to Macao that Townsend Harris presented to Miss Catherine Ann 
Drinker ("Kat") the small clay model of the white elephant which had been 
given to him by the Second King of Siam. At the same time Townsend Hai-ris 
gave her a copy of the Second King's autograph. Almost forty years later 
(on Mar. 7, 1905), Mrs. Thomas Allibone Janvier (nee Miss C. A. Drinker) 
presented this model of Siam's white elephant to the American Geographical 
Society, in New York, where the present writer found it. (See also the Janvier 
Letters in the manuscript collections of The New York Public Library.) 

177 



Thursday, July IJ, 1856. The blow appears to be 
over, but it is still wet. Squalls and showers. Wind S. by 
E. to S. by W. 

Get a letter from Captain Bell, saying the San 
Jacinto got up to Whampoa on Sunday morning and 
would go into dock on Friday or Saturday following. 
Also letter from Captain Endicott. 

Wrote to Captain Bell by the Lilly which went up this 
morning. Barometer, 29.55. 

Wetmore & Co. of Canton, Shanghai, Foo-chau and 
New York, have stopped payment.^^" 

Report says it was entirely uncalled for, that Mr. 
Roberts could easily have procured all the money he 
wanted. Some say it has been purposely done by Roberts. 
The House is said to be solvent. Hear of the death of a 
Mr. Randall Cunningham, a young man in the House 

28oxhe founder of the house was William S. Wetmore, whose uncle (Samuel 
Wetmore) was the partner of Mr. Edward Carrington of Providence, Rhode 
Island — in those days the largest shipowner and East India merchant in the 
United States. Young William S. Wetmore in 1824 became a member of the 
great house of Alsop, Wetmore & Cryder, in Valparaiso, Chile, and in Lima, 
Peru. In 1831 he retired from the firm with a large fortune, returned to the 
United States, and then went to China. At Canton he established, together with 
Joseph Archer of Philadelphia, the house of Wetmore & Co., and succeeded 
to the large and profitable business of Nathan Dunn & Co. (Barrett, Old 
Merchants, vol. 2, pt. i, pp. 293-300.) 

In a long letter to Townsend Harris, dated Hongkong, Apr. 3, 1857 {L. Sf 
P., vol. I, no. 62), Mr. S. Drinker says of the faili^re of Wetmore & Co.: 

"I am not sure whether Nye had failed before you left for four million. 
Wetmore also failed through the rascality of Roberts. He found he was not 
to be included in the new firm and failed with $32,000 in the treasury. The 
old folks were most savage and immediately sent out L. Sheppard Wetmore 
and paid in full. Moore died owing the concern $30,000. By the failure poor 
Lamson lost all." 

And again, on June 15, 1857, Mr. Drinker writes (L. & P., vol. i, no. 69) : 

". . . also poor old Davis [is dead], of Wetmore & Co., formerly; and 
that House has resumed under the style of Wetmore, Williams & Co., and in 
the circular state the House was never insolvent. They accuse Roberts of a 
fraudulent failure. They have paid off every dollar and have a surplus." 

178 



of Heard & Co., at Foo-chau. He was killed by the 
Chinese in a street row, for improperly interfering."^ 
When will men learn to mind their own business? 

Saturday, July IQ, 1856. Rain, rain, constantly 
raining. I cannot get out for any exercise, and my health 
suffers accordingly. I learn the rain has extended all 
along the coast, but the wind has not been so heavy as at 
Macao. It is still squally. Mr. Drinker comes over this 
evening from Hongkong in the new steamer Shamrock, 
The Lilly also down from Canton — nothing new from 
the San Jacinto.^^^ 



23iTownsend Harris had the name wrong. The murdered man was Howard 
Cunningham, of Boston, Massachusetts. All the necessary references to the 
government documents are to be found in Hasse, Index, pt. i, p. 320. The main 
details are best told in a communication by Commissioner Parker to Wang, 
Viceroy of the Min and Cheh Provinces, Foo-Chow-foo. This letter is dated 
U. S. Legation, Foo-Chow, July 22, 1856, and in it Parker says (35-2, S. Ex. 
Doc, no. 22, pt. 2 — in Serial no. 983 — p. 882) : 

"Being informed of some difficulty in the removal of some property 
[furniture] from the old hong of Messrs. Heard & Co. [in the western part 
of Nantae] to the new one [in the eastern suburbs], Mr. Comstock, the head 
of the firm [in Foo-Chow], went to the street to ascertain the state of the 
case, and, on seeing one of the men in his employ beaten by the men in thv 
street, very quietly asked them to desist; he was pushed down, and then 
knocked down, but, fortunately escaping, ran to the United States Consul, 
informing him of what had occurred. Soon after, Mr. H. Cunningham, an- 
other gentleman in the house of Messrs. A[ugustine] Heard & Co., [and 
Mr. Vaughan] went into the street, and, as it is believed [because he died 
without being able to tell], he, knowing that Mr. Comstock had preceded him, 
on arriving at the spot after he [Comstock] had fled to the consulate, seeing 
his chair but not seeing Mr. Comstock, supposed him to be in the crowd, 
and therefore he rushed in to rescue him, and not to take part in the difficulty 
between the Chinese [the hostile clans of Foo-Chow and Canton men — the 
latter of whom were in the employ of Heard & Co.]. In this most com- 
mendable eflPort to aflFord aid to the head of the house he was cruelly mur- 
dered [July 3, 1856], and I request your Excellency will not again represent 
it as 'joining the Chinese in a fight.' " 

The whole affair must have been presented to Townsend Harris only in the 
aspect characterized by the closing phrase. (C/. also the statement by Dr. 
Parker to Secretary Marcy, dated July 26, 1856. lb., p. 868). 

2S2Xhe San Jacinto on this day went into drydock at Whampoa. See Journal, 
July 10, 1856; and L. & P., vol. i, no. 40, a letter from Captain H. H. Bell, 
dated Whampoa, July 2t, 1856, to Townsend Harris, then at Macao. 

179 



Monday, July 21, 1856. Mr. Drinker went over to 
Hongkong this morning at seven o'clock in the Sham- 
rock. 

Called on the Governor of Macao and Mrs. Spooner. 
Did not see either. Then to Mr. Hunter's,"' Mr. Rav^^le's 
and Mr. Stewart's. Saw all. The bi-monthly mail from 
Hongkong to England is re-established. 

Write to N. Dougherty, to go by the mail on the 24th 
instant from Hongkong. 

Write to General Keenan, U. S. Consul, and Arm- 
strong & Lawrence, all at Hongkong. 

Tuesday, July 22, l8§6. Commodore Armstrong and 
Dr. Wood come down from Canton this afternoon. Re- 
ceive letter from Captain Bell."* The San Jacinto went 
into dock on the 19th. Captain Bell writes that it will re- 
quire two weeks for repairs to the propeller and another 
week to get ready for sea. Received letter from Mr. 
Heusken; he is at Canton. Have been reading Hue's 
Journey from the Great Wall to Canton — full of lively 
sketches, gross credulity and astounding errors."" 



233Very probably this is the Mr. W. C. Hunter who in Oct., 1854, recom- 
mended Captain 8. Drinker (Townsend Harris's great friend) for the hiring 
of vessels and enlisting of men and soldiers to exterminate the pirates and rob- 
bers in the townships of Shawan and Kau-Tong. For the failure of this con- 
tract and for the resulting lawsuit, read the statement by Leang King Kwa and 
other documents in 35-2, S. Ex. Doc., no. 22, pt. 2 — in Serial no. 983 — pp. 
704-12. 

23*1,. Sf P., vol. I, no. 40; see note 232. 

235The Abbe Hue, variously referred to as Missionary Apostolic in China, 
and Missionary Priest of the Congregation of St. Lazarus, The text may refer 
to Hue's Recollections of a Journey through Tartary, Thibet, and China dur- 
ing the years 1844, 1845, and 1846, published at New York, by D. Appleton 
,& Co. in 1852, in two volumes. Indeed, Townsend Harris may have obtained 
this work in New York on Oct. 8, 1855, the day when he bought, at Appleton's, 
books and maps for the Kings of Siam to the value of $182 (L. B., vol. i, p. x). 

180 



Wednesday, July 23, 1856. Call on Commodore 
Armstrong, Mr. Troplong and the French Legation — 
only leave cards at the last two places. 

Commodore Armstrong, Dr. Wood and Mr. O. H. 
Perry, U. S. Consul at Canton, call on me to-day. 

Write to Captain Bell, now at Whampoa, in answer 
to his letter of 21st inst. and send it per hands of Mr. 
Perry, who goes up in the morning. Weather again 
threatening. Wind N. Barometer, 29.50 and falling. 
Clouds heavy, with occasional spurts of rain. 

At night, wind heavy with much rain. Barometer fell 
to 29.35 at eleven P. M. 

Thursday, July 24, Friday 2^, Saturday 26, and Sun- 
day 22, 1856. Constant and heavy rains with a gale of 
wind from N. by W. to S. S. E. Twelve houses have 
fallen in consequence of the walls being sapped by the 
water, and a large number are damaged. 

On Saturday night a house fell in Senate Square kill- 
ing a woman and child. A second child which was on the 
same bed with the woman and child escaped without any 
injury. Friday evening went to a quiet party at Mr. 
Hunter's. Got home at midnight. 

Monday, July 28, 1856. Calm and no rain, but the 
weather is not yet settled. The wind hangs in the N. E. 
quarter. I learn that the rice crop of this vicinity is more 
than half lost, and it is said that even greater damage has 
been felt in the eastern provinces. Wrote Armstrong & 
Lawrence that I had drawn on them in favor of Jose 
Maria de Fonseca for fifty dollars. He paid me par for 
my draft. Four P. M. rain again set in 

181 



Thursday, July SI, 1 8 §6. The rain has continued 
since Monday, with strong winds. Sad accounts from 
the country. Houses are falling in all directions. Rice 
lands are all overflown. Crops supposed to be half lost. 
Rice has advanced in price at retail lOO per cent. 

Receive letter from Mr. Lewis, First Lieutenant of 
Frigate. Says the repairs will be completed and the ship 
come out of dock on Saturday, 2nd [of] August. 

Receive my newspapers from New York up to 20th 
of May, also a letter from Lieutenant J. N. Guest, 
U. S. N.^^^ 

Friday, August I, 1856. No rain, but still cloudy. 
Wind S. by W. Make some calls. Write to Captain Bell 
and Lieutenant Lewis. Rain at four P. M. 

Saturday, August 2, 1856. Advance five dollars to 
Assam my butler, and give him leave for two days to go 
to his village to see after his family, his house having 
fallen. 

Showery all day.^" 

Monday, August 4, 1856. Last night the Dutch bark 



236^ ^ P., vol. 1, no. 35, dated Washington, D. C, Apr. 15, 1856. Lieutenant 
Guest must have been an intimate friend, for he thanks Townsend Harris for 
gifts sent from Paris to his little daughter "Nan," and expresses himself famil- 
iarly on other matters: 

"I sometimes think I should like to be your companion in your Japan exile. 
. . . The grand question in our party ranks is touching the nominee of the 
[Democratic] Cincinnati Convention in June. . . . Buchanan stock rises 
daily. . . . We are sure to have a Democratic President, old fellow, so 
you can stay in Japan as long as you like." 

Townsend Harris's appointment as Consul General for Japan was confirmed 
by the Senate on this day — ^July 31, 1856 (S. Ex. J'l, vol. 10, p. 131) ; and Town- 
send Harris resigned his office of Minister Resident to Japan when Lincoln, 
a Republican, became President. 

^STThe San Jacinto came out of drydock on this day {L. B., vol. i, p. 90, 
Dispatch No. 14 to Secretary Marcy, dated Hongkong, Aug. 9, 1856). 

182 



Banka, having on board 270 coolies for Havana, was 
burned to the water's edge, in Macao Roads, about four 
miles from the Praya Grande. It is rumored that 120 
lives were lost. 

Fine weather yesterday and to-day. 

Tuesday, August §, l8^6. Captain Bell writes to 
Commodore Armstrong that the San Jacinto came out of 
dock on Saturday and will be ready for sea on Thursday 
the 7th inst. Made arrangements to go over to Hongkong 
to meet the San Jacinto on Thursday next. 

Mr. Heusken, who has been at Canton since the 15th 
of July, writes me he should go to Hongkong yester- 
day.^^* Write him that the San Jacinto will come down to 
Hongkong on Thursday. 

The inquiry into the loss of the Banka by the Governor 
of this place finished to-day. 

There is no doubt the ship was purposely set on fire 
by the Chinese coolies, who were composed of the worst 
class of this district — vagabonds, thieves and pirates. It 
was proved that the Chinese threw all sorts of combust- 
ibles on the fire, which was kindled under the cabin. 

Soon after the fire was discovered, the Captain 
ordered his crew to fire their muskets and pistols on the 
Chinese, and then two carronades, loaded with canister 
shot, were run in board and fired among the coolies who 
thronged the spar-deck. 

It appears the coolies were dissatisfied and were trying 
to desert. The Captain knew this and had all the crew 

238£, gf p.^ vol. i^ p. ^ij dated Canton, Aug. 2, 1856. Mr. Heusken said, "I am 
going to-morrow to Hongkong," which would make him arrive at Hongkong 
on the 3rd, and not on the 4th, as Townsend Harris says. 

183 



armed. It is proved beyond doubt that the Captain, four 
of the crew, and 120 Chinese were lost. A sad affair, and 
is one other black page in the history of this new form of 
the slave trade."^ 

Rain sets in again at 4 P. M., with bright lightning all 
night. 

Wednesday, August 6, l8§6. It is clear that the 
Captain and all the crew of the Banka were more or less 
intoxicated when the fire broke out on board the bark. 

Had the proper police been observed, the fire would 
have been discovered as soon as it was set. My tailor has 
been gambling, lost all his money, and now impudently 
demands one month's wages. I, having already advanced 
him three months, refused. Soon afterwards he sent 
the butler to inform me that he had not only lost his 
money, but had pawned all his clothes and even his 
sleeping mat and blanket, and asked for five dollars 
to redeem them. I again refused, but will take them 
out of pawn to-morrow and keep them until I get him 
on board ship. 

Steady rain this morning. Wind W. S. W. Baro- 
meter, 29.50. Get papers from Shanghai up to the ist 
inst. Strange to say, prayers are offered, processions 
made, etc., etc., at Shanghai for rain, as it appears they 
are suffering from a drought. 

Thursday, August J, 1856. Mrs. E. E. Spooner, 
wife of Mr. D. N. Spooner,'*" of the house of Russell & 



239For a shorter account of the destruction of the Banka at Macao, see Wood, 
Fank<wei, p. 295. 

z^oDaniel N. Spooner, Vice-Consul of the United States at Canton, 1853-56. 
(Hasse, Index, pt 3, p. 1715.) 

184 



Co., sent me seventy-five dollars to purchase articles 
of Japanese manufacture for her. I have before this 
received orders amounting to thousands of dollars for 
similar purposes, but this is the first one that was accom- 
panied with money, and assuredly it will be the first 
one to be attended to. Mrs. Spooner's letter explains 
what she desires me to procure for her, in general terms. 

Wrote to Armstrong & Lawrence that I had drawn on 
them for twenty dollars in favor of Jose Maria de 
Fonseca, of Macao. 

Weather still rainy. The Spark came in at six P. M. 
from Canton, and was circulated to go over to Hong- 
kong in one hour after her arrival, but as the weather 
is so bad, she is detained until after to-morrow morn- 
ing. Commodore Armstrong has also been detained 
here, and will not join the San Jacinto before to- 
morrow. 

Friday, August 8, 1856. Up at five A. M. Start for 
Hongkong at seven-twenty in the Spark. Weather 
wet. Arrive at twelve o'clock. Go up to house of 
General Keenan. Fear I shall not get away from here 
before Wednesday next. 

Rain in the evening. 

Saturday, August g, l8^6. Get up late, after a 
good long sleep. Breakfast at ten A. M. Mr. Heusken 
joins me at eleven A. M. 

Write W. L. Marcy, Dispatch No. 14'" 

^"Dispatch No. 14, L. B., vol. i, pp. 90-91. After informing Secretary Marcy 
that the San Jacinto has been repaired, Townsend Harris expresses the hope 
that his next dispatch will be dated Shimoda. He adds that the Dutch Govern- 

185 



N. Dougherty, New York 

C. HufTnagle, U. S. Consul General, Calcutta. 

Request Mr. Huffnagle to send me six bottles of sweet 
sliced chutney, and six bottles curry powder, and send 
to Armstrong & Lawrence, Hongkong, who will pay 
for the same. 

The San Jacinto came down at eleven A. M.; but, 
having anchored at some distance from my lodgings 
and under the Kowloon shore, I did not hear of her 
arrival until three P. M. 

On looking over my copy of "Instructions to 
Consuls," I find that four leaves, beginning at page 
148 and ending with page 152, are omitted by the 
binder, and that they contain forms Nos. i to 9 in- 
clusive. I must have copies made from the copy of 
General Keenan. 

Rain in showers all day. Walk five miles on the 
verandah in the evening. My tailor has absconded — 
sent to every gambling house and other disreputable 
place, but he cannot be found. 

Sunday, August 10, 1856. Get up at eight after a 
very bad night. Rain and fog. Go on board the San 
Jacinto. Learn she will leave to-morrow evening or 
Tuesday morning at daylight. Called on the security 



ment steamer Medusa (Captain Fabius) had left Hongkong for Nagasaki a 
few days before, bearing (presumably) the ratified Convention which the 
Dutch had concluded with Japan. 

The reference is to the Preliminary Convention of Commerce signed by the 
Japanese authorities and by Curtius at Nagasaki on Nov. 9, 1855. For the text 
of this Convention, see J. H. Gubbins, The Progress of Japan, App. 8, pp. 
245-50; and J. M. Tronson, Personal Narrative of a Voyage to Japan, etc., 
pp. 44-51- 

186 



of my tailor for the forty-two dollars I had advanced 
him, — when he went out and in twenty minutes 
brought the man to me tied hand and foot. I ordered 
him to be sent on board and wrote to Captain Bell, 
requesting him to receive the tailor and not permit him 
to leave the ship without my permission. 

Wrote to Mrs. Drinker, dated to-morrow, and to 
Armstrong & Lawrence, informing the latter that I 
had ordered some chutney, etc., from C. Huffnagle, 
Esq., U. S. Consul General at Calcutta, and requested 
them to pay for the same. 

Also requested them to mark the postage in cents on 
all letters and papers for me; to ask from time to time 
of the Commodore when a ship would go to Japan; 
and to send my letters, etc., by her. Also requested them 
to inform Mrs. Drinker at Macao when a ship v/as 
going to Shimoda. 

Monday, August II, 1856. The tailor did not go 
on board yesterday. Had him sought for again and at 
last got him on board. 

To charge him three dollars for absence at Macao 
and one dollar for the same reason at Hongkong. 

Send the butler and my luggage on board at one 
P. M. Visit Mr. Strachan,^*^ Armstrong & Lawrence 
and Mr. Drinker. Go on board at four-thirty P. M. 
Near the San Jacinto, the English seventy-four gun 
ship Minden lay; she is now used as a hospital ship. 
It was on board this ship that the words of "The Star 

242He is just mentioned in L. Sf P., vol. i, no. 62; and in ib., no. 39, Ningpo, 
June 8, 1856, the Rev. D. J. Macgowan tells Townsend Harris: "Mr. Strachan 
makes a friendly notice in his Register of your [Siam?] mission." 

187 



spangled Banner" were composed.^** The music is an 
old English air, "Anacreon in Heaven." The Minden 
was one of the ships that bombarded Fort McHenry in 
Baltimore Bay. As usual, the purser cannot close his 
business to-day. Note : pursers are always behind time. 
Rain in showers to-day. 

Do not finish coaling and water until nearly midnight. 

Tuesday, August 12, 1856. Purser not ready until 
one P. M., when we get under way^** — in a shower, of 
course. The screw works much more smoothly than 
before the last repairs. As we run out of the passage 
eastward, we run into and out of our last rain for to-day. 
As soon as we are out clear of Hongkong Island, we 
get the true monsoon from S. W., and all sail is made. 

Weather pleasant for the rest of the day. I counted 
eight tide rips between nine and ten-thirty P. M. Left 
Hongkong by the Ly-moon passage. 

Wednesday, August 13, 1856. Fine weather and 
the ship going along very well — eight knots per hour. 
Mr. Heusken begins to copy our back work. My cook 
sick. Ask Dr. David to see him. Run, 168 miles. 

Von Siebold"' says that coal exists in the Island of 

2*3See The Americana, s. v., "Star Spangled Banner." It is interesting to note 
that the miniature of Townsend Harris as a young man, painted on ivory by 
John Wesley Jarvis in 1823, was exhibited at the Loan Exhibition of Colonial, 
Revolutionary, and Historical Relics for the benefit of a fund to erect a monu- 
ment over the grave of Francis Scott Key. 

2*4Wood, op. cit., p. 295. 

""Dr. Philipp Franz Von Siebold, born in Wurzburg, Bavaria, Feb. 17, 
1796. In 1823 he was appointed physician to the Dutch Factory at Deshima. 
Associating with the people for six years as closely as possible because of 
his medical practice, he became intimately acquainted with all things Japanese. 
He gave lectures and examined patients at the houses of the Japanese inter- 
preters; later he was granted permission to open a medical school at Narutaki, 
a suburb of Nagasaki; and he also publicly practiced his profession beyond 

188 



Kyushu. At Koyanosi he saw a coal fire. At Wukumoto 
he visited a coal mine. Although he was not permitted 
to descend the shaft for more than sixty steps, he saw 
enough to convince him that the shaft was well and 
judiciously worked. He was told the lower strata were 
several feet in thickness, and the size of the blocks he 
saw drawn up confirmed the statement. The coal is 
bituminous, and is converted into coke for use by the 
Japanese. Run, i66 miles up to noon. [In] P. M. breeze 
freshens. At six P. M. are making eleven and a half 
knots per hour. At midnight were up to the Pescadores 
Islands. A large sea on after five P. M. Lovely evening — 
bright moon — planets like young suns, and a fine cool 
breeze. 

Thursday, August 14, 1856. Sea began to go down 
and wind to fail at three A. M. At seven sight the Island 
of Formosa. See a brig and two other sail. Weather 
thick and warm; threatens rain; wind very light. 

The distance run to-day from observation to obser- 
vation, 227 nautical miles, actual distance 242. Barom- 
eter at two P. M. down to 29.32. Rain. Wind died 
away at 6 P. M. Showery all the evening. 

Friday, August 15, 1856. Calm and showery. Six 
A. M. saw a junk at anchor ; this morning, ten A. M., see 



the walls of Deshima. See the encyclopaedias; but especially Osada's 
Life of Takano Nagahide, translated and edited with an introduction by the 
Rev. Dr. Dani.el Crosby Greene, in Transactions of the Asiatic Society of 
Japan, Vol. XLI, pt. 3, Aug. 1913, pp. 401-03; and Richard Hildreth, Japan 
and the Japanese, pp. 488-90, and Japan as It JVas and Is, pp. 488-90. 

Siebold wrote many books, chief of which was Nippon: Archiv zur Be- 
schreibung von Japan, etc., in 5 quarto volumes of text and 6 folio volumes of 
atlas and engravings — a work on which he toiled from 1832 to 1851. He died 
Oct. t8, 1866. 

189 



a number of cases floating — lower a boat to pick them 
up — prove to be li-chi and other dried fruits — quite 
spoiled. Dr. Wood pays me thirty-five dollars formerly 
lent to him. Run to-day, 174 miles. Discovered a man 
floating on a raft made of bamboos. He was brought on 
board and proves to be a Uhin-chew man who sailed 
from Canton fourteen days since in a junk bound for 
Shanghai. Four days since, suffered from a typhoon, 
which tore the junk to pieces and finally sank, carrying 
twenty-nine men in her. He says he was the only one 
who got on the raft and that he was on it two days. 
Both these statements were doubtful. The raft was 
large and well made and must have taken a number of 
men some time to make it. He was not as much ex- 
hausted as he must have been had he been forty-eight 
hours on the raft without food or water. The packages 
we picked up belonged no doubt to this junk."^ 

Two and a half P. M. discovered a junk dismasted. 
We run down to her. She proves to be a junk from Can- 
ton to Shanghai, sugar laden, value $8,000. Has lost her 
mainmast and rudder. Says she was in sight of land four 
days ago when she met a typhoon which blew her off 
her [course]. Has no compass — wanted to be towed 
in to the land again. This we could not do. Gave her 
a compass^*^ and sailing directions for the Island of 
Agincourt,^*^ south fifty miles. 

While lying by this junk discover another wreck— 



246\yood, op. cit., pp. 296-97. 

2*7Wood, op. cit., p. 297. 

2*8Xhis island is just off the northern end of Formosa, or Taiwan. 

190 



apparently European, under jury foremast. Run for 
her; but, on reaching her, we found she was a Shantung 
mandarin junk of nine guns and fifty-three men. The 
commander said the junk was leaky and wished to be 
taken off with his crew, — which was done and the junk 
set on fire.^*^ Before this last work was completed, an- 
other dismasted junk was discovered about six miles 
off. On reaching her, we found [she] was a large 
Whampoa junk, laden with sapan wood and sugar, 
and bound to a port in the Yangtse Kiang, near 
Nankin. 

She had nearly two hundred souls on board, and was 
riding easily at anchor! one hundred and fifty miles 
from land. She had the ordinary wood anchors and coir 
cables."" These latter are so buoyant that they will float 
on the surface of the water, which enables them to 
anchor great distances from land and in very deep 
water. Our Whampoa friend desired us to tow him to 
the Yangtse Kiang, but not being able to do so we gave 
him a spar and a topsail."^ No one wished to leave the 
junk. The females of the family of a high mandarin, in 
Shantung, were passengers on board the junk. It was 
half-past eight P. M. before all this was dt>ne, and we 
again steered on our course. Just before midnight an- 
other dismasted junk was discovered ; and, on nearing 
her, piteous cries were heard for relief, from her. She 



249Wood, op. cit., p. 298. 

^''"Buoyant cables made from the fiber of the cocoanut busk. 

*'^Wood, op. cit., pp. 297-98. 

191 



was boarded and found to be a Bangkok junk, last 
from Hongkong and bound to Shanghai, with a crew 
of forty-three persons, and out of water. She did not 
want anything else. Gave twenty small casks of water, 
which was an ample supply. Fifteen of the crew wished 
to leave the junk for the San Jacinto, but the Captain 
of the junk objected, so they were refused. It was half- 
past three A. M. before the relief of this junk was com- 
pleted and we again stood on our course. 

All these junks state that they were near the coast 
of China, and four days ago were blown off in a typhoon. 
I should state that the last junk relieved was at anchor. 
Showery all night. 

Saturday, August l6, 1856. The first junk relieved 
yesterday had a crew of fifteen. When told we could 
tow them in, the crew desired to be taken on board the 
San Jacinto, but the Captain and owner both said they 
would not leave the junk. Commodore Armstrong said 
he would willingly take on board the whole of them, 
provided the master of the junk was consenting to it, 
but he had no right to interfere between him and his 
men, for that would be in fact to encourage mutiny — 
that the Captain was the best judge of what he could 
do, and that his opinion was of more weight than that 
of the crew, and that, as the master refused to let his 
men leave, he (the Commodore) could not take them. 
On leaving her the crew went down on their knees to 
the boarding officer, imploring him to take them out 
of the junk ; and, when his boat left, they raised frantic 
cries and with actions expressive of despair implored 

192 



our return — but the Captain of the junk still held to 
his first resolution. 

I learn that the Commodore's action in this matter 
is strongly condemned by the Fleet Surgeon and the 
Purser, and that I am supposed to be the adviser of the 
Commodore in the matter. It is due to him to say, that 
he acted without advice or suggestions from anyone in 
the matter ; and, in my opinion, he acted both wisely and 
discreetly, and that it is a serious thing to interfere be- 
tween the master of a ship and his crew, when the only 
ground of such interference is the fears of the latter, and 
also when such interference causes the loss of both vessel 
and cargo. In the case of the large junk, her condition was 
worse than that of the one referred to, yet not a soul 
wished to leave her, although she had over one hundred 
passengers who were free to go wherever they pleased, 
and they were told we would take them on board, yet 
not one accepted the offer.''" 

Another misfortune to our machinery like the one 
that took place when we were leaving Siam. One of the 
air pumps is crippled thereby and takes in much atmos- 
pheric air, destroying (partially) the vacuum. Our run 
from this cause, and over twelve hours detention with 
the junks, is only sixty-nine miles for the last twenty- 
four hours. I cannot help thinking that these accidents 
to our machinery arise in some degree from carelessness 
among the engineers. It appears that, in both these 
cases, water had collected in the air pumps, and, on the 
machinery being started, the packing of the stuffing 

252For more details on wrecked Japanese junks, see Wood, op. cit., pp. 296-98. 



box was blown out. I also think there was neglect in not 
examining the condition of the screw when we arrived 
from Siam. Indications that something was wrong were 
plain to every one, and yet, with nearly a dozen 
engineers on board, no advice or suggestion for any 
examination was made. 

Sunday, August IJ, 1856. As heavy rain as I ever 
saw in any part of the world. Very thick. Wind variable 
from S. E. to N. W., changing in an instant. Barom- 
eter, 29.50. Run, 126 miles. The weather looks very 
bad. 

P. M. weather looking wild — large sea getting up. 
Barometer at eight P. M., 29.38. We are no doubt in the 
S. E. part of a typhoon, having run north of it. Its 
vortex now probably bears S. W. from us. Ship rolls 
very deep. Capsized in my chair; hurt my left hip and 
leg, and break my Ceylon chair. 

Ship behaves well — does not take in any water — 
showery all night, with now and then a sight of the 
moon. 

Monday, August 18, 1856. At four A. M. wind 
came out from S. W. At seven A. M. made land nearly 
ahead. Proves to be Tokara Sima of the Linschoten 
group."^ Wind strong with slight showers. Soon see 
three other islands, N. E. Nine A. M. wind moderates 
— make sail on ship — sea gradually going down and 
weather improving. Barometer, 29.61. Hard work to 



253Takara Shima, of the Linschoten Islands. In Japanese, the word shima 
(or jima) means island. The names of Japanese geography are spelled in such 
a variety of ways that, for the sake of consistency, we shall follow the spelling 
of the Century Atlas whenever possible. 

194 



write, the screw shakes the ship so much when going 
ten knots. Distance run, 142 miles. Latitude, 29° 
18' N., longitude, 129° 46' E. See the Island of Akui- 
sima."* Conflicting emotions caused by the sight of these 
Japanese possessions. My future brought vividly to 
mind. Mental and social isolation on the one hand, and 
on the other are important public duties which, if 
properly discharged, will redound to my credit. A 
people almost unknown to the world is to be examined 
and reported on in its social, moral and political state; 
the productions of the country — animal, vegetable and 
mineral — to be ascertained ; the products of the industry 
of the country found out, and its capacity for com- 
mercial intercourse, what are its wants, and what it has 
to give in exchange. A new and difficult language to 
be learned; a history, which may throw some light on 
that of China and Korea, to be examined ; and, finally, 
the various religious creeds of Japan are to be looked 
at. These various matters offer abundant occupation for 
my mind, and will surely prevent anything like ennui 
being felt if I only give myself heartily to the work, and 
if that sine qua non of all earthly occupation — health — 
be vouchsafed to me by the Great Giver of all good. 

The weather in the afternoon and evening was de- 
lightful — a fine cool breeze — a bright day and a bright 
moon at night. Water as blue as azure — ^was indeed like 
the Pacific on which I had sailed so many miles. 

Tuesday, August IQ, 1 8 56. Rested badly — could not 
drive Japan and my duties, on which I am so soon to 

2''*Aku, or Akuseki Shima. 



enter, from my mind. Tried every plan to induce sleep, 
not forgetting Dr. Franklin's air bath, but I did not 
sleep until after four A. M. and was called at six o'clock, 
as we breakfast at seven. 

The ship has been going on well during the night, 
averaging about ten knots per hour. 

Morning bright and beautiful, wind continues fair, 
but is not so strong as last night. 

See an albatross — the first I have seen since I last 
left the coast of California in the month of October, 
1850. The bird looked almost like a friend, certainly 
like an old acquaintance. 

We are to-day about seventy miles E. of the coast 
of Kyushu,"" but the water is like a desert, so far as 
man is concerned — not a ship, junk, boat, or craft of 
any kind is visible — and this too when near the coast 
of an empire more populous than the United States! 
What a contrast to the whirl of life on the opposite side 
of the Pacific 1 1 shall be the first recognized agent from 
a civilized power to reside in Japan. This forms an 
epoch in my life and may be the beginning of a new 
order of things in Japan. I hope I may so conduct my- 
self that I may have honorable mention in the histories 
which will be written on Japan and its future destiny. 

Our run to-day was 219 miles and we are about 380 
miles from Shimoda, where we hope to arrive on Thurs- 
day the 2 1 St inst. 

Latitude, 32° 13' N., longitude, 132° 36' E. 

Centre Island,"® in the Harbor of Shimoda, from sur- 

^'"'Kiusiu, or Kiushiu, or Kyushu. 

196 



C*.{^^n^ U/t*^ ^ /i3^0 -^^ ^ ^-c*^ Ufc^ <2,rj^ 

TOWNSEND Harris's manuscript journal, august 

19, 1856, IN VOL. 3, p. 25 

At the top of the page may be read his hope to receive honorable mention in the 
"Histories which will be written on Japan." 



veys made by Lieutenant Silas Bent, U. S. N., is situated 
latitude 34" 40' N., longitude 138* 50' E. 

A mistake has been discovered in working the time ; 
and our longitude, instead of that noted above, was E. 
133° 20', and the run was 255 miles. Distance from 
Shimoda about 344 miles. A strong current sets in to 
the channels forming the islands Kyushu and Sitkoff."^ 
So strong was it that from 6 P. M. we steered due East. 
Another lovely night, bright moon and stars, with a 
delig]itful breeze. The air full of oxygen, so different 
from the tropics. I feel the stimulating and bracing 
effects of it sensibly. 

The mountain "Siri Jama,'"" 8,000 feet high on the 
west coast of Japan, is covered with snow the year 
round, while "Foosie Jama,""* 12,500, is bare during 
five months ; cause : the cold wind from Kamchatka on 
the west, while the east is protected from it by the range 
of mountains which runs through the Island of Niphon, 
and the winds from N. E. to S. W. are tempered by the 
vast expanse of the Pacific Ocean. 

288The Survey of the Harbor of Shimoda made by Flag-Lieutenant Silas 
Bent is given in full in the official account of The Japan Expedition, 33-2, H. 
Ex. Doc., no. 97, vol. 2, pp. 383-85. On p. 384, Centre Island is said to receive 
its name from its being the point from which the treaty limits are measured. 
This island may be seen in the illustration facing p. 425 ; and is clearly indi- 
cated also in the chart of the Harbor of Shimoda in Plate 13 of the same volume. 

2B7Shikoku. In at least two places in the official account of Perry's expedition 
this island is called Sikok (33-2, H. Ex. Doc, no. 97, vol. 2, map facing p. 354; 
and Plate 2-3). But much nearer the spelling used by Townsend Harris is 
the form Sikopf, found in the map facing p. 364 of the same volume. 

"SShiroyama or Hakusan (Hakuzan; or Haksan, as in Plate 2-3, op. cit.). 
Mt Haku, meaning the "White Mountain" (Griffis, Toionsend Harris, p. 30), 
is on the boundary line between the provinces of Kaga and Echizen. In Japa- 
nese, Yama (the same as Jama, with the "J" pronounced as in the German lan- 
guage) and San mean mountain. 

289Fuji Yama. 



Wednesday, August 20, 1856. Fine morning. Wind 
very light. We steered due east all night, but at day- 
light, having got out of the influence of the indraught, 
we steer N. E. half E. We hope to see Cape Idsu''®" this 
evening, but it is doubtful if we make it before morning 
as the weather is so light. Commodore Armstrong de- 
sires me to purchase some Japanese articles for his wife, 
would like the "rare and beautiful." These purchases 
to be made as opportunities ofifer, and he will take them 
on his next visits. See numbers of albatross this morning. 
They are of the brown back and white head varieties, 
and are called "Gories" or "Quaker" albatross by 
whalers. They are not of the largest kind as seen oflf 
Cape Horn. 

Run, 181 miles, and 130 miles from Shimoda. 

In the afternoon we pass quite a number of Japanese 
junks. They are small — say forty tons — one large square 
sail and a small lug sail on a short foremast — no mizzen. 
Sails are made of some kind of white cloth and have 
various black marks — like private signals. 

This is a common mode among the Chinese fishermen 
of marking the vessels belonging to each company or 
hu-wi. 

We ran for some of the Japanese junks at first, desir- 
ing to speak them — but they showed such evident alarm 
and anxiety to avoid us that we gave it up, and they 
would sheer off so as to allow us to pass them at one or 
two miles' distance. We shall be up to Cape Idsu (ten 

2«0IdzU. 

198 



miles from Shimoda). about two A. M. to-morrow, if 
nothing happens in the meantime. 

Dr. Wood, the Fleet Surgeon, has given me a 
torniquet for use in case of an accident to Mr. Heusken 
or myself, and some instructions regarding the use of 
quinine. At nine P. M. meet many sail, which it is diffi- 
cult to avoid, so stopped engines and hove ship to for the 
night. 

The ship lies-to very nicely. Squalls of rain during 
the night. 

Thursday, August 21, l8§6. Six A. M. find our- 
selves in sight of land, which proves to be Cape Ome- 
Saki.^®'^ Large numbers of fishing boats, near seventy; 
[I] like the appearance of the Japanese, clean and well- 
clad, cheerful looking, pretty fish-boats. 

At seven and a half A. M. under way. Showery. Write 
letters announcing my arrival to the Governor of 
Shimoda^®^ and Minister of Foreign Affairs'"'^ — sending 
to the latter a letter from Mr. Secretary Marcy. Mr. 



26i0maesaki, or Omaye Saki — Cape Omaye. In Japanese, the word Saki or 
Zaki means Point, Cape. This Cape is called Oraaesaki in Plate 2-3, referred 
to above. 

262J[,. B., vol. I, p. 92. Townsend Harris announces that the San Jacinto, 
commanded by Commodore James Armstrong, etc., etc., has arrived, bearing 
him as the Consul General for Japan; and he encloses two letters for the 
Minister of Foreign Affairs, hoping that the Governor will forward them 
to Yedo as quickly as possible. The letter is dated "U. S. Frigate San Jacinto, 
Shimoda Harbor." 

The Dutch translation of this letter is to be found in L. B., vol. i, pp. 94-95 

263j[„ B,^ vol. I, pp. 91-92. Townsend Harris announces his arrival and en- 
closes: (a) a letter from Secretary Marcy to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, 
notifying the latter of Townsend Harris's appointment; and (b) a Dutch trans- 
lation thereof. Townsend Harris's own letter to the Minister closes with an 
expression of the sincere friendship existing between the two nations. 

The Dutch translation of this letter is to be found in L. B., vol. i, pp. 93-94. 
For the effect of these letters upon the -Yedo authorities, see James Murdoch, 
/^ History of Japan, vol. 3, p. 624. 

199 



Heusken makes Dutch translations of these various 
letters. When at the mouth of the harbor, a boat with 
the American Flag at the bow and Japanese flags 
(stripes white, black, white, horizontal), came off 
bringing a pilot,^®* who soon took us into the petite 
harbor of Shimoda.^^^ It is rather a bight than a harbor, 
and not more than three vessels like the San Jacinto can 
moor at the same time in the inner harbor. The outer 
harbor is nothing more than a roadstead. Soon after we 
anchored, three officials and two Dutch interpreters''*^ 
came off from the Governor, with his compliments on 
my arrival, asking after my health, how long a passage 
I had, etc., etc., offering to supply water and food to the 
ship. They also asked when I proposed to land. In reply 
I said that, as the weather was wet, I would not land 



264"'phis boat brought us a pilot, a short, full-faced, respectable individual, 
in straw sandals, blue stockings. . . . This functionary drew from the folds 
of his gown a box in which, carefully protected by several wrappers, was his 
commission as pilot for American vessels, given him by Commodore Perry, and 
printed in English and Dutch, by the 'Japan Expedition Press.' He spoke but 
a few words of English, and none of us spoke Japanese, but he gave us to 
understand, by the waving of his hand, when we were to go to starboard, or 
port, or ahead." (Wood, Fankivei, pp. 299-300.) 

The three pilots appointed by Commodore Perry were Yohatsi, Hikoyemon, 
and Dshirobe. Their Commissions were signed by Silas Bent, Flag-Lieutenant, 
and were approved by Commodore Perry, at Shimoda, June 22, 1854. (33-2, 
H. Ex. Doc, no. 97, vol. i, pp. 487-89 ; and Article 8 of the Additional Regula- 
tions, ib., p. 480.) 

265'rhe Japanese chronicle of this momentous event says, very simply and 

pithily : 

"During the same [7th] month an American named Harris arrived at 
Shimoda in Idzu, bearing a letter. He stated that he was entrusted by his 
nation with full powers, and that he was instructed to reside in Japan. He 
also requested leave to present his credentials to the Shogun." {Kinse 
Shiriaku: A History of Japan from the First Visit of Commodore Perry in 
1853 to the Capture of Hakodate by the Mikado's Forces in 1869. Translated 
by Sir Ernest Mason Satow, Yokohama, 1873, P* 6-) 
266Meaning, of course, two Japanese officials who had learned the Dutch 

language. 

200 



to-day; but, if the weather was fair, would do so on the 
morrow, asking what hour it would suit the Governor 
to receive my visit. In reply to this they said they 
would ask the Governor and make known his answer 
to-day. 

When asked what "provisions" could be furnished, 
they said "the Governor would answer." I asked if a 
house had been prepared for me? They said again "the 
Governor would answer," adding that Shimoda was a 
very poor place; that it had not yet recovered from the 
effects of the earthquake of December, 1854, when 
every house in the place except fourteen was de- 
stroyed.^" These persons soon after left. Some of the 
officers went on shore this afternoon and were much 
pleased with the appearance of the little place and the 
people. The houses are all new and fresh looking. They 
found quite a lot of coal here for us, say some two hun- 
dred tons. At five P. M. the officials again came ofiF and 
said that the letter I had given them for the Governor 
of Shimoda was then being translated, and that the two 
for Yedo had been already sent off and that it would 
take five days for them to reach Yedo ; that the Governor 
would be ready to receive my visit at one P. M. of to- 



267This earthquake occurred on Dec. 23, 1854. It was felt on the whole coast 
of Japan, did some injury to Yedo, completely destroyed Osaka, and caused 
great ruin at Shimoda. At this last place the real damage was caused by a 
great tidal wave, which first receded and then engulfed the town. The Russian 
Frigate Diana, Admiral Count Euphemius Poutiatine, happened to be in the 
Harbor of Shimoda and was so seiiously damaged that it sank shortly after- 
wards. The holding-ground of the harbor was entirely swept away by the 
waves, leaving no bottom but naked rocks. (See 33-2, H. Ex. Doc, no. 97, 
vol. I, pp. 509-n ; vol. 2, p. 210; Captain Sherard Osborn, A Cruise in Japanese 
Waters, 2nd ed., pp. 107-11; and David Murray, The Story of Japan, p. 8, 
note 3.) 

201 



morrow. The interpreters were in constant trepidation 
and fear, and large drops of perspiration stood on their 
foreheads, while every word of question and answer 
was written down by two of the party. The Commodore 
is quite unwell this evening. 

Friday, August 22, l8^6. The officers off again this 
morning to inquire after the Commodore's health; and, 
finding he was too unwell to go on shore to-day, they 
said the Governor begged to be excused from seeing me 
to-day, as he was unwell, etc. I said to-morrow would do 
as well. They asked if the Commodore would be well 
enough to go with me to-morrow. I answered I could 
noj say, but that my visit was entirely independent of 
the Commodore; that, when he was well enough, he 
would himself call on the Governor. I found that it was 
their plan to delay my visit until the Commodore was 
well enough, so that they might afterwards deny having 
received me on my individual account, but solely as 
one of the Commodore's suite, and this was proved by 
their saying that when the Governor was well enough 
to see me he would send me word. I then said this was a 
matter concerning the dignity of my government, that 
the Governor should write to me excusing himself on 
account of illness, and that I would send that letter 
to my government, and leave it for its adjustment. 

This proposition greatly embarrassed them. 

The Governor was sick, therefore no letter was re- 
quired. I insisted. They then offered to write to that 
effect themselves; this I declined. 

I finally closed the discussion by saying that if the 

202 



Governor wrote his excuse to me before noon of to- 
morrow, I would be satisfied, but that otherwise I 
should come on shore to-morrow at one o'clock to visit 
him. The Governor sent ofif ten bonita and some small 
cray-fish as a present to the Commodore. Captain Bell 
gave them some seeds of a creeper and a large sort of 
squash, which they at first accepted; but, when they 
were just leaving the ship, they brought them back to 
the cabin, their courage having failed them. They went 
ashore, promising to let me know to-day about the visit 
to the Governor, etc. Visited the village of Kakizaki,"*'^ 
opposite Shimoda. The temple of this place — Yoku- 
shen"^^ of the Shinto sect — is set apart for the accommo- 
dation of Americans. The rooms are spacious and very 
neat and clean, and a person might stay here for a few 
weeks in tolerable comfort. Near this temple is the 
American cemetery,"" which contains four neat tombs 
and prettily fenced in. It is very small, only about fifteen 
feet by ten feet. Kakizaki is a small and poor fishing 
village, but the people are clean in person and civil in 
manner. You see none of the squalor which usually at- 
tends poverty in all parts of the world. Their houses 
are as clean as need be. Every inch of ground is culti- 
vated, as the ground is very [rolling], rising up in 



^ssThe name means Oyster Point (Griflfis, Toivnsend Harris, p. 36, note 1). 

269Tijough the name of this temple is not given, its location is clearly indi- 
cated by the word Temple in the chart of the Harbor of Shimoda, Plate 13 
in 33-2, H. Ex. Doc, no. 97, vol. 2. 

270See Plate 13, op. cit. When Perry visited Shimoda, one of the sailors of 
the Poivhatan fell from aloft and died soon after. A burial place was accord- 
ingly provided by the Japanese, located near the village of Kakizaki. See 33-2, 
H. Ex. Doc, no. 97, vol. i, p. 425, and the illustration facing that page and 
entitled "Shimoda from the American graveyard." 

203 



pinnacles of lava or indurated clay ejected from vol- 
canoes, and so steep as not to be arable. It is a pity goats 
are not introduced here. These pinnacles afford fine 
grazing for goats, and their habits of climbing would 
make them at home on them. Their milk would be 
nutritious food, and cheese might be made from it also, 
and this would be an object to the Japanese even though 
they might not eat the flesh. The views from the ship 
present a series of serrated hills rising up to fifteen hun- 
dred feet high — most of which are covered with fir, 
spruce and cedar trees."^ 

The Temple Rioshen at Shimoda is also set apart for 
the use of Americans — perhaps I may have to reside in 
it until a house can be prepared for me. 

Late this afternoon the officers again came off, but I 
declined to see them, so Mr. Heusken heard what they 



27iThis was the first visit of Townsend Harris on the soil of Japan- In con- 
nection therewith, it is interesting to read the grim humor of the hope ex- 
pressed by William M. Wood, Fankivei, pp. 300-or: 

"As the knowledge of Japan seems to stop with old Kampfer [Kaempfer], 
I am not sure that there would be any great want of charity in hoping that 
the Japanese would give our Consul General [Townsend Harris] and his 
observant secretary [Heusken] a cage journey throughout their sealed em- 
pire. Of course we should promptly avenge their wrongs, shake down the 
walls of exclusion, and make peace by shaking hands with Siogoon on his 
throne in Yedo, and then, for once, we should know all about modern Japan. 
Indeed, the interesting revelations and observations the prisoners would be 
able to make, the wonderful stories they would have to tell, might go far to 
shorten the duration of our national anger." 

The diplomatic tact and skill of Townsend Harris will be demonstrated 
more and more clearly as this story is unfolded — a story that is very far re- 
moved indeed, from the "cage journeys" in Mr. Wood's mind. He was think- 
ing of those grim days of the captivity of the Russian Captain Golownin and 
his companions (1811-13), or of the mutinous sailors of the New Bedford 
whaler Lagoda, who were the cause of the relief expedition of the U. 8. 
Steamer Preble, Commandet James Glynn, in 1849. 

204 



had to say and reported it to me. The purport was that 
the Governor was really unable to see me to-morrow, 
and they offered to bring a doctor's certificate to that 
effect and earnestly begged me to postpone my visit 
until another day. I caused them to be told that I was 
most anxious to do all I could to oblige the Governor, 
and that I wished to be on friendly terms with him. I 
would, therefore, consent to postpone my visit until 
Monday, that no visits could be paid on Sunday or any 
business transacted on that day. They were also told 
that Commodore Armstrong would not visit the Gov- 
ernor until after I had seen the Governor, and that 
we should not come together to pay a visit to the 
Governor. The officers were most urgent to see me, and 
their anxiety on this point appeared to increase with my 
refusals, but I persisted, and at last they left quite chap- 
fallen. It is now understood that I am to visit the Gov- 
ernor on Monday at ten A. M. Some of the officers have 
been on shore and report a very pretty bazaar has been 
opened with a great display of lacquered ware, etc., 
etc.'" 

Saturday, August 2^, 1856. Go on shore with Cap- 
tain Bell and Mr. Heusken. Visit the Temple Rioshen. 
It is badly placed for hot weather, being at the foot of a 
steep hill that shuts out the S. W. wind entirely, and 
is surrounded by stagnant pools and other disagree- 
ables. 

We afterwards visited six or seven other temples. 



'T^Por a description of this bazaar and of the manner of conducting busi- 
ness there, see Wood, op. cit., pp. 304-09. 

205 



They are all built after one pattern; some a little larger 
and in better order than the others, and having more 
agreeable situations, but beyond this they are exactly 
alike. We afterwards walked up the valley some two 
miles. Saw a large enclosure containing some twenty 
detached buildings — all new, and in fact some were not 
yet completed. I learn this is the residence of the 
Governor. In the afternoon I went again to Kakizaki. 
I find the temple there has been cleaned out, apparently 
to prepare it for my reception. I have thought much 
about my accepting this temple for my residence. The 
building is as good [as], if not better than any of the 
others, but it is isolated, and the approach is through 
the narrow and crooked alleys of a very poor fishing 
village. I should here be unseen and unknown to the 
people, and to go to market my servants in bad weather 
could not cross in a boat, and the road to go and return 
would be nearly five miles. Again, — the Treaty says, and 
my commission says, I am to reside at Shimoda. Now, 
Kakizaki is not Shimoda. I, therefore, think I shall 
refuse this temple as my place of residence. 

Weather delightful. Barometer, 30.10. The air is like 
that of the United States, full of oxygen. 

Sunday, August 24, 18^6. Do not leave the ship. In 
the afternoon the Japanese come off and desire to see 
me ; I decline to see them or to hear their message, for 
the reason that it is Sunday. They urge me at least to 
hear their message, saying it is very important and from 
the Governor. They also say that when Commodore 
Perry was here, he made no difference for Sunday, 

206 



etc., etc."" I adhere to my previous determination, tell- 
ing them (through Mr. Heusken) that they can come 
off to-morrow morning as early as they please and then 
state their message. 

Monday, August 2^, l8§6. The officers came off at 
8 A. M. with a message that the Governor will be ready 
to receive me at ten o'clock. At that hour, go on shore 
accompanied by Captain Bell and some ten others. I go 
in the Commodore's boat, having my secretary with me. 
The three boats preceded me so that the officers could 
land and form in order before I landed. When my boat 
had pulled well off from the ship a salute of thirteen 
guns was fired, waking up the grandest echoes among 
the hills. On landing I found the streets thronged with 
persons collected to see us pass. I was conducted to a 
new building nearly in the center of the town. As I 
shall hereafter have both time and better knowledge 
of this building and of the manners and dress of the 
people, I shall not now describe anything beyond my 
interview with the Governor. I was politely received by 
the Governor and Vice-Governor. Asked after my 
health, when I left the United States, etc., etc. They 
asked in whose honor the salute was fired and were told 



273'phis statement of the Japanese does not agree with that in the official 
report of the Japan Expedition (33-2, H. Ex. Doc, no. 97, vol. i, p. 240) : 

"The next day was Sunday (July 10, [1853]), and, as usual, divine service 
was held on board the ships and, in accordance with proper reverence for 
the day, no communication was held with the Japanese authorities." 

Later in the day, Perry refused to receive on board some Japanese officers. 
Strenuous military preparations were made on land: 

"Everything, however, remained on board the ships tranquil and without 
interruption, as befitted the Christian day of rest." 

207 



that it was in mine, when I perceived that I instantly rose 
in their estimation. The Governor said he should like to 
see such guns fired, whereupon Captain Bell invited him 
to visit the ship on Saturday next, as they are now paint- 
ing on board and he feared they might soil their clothes. 
Refreshments were served up in Japanese style. The 
cooking was excellent and served up with extreme neat- 
ness and cleanliness. I am much prepossessed in favor 
of their cooking. I asked the Governor when I could see 
him on business. He said I could enter on business then 
if I pleased. I replied that it would not be good breeding 
to enter on business on a visit of ceremony. He then said 
the Vice-Governor would attend me the next day, at the 
same hour and place, and that the Vice-Governor could 
act as well as [he] himself, etc., etc. 

Our visit lasted nearly two hours, and we were all 
much pleased with the appearance and manners of the 
Japanese. I repeat, they are superior to any people east 
of the Cape of Good Hope."'' 

Tuesday, August 2'J [26'], l8§6. I omitted yester- 
day to state that a superior interpreter appeared at my 
interview. He is attached to the office of the Minister for 
Foreign Affairs; a good interpreter, of most agreeable 
manners and a true courtier. Seven scribes recorded our 
sayings and doings yesterday. To-day ashore at ten with 

274At the end of this entry, we desire to emphasize the importance of this 
date. Here was the first day of real negotiations between Townsend Harris 
and the Japanese — a day of momentous importance not only for the United 
States, but even more so for the Empire of Japan, which began to make her 
entry into the family of Western nations. 

"... A courteous and amicable reception was given to a resident repre- 
sentative of a foreign power, and that power one of the youngest among 
nations." (Wood, op. cit., p. 309.) 

208 



Mr. Heusken. Met the Vice-Governor and the person 
from Yedo, who evidently has come down since our 
arrival was reported there, although they say the 
journey cannot be made under five days from here to 
Yedo. My interview was long and far from satisfactory. 
To sum it is all I shall attempt. They did not expect 
the arrival of a Consul, — a Consul was only to be sent 
when some difficulty arose, and no such thing had taken 
place. That Shimoda was a poor place and had been 
recently desolated by an earthquake ; that they had no 
residence prepared for me; that I had better go away 
and return in about a year, when they hoped to have 
a house ready. The Treaty said that a Consul was to 
come if both nations wished it; that it was not left to 
the simple will of the United States Government."^ 

Would I land at Kakizaki, and take up my residence 
at the temple there, and leave the question of my official 
residence to be settled by future negotiations? Yedo was 
also in a ruinous condition from an earthquake ten 
months since, therefore they could not offer me a house 
there while building one here."* 

STsperry Treaty, Art. XI: 

"There shall be appointed by the Government of the United States consuls 
or agents to reside in Shimoda at any time after the expiration of eighteen 
months from the date of the signing of this treaty; provided that either of 
the two governments deem such arrangements necessary." 

The Japanese text, unfortunately, had it that both governments had to deem 
it necessary to appoint a consul. (J. H. Gubbins, The Progress of Japan, pp. 
68-69.) 

276"i'his great earthquake is graphically described in a well-illustrated 
book, entitled The Tribulations of Ansei (year period, 1854-59). Most of the 
dead, alleged to number 104,000, were buried in or cremated near the one 
enlarged temple-yard of E'Ko In, where also the alleged 166,000 victims of the 
seismic disturbances of 1656 had been interred or inurned." (Griffis, Tovunsend 
Harris, p. 43, note.) 

209 



The foregoing is the substance of their remarks and 
propositions, made and renewed and changed in every 
possible form and manner during three mortal hours. 
I need hardly write that I courteously but firmly 
negatived all their propositions. They earnestly pro- 
tested against the idea that they refused to receive me, 
or that they meant in any way to break the Treaty. They 
at last begged to adjourn the business until to-morrow 
at the same hour, to give them time to consult. The sales 
in the bazaar cannot be much under two thousand 
dollars. The prices are most exorbitant. They appear to 
raise them at each new arrival of a ship here. Ordered 
spars to make my flagstaff; one of fifty feet, twelve 
inches by eight, and the other thirty feet long, seven 
inches by four inches, and four small pieces. 

Wednesday, August ZJ, l8^6. On shore at ten A. M. 
by appointment, to meet the Governor or Vice- 
Governor, but neither of them made his appearance. 
Ten persons were present, including the Yedo official. 
They said the Governor was very ill the previous night 
with a violent headache, so they were unable to consult 
with him. They then said that the Treaty provided for 
a Consul, but not a Consul General ; that the Additional 
Articles had not been sent out as ratified;"^ that they 
expected the Government of the United States would 
send out an Ambassador with the ratified Articles, and 
then enter on negotiations about sending a Consul. 



277The "Additional Regulations" were concluded by Commodore Perry and 
the Japanese Commissioners at Shimoda, June 17, 1854 (33-2, H. Ex. Doc., 
no. 97, vol. I, pp. 479-81). 

210 



I told them I was surprised that the Vice-Governor 
should not appear after making an appointment with 
me; that I considered it as want of respect, and that I 
must decline entering into any conversation about my 
afifairs with anyone but the Governor or Vice-Gover- 
nor ; that I would go on board the steamer and consult 
with Commodore Armstrong, and then he would deter- 
mine whether he would take me up to Yedo and there 
get satisfaction. 

The officer from Yedo said he was of higher rank 
than the Governor and asked why I should object to 
negotiate with him. I replied that I could only know 
the official authorities of the place, and with them only 
have any official intercourse; that for himself I had a 
high esteem, based on what I had seen of him, but that 
personal feeling could not give him that status which 
my official business required. They urged me to proceed 
in the matter, but to some questions they put, I said I 
had no answer to give them. They constantly renewed, 
and urgently, the request that I would proceed with 
them. 

I as constantly declined. They then said they would 
report on what had occurred to the Governor, and re- 
quested me to meet them to-morrow at the same hour 
to meet the Vice-Governor. I told them that, as the Vice- 
Governor had broken his appointment with me, I could 
not consent to make another appointment, until I had 
some explanation or apology for his absence of this 
morning. 

That I wished the Governor or Vice-Governor to 



211 



write me a letter and send it to me on board the steamer, 
stating whether they would receive me in Shimoda or 
not, and whether they would assign me a house to reside 
in ; that I desired this letter to be sent to me either to-day 
or to-morrow morning. 

They were anxious to know whether I was resolved 
to go to Yedo if not received here. I said that would be 
settled after consultation with the Commodore. They 
were greatly agitated when I mentioned the going up to 
Yedo. 

Thursday, August 28, l8^6. The Vice-Governor, 
the high person from Yedo and a large suite came off 
this morning. The Vice-Governor explained his 
absence yesterday by saying the individual from Yedo 
was of higher rank than [he] himself and had full powers 
from the government to act in my matters. He then said 
that he was ready to receive me with all the honors due 
to my high place, and to assign me the only place that 
was habitable for my residence — the Temple of Jock- 
send"^ at Kakizaki ; that Kakizaki was in point of fact 
a part of Shimoda, subject to the same governor, 
magistrates, police, etc., etc.; that the name was only 
local to distinguish it as a part of Shimoda, as the 
suburbs of Western cities receive distinctive local 
names ; that the Goyoshi was, as its name indicated, an 
"imperial seat" built solely for the reception of 
strangers of distinction who came to Shimoda ; that the 



278Xownsend Harris time and again writes foreign names phonetically. 
Jocksend represents Yokushen, with the accent on the first syllable, and with 
the J of Jocksend pronounced as in German. This is Gyokusen-ji. 



212 




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(J t^ ^ 
.2 2 <u 



tut).. C 



g^. 



o - 



1) J3 



o 

oi 

< 

Q 
O 



&.2 - ^ 

JJ > -Oh 

i^ o ^^• 

r ■ M O ►7 

. "^ a; 

X c c -5 

■^ « W " 

-^'S 2-- 
•S 2.iQ 






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o c o K 

u. ■ - *^ 
«=: "3 



Governor had no power to use it for himself, or lo 
authorize its use by others ; that I must see how deplor- 
ably the place had been injured by the earthquake ; that, 
as to the temples in Shimoda, they were all actually 
occupied as places of worship and for cemeteries ; that 
it would be an outrage on the feelings of the people who 
worshipped there, or who frequently went there to 
offer [prayers] at the graves of their ancestors, to find 
the place used for secular purposes; that the temple at 
Kakizaki was not of this character; that its purpose was 
the accommodation of parties who went out to make a 
religious holiday; that its occupation by me would be 
inconvenient, but would not be a desecration ; that the 
Government at Yedo could not give me any other 
answer, even if I went up there in the steamer ; that my 
residence was to be considered as only temporary and 
until they could erect a proper building for me, and 
that they would adapt the building, as much as they 
could, to my wants ; finally, that they had offered me the 
best they had, and, if I did not accept it, I could not 
say they had refused to receive me or to furnish me with 
quarters. I told them I would send my answer on shore 
in two hours by my secretary. 

Accordingly, I instructed Mr. Heusken to say to the 
Governor that I was most anxious to avoid any difficul- 
ties; and, although I feared my Government might 
blame me for accepting a residence at Kakizaki instead 
of Shimoda, I would accept it with the full understand- 
ing that a suitable house was to be prepared for me 
as soon as possible, and that I must have a boat and 

213 



men constantly at my command for my use while 
there. 

I also gave notice that I should want two large boats 
on Saturday to take my things on shore, and men to take 
them from the landing to the house, with proper persons 
to watch them until I came on shore, etc., etc. 

In the afternoon a spar thirty feet long, seven inches 
by four inches, was sent off to me; price, five dollars; 
and word was sent that to get the spar fifty feet long, 
they must go to the mountains to cut it and would require 
three or four days to get it, and that would cost eighty 
dollars. Sent the carpenter on shore to select the best 
one he could find, even if short of the fifty feet. 

Friday, August ZQ, 1 8 56. Mr. Heusken goes on 
shore with the carpenter to aid him in selecting a spar, 
etc., and afterwards to go over to Kakizaki to indicate 
what alterations, etc., are required in the temple to fit 
it for my residence, etc. 

The Governor informs me that three rooms in my 
house will be required for Japanese officers who are 
to be with me night and day "to await my pleasure." I 
return a message that I require all the rooms, and that 
under no circumstances would I permit any Japanese 
(except servants) to be in my house, or even to enter it 
without my permission. The carpenter comes off at 
three P. M. saying he cannot find a stick that will answer 
for my fiagstaflF. Mr. Heusken at six P. M. informs me 
that the Japanese say they have cut three trees that will 
answer, but they cannot be got to the ship before Mon- 
day morning. The authorities have agreed to give me all 

214 



my rooms, and to withdraw their threatened police 
force. 

Dr. Wood, Fleet Surgeon, tells me a story which 
strongly illustrates the determination of the authorities 
to prevent the people from having any intercourse with 
us, except what is unavoidable. While in the bazaar a 
man came to him for medical advice for a cutaneous 
affection; after examination, the doctor wrqte a pre- 
scription and gave it to the man, telling him (through 
the interpreter) to take the paper on board the San 
Jacinto, when medicine would be given to him which 
would cure him. The man, with many thanks, took the 
paper and went away. An hour afterwards he returned, 
sweating like a bull and looking much alarmed. He 
came to the doctor and gave him a paper, which he 
found to be the prescription. The doctor made signs that 
he should take the paper to the ship; the man shook 
his head and again forced the paper into the doctor's 
hands, making significant motions with his finger that 
his head would be cut off if he took the paper to the 
shipl!r» 

For the last three days the thermometer has stood as 
high as 84°, but the air is so pure, and the barometer 
being at 30.10, I do not feel it as much as I did 78° at 
Hongkong, or in fact anywhere in the tropics. A shower 
at eleven P. M. I have been making lists of my packages 
on board and preparing to send them on shore on Mon- 
day, at which time boats are to be sent for them with 



^^°Mr. Wood concludes his version of this occurrence ^ith the remark that 
the native's argument was powerful and conclusive. {Op. cit., p. 307.) 

215 



proper officers to protect them from damage or 
plunder. 

Saturday, August ^0, 18^6. Busy writing letters 
until one P. M. After dinner the Yedo officer came off 
with five others. The Governor sent his compliments to 
me and requested me to visit him at the Goyoshi at ten 
A. M. of Monday. I accepted. They then asked if the 
Commodore would come off with me. I said I presumed 
he would if well enough, and as he was better to-day I 
had no doubt he would come. They then asked when 
the Governor could visit the ship, and Tuesday was 
suggested. I discovered that the invitation to me was a 
ruse to get the Commodore to visit the Governor first, 
and then the Governor could visit the ship. I told them 
frankly that, by the rule of our country and all Western 
etiquette, the commander of a ship or squadron makes 
the first visit, and the reason the Commodore had not 
already visited the Governor was the illness of the 
Commodore in the first place, and then afterwards the 
illness of the Governor. This gave them great satis- 
faction. 

The Commodore came in afterwards and he accepted 
the invitation for Monday, and at the same time told 
them that he should have gone with me at my first visit. 
This startled and pleased them, for they evidently had 
not forgotten that he had told some of them that he would 
not visit the Governor until after I had been received.^*" 
Then it was settled that the Governor would visit the 
ship on Tuesday at eleven A. M. I was requested not to 

280See above, Journal, Aug. 22, 1856. 

216 



land until as late a day as possible, in order to give them 
the utmost time to prepare the temple for my reception. 
Wednesday morning was named, and they then told 
me that they would be there to receive me in due 
form. 

I am compelled to pay $78 for a spar to make my 
flagstafif, — an enormous price! 

Learn that some great personage has arrived at the 
residence of the Governor, as a long procession was seen 
by some of our officers, preceded by heralds bearing 
the coat-of-arms, then a number of norimons, one very 
large^" — a led horse — servants bearing luggage, etc., 
etc. 

Sunday, August ^I, l8^6. A lovely day. Write many 
letters. Japanese come off to see me. I refuse to see any- 
one on Sunday. I am resolved to set an example of a 
proper observance of the Sabbath, by abstaining from 
all business or pleasures on that day. I do not mean I 
would not take a quiet walk, or any such amusement. I 
do not mean to set an example of Puritanism, but I will 
try to make it what I believe it was intended to be — a 
day of rest 

Captain Bell says we found blue wafer in the Gulf 
of Siam (the upper part) while the soundings are only 
thirty to forty-five fathoms. This proves clearly that 
deep water is not a necessary condition for blue water. 

Monday, September I, l8§6. List of letters bearing 



28iGriffi8 (Toivnsend Harris, p. 50, note i) explains that "The large 
norimono or palanquin of officers of rank had the needlessly large and heavy 
bearer's beam curved on top." 

217 



date to-day and sent to Russell & Co., Shanghai, by the 
San Jacinto, to be forwarded as directed :"* 

Armstrong & Lawrence 

General James Keenan 

Charles Huffnagle 

C. C. Currier 

Mrs. S. B. Drinker 

D. J. Macgowan 

S. Drinker 

Henry Grinnell 

P. M. Wetmore 

Robert C. Murphy 

Baring Brothers & Co. 

Joseph Evans 

Commodore M. C. Perry 

Mrs. Langlois 

Sir John Bowring 

Wm. Hunter, Ass't Sec'y State 

Richard Schell 

N. Dougherty 

Russell & Co., Shanghai 



282i) To Armstrong & Lawrence, at Hongkong (L. B., vol. i, pp. 95-97), 
Townsend Harris sends an order for supplies and provisions of 
various kinds, relates incidents of the voyage from China, and de- 
scribes the harbor and the village of Shimoda. 

2) To Charles Huffnagle, U. S. Consul General for British India, at 
Calcutta. Acknowledged by letter dated Calcutta, Nov. 18, 1856 
(L. & P., vol. 1, no. 45). 

3) To S. Drinker. Acknowledged by letter dated Hongkong, Apr. 3 and 

4, 1857 (L. & P., vol. I, no. 62). 

4) To Robert C. Murphy, U. S. Consul at Shanghai. Acknowledged by 

letter dated Shanghai, Oct 7, 1856 (L. & P., vol. i, no. 44). 

5) To Baring Bros. & Co., London (L. B., vol. i, p. 99). Townsend Harris 
says that his drafts for salary payments will be calculated from Aug. 
21, 1856 — the day on which he arrived at Shimoda and consequently 
entered upon his duties as Consul General to Japan. 

6) To Sir John Bowring, Governor of Hongkong. From Sir John Bow- 
ring's answer to this letter (L. & P., vol. i, no. 43, dated Hongkong, 
Sept. 27, 1856), it is evident that Townsend Harris had described to 

218 



At ten A. M. go on shore with Commodore Armstrong 
and a suite of officers. At the Goyoshi meet the new 
Governor and Vice-Governor, [and] the other Gover- 
nor. It appears there are two Governors and two Vice- 
Governors for this place. They pass six months in Shi- 
moda, then six in Yedo. The new one arrived in 
pursuance of this rule. The conversation began with 
complimentary inquiries about health, etc., etc. Then I 
was asked what was the secret object of my Government 
in sending me to Japan. I answered that I knew noth- 
ing beyond the fact of my appointment and our treaty 
rights. 

I was asked if I should go to Hakodate? I replied that 
would depend on circumstances. If I was wanted there, 
I should go. They then run over all the old objections, 
and civilly ask me to go away; and, on my declining to 
do so, they asked the Commodore if he had no power 
to take me away. That was answered by saying that he 
was a military man. His orders were to bring the Con- 
sul General to Shimoda and land him there, and then 
his part was done. They asked would he take a letter 
from the Japanese Government to the American Gov- 
ernment explaining their embarrassed position, and 
asking for my removal. The Commodore answered that 
all communications for his Government from the 



him the charms of change and of climate at Shimoda, had complained 
of its unsuitability as a port, and had invited him to visit Shimoda, 
7) To Russell & Co., at Shanghai (L. B., vol. i, pp. 98-99). Asks if they 
will negotiate his bills upon the account opened in his favor at Baring 
Bros. & Co., London, by the Secretary of State of the United States, for 
his salary of $5,000 per annum. 

2iq 



Japanese would of necessity come through the Consul 
General. 

Next, would the Commodore write to his Govern- 
ment, explaining the reasons why the Japanese refused 
to receive the Consul General? This question, cover- 
ing as it did a positive intention to refuse me, excited 
much surprise and received a positive negative. 

I was then asked would I forward a letter from the 
Japanese Government to the American Government? I 
answered I would if it was written by the Minister of 
Foreign Affairs. Would not the Governor of Shimoda 
do as well? He had full powers to treat with me; there- 
fore it was the same thing. I replied that it might be the 
same thing to them, but it was not in our eyes. Would I 
write to my Government asking for my own removal? 
This, was declined. It was now twelve o'clock — two 
mortal hours having been frittered away in renewing 
and twisting the foregoing into all possible forms. Re- 
freshments were served. The Governors retired for a 
short time; and, after their return and the tiffin being 
over, the Commodore and his suite, except Fleet Sur- 
geon Wood, retired, leaving me with the doctor and my 
interpreter. They now took another turn, — apologized 
for delaying and wasting so much time in trivial ques- 
tions, but their excuse was their want of knowledge of 
such matters. That it was a new thing, etc., etc. They 
asked me if I had any new negotiations to propose? I 
answered none at that time. Did I intend to make new 
regulations about sailors who were shipwrecked, or 
should I change the place of the consulate without giv- 

220 



ing notice to them? I answered, "No." They inquired 
what were my powers and privileges as a Consul? To 
which I gave a short synopsis of both. They then begged 
me again to write to my Government the strong objec- 
tions they had to receiving a Consul at this time, stating 
that they had opened Shimoda to the Dutch and Rus- 
sians, and that they would send a Consul here as soon as 
they knew I was received here (this was news).^^^ I re- 
plied that I could not write any formal letter ; that, if 
I did, it would not be attended to on such a point; that I 
should, as a matter of course, give my Government an ac- 
count of all that had occurred here, but they might be 
sure it would not elicit any reply ; that, if they wanted to 
communicate with the Government of the United 
States, let their Minister of Foreign Affairs write a let- 
ter, and he might depend on receiving a speedy answer. 



283Xhe Russian Treaty with Japan was signed at Shimoda, Jan. 26 (Feb. 7), 

1855. Art. Ill of this Treaty opened up to Russia the three ports of Shimoda, 
Hakodate, and Nagasaki. Art. VI provided that the Russian Government could 
appoint a Consul (when it should deem it necessary) for one of the first two 
of these ports, — therefore, either for Shimoda or Hakodate; while in the Ex- 
planatory Articles (agreed upon the day the Treaty was signed), it was dis- 
tinctly stated {ad Art. VI) that Russia was to appoint her Consuls beginning 
with the year 1856 (J. H. Gabbins, op. cit., pp. 236-38). 

The Preliminary Convention between The Netherlands and Japan was 
signed at Nagasaki, Nov. 9, 1855. Art. IV of this Convention provided that, 
in case one or more ports of the Japanese Empire were then opened or would 
thereafter be opened to one or more other nations, exactly the same privileges 
were immediately to be granted to The Netherlands. 

This Article of the Preliminary Convention was repeated almost verbatim 
in Art. IV of the final Dutch Treaty with Japan signed at Nagasaki, Jan. 30, 

1856. (See J. H. Gubbins, op. cit., pp. 246, 251; compare, too, the short note 
from the Japanese authorities to Donker Curtius, given ibid., p. 266, and an- 
swering a communication from the latter regarding the port of Shimoda, said 
Japanese note being dated in the 8th month — Hachigwatsu — of the 4th year 
of Ansei.) 

Since the Perry Treaty of Mar. 31, 1854, opened the ports of Shimoda and 
Hakodate to the Americans (Art. II), by virtue of Art. IV of their Treaty also 
the Dutch were therefore to be permitted to come to Shimoda. 

221 



They said their laws forbade it. Here for the third or 
fourth time, they begged me not to be offended with 
them. They were acting under orders. The matter was 
new to them, and from their ignorance it appeared the 
more alarming. It being now near two, I prepared to 
leave them.^** I should remark that at tiffin time I was 
told the boats were ready to go to the frigate to bring 
off my luggage, and asked if they should go. I answered 
in the affirmative. Now this fact took place during a 
discussion in which they had, in fact, declared they 
would not receive me, and it convinced me they were 
acting a part in which they did not even hope to suc- 
ceed. 

The people are of a genial disposition and are evi- 
dently inclined towards intercourse with foreigners; 
but the despotic rule of the country, and the terror they 
have of their so-called inflexible laws, forbids them to 
express their wishes. 

I do not like the looks of the new Governor; he has 
a dark, sullen look, like a bandog, and I fear I shall have 
trouble with him. I much regret the change."" Got on 
board near three P. M., and commenced at once sending 
off my traps. All of the supplies — furniture and some 



28*For a parallel account of this day's interview, see Wood, op. cit., pp. 
309-17. This day's discussion is typical of the many that were to follow. 
Townsend Harris's task was one of peculiar difficulty, because, as J. H. 
Gubbins points out {op. cit., pp. 68-69), he was the first foreign representative 
to deal with the Japanese Government on equal terms: 

"In that capacity he had to bear the brunt of obstruction so ingeniously 
and constantly exercised that, had he not been plentifully endowed with 
patience, he must have relinquished his task in despair." 
284aTi,e new Governor was Inouye, Shinano-no-Kami, who soon became one 
of Harris's best friends. 

222 



heavy luggage — was sent off, and all in pretty good 
order except a hat in a leather box, which was destroyed. 

Tuesday, September 2, 1856. The new Governor 
and the old, and [the] Vice-Governors, our Yedo 
friend and a large suite came on board at ten A. M. Men 
were exercised at the guns and went through all the 
mancEuvres of an action. Marines put through the 
manual and marching, etc., and a salute was fired. Then 
to table; and their performances in the way of eating 
and drinking were noteworthy. What was not eaten was 
carried away. Ham, tongue, salt beef, and such pre- 
served food as is found on board a ship, seemed all of it 
to suit their appetites. The new Governor was cold and 
rude; not even the raw brandy which he and others 
drank seemed to warm his heart, or thaw him towards 
us.'^*" 

They asked when I would land, and were told to- 
morrow at five P. M. I was informed that two officers of 
rank would be sent to escort me to my new residence. 
The spar for my lower flagstaff only reached the ship 
at one P. M. The carpenter says it shall be done to-mor- 
row. 

Wednesday, September 3, l8§6. Go on shore and 
select spot for flagstaff to stand. Return and write let- 
ter to Secretary of State, twelve foolscap pages.^®® Four 

285'^00(J^ 0^. cit., pp. 317-18. 

2861>ispatch No. 15, L. B., vol. i, pp. 105-16. This long letter announces his 
arrival and then gives an outline of all that had happened since Aug. 2i.st — 
practically a synopsis of the entries in the Journal thus far. Townsend Harris's 
kindly policy towards the Japanese is clearly enunciated near the end of this 
dispatch: 

"I have deemed it prudent to let a few weeks elapse before I open to the 
Japanese the matters contained in your Instructions. I wish to let the alarm 

223 



p. M. ; instead of the flagstafif being ready at noon, it is not 
yet completed, and there is a fair chance it will not be 
sent ashore to-night. Mr. Heusken was taken ashore to 
interpret about the bills, etc., with a positive promise 
he should be brought back at half-past twelve. At half- 
past two P. M. he procured a shore boat and came off. So 
much for promises. I decide to land to-day, so send ofif 
all my remaining traps; and, attended by two officials, 
leave the ship at five P. M., having taken a kind leave 
of all. As I left the ship the men manned the rigging 
and gave me three hearty cheers. The men in my boat 
responded, and a counter cheer of two more came from 
the ship, and then the band on the quarter deck struck 
up "Hail, Columbia." I was both flattered and touched 
by this mark of attention. 

It showed at least that I had so conducted myself 
while on board the San Jacinto (ofif and on five months) 
that I had secured the good will of all on board — and so 
I came on shore for my final landing in Japan. On reach- 
ing my temple, I found the Vice-Governor and a suite 
of officials awaiting my arrival to welcome me, which 
they did in very good terms, at the same time showing 
me a present of fowls, eggs and lobsters from the Gov- 
ernor. Two things I must note which caused me some 
regret in the San Jacinto: the first, that Commodore 

occasioned by my arrival subside ; to convince them by my quiet conduct of 
my friendly disposition; and, by such friendly intercourse as I may have, 
establish a kindly feeling towards me." 

On the very day that Townsend Harris penned these sentiments of "quiet 
conduct," "friendly disposition," and "kindly feeling," Sir Michael Seymour, 
in command of the Barracouta, the Winchester, and the Pique, forced an en- 
trance into the inner harbor of Nagasaki. (J. M. Tronson, Personal Narrative 
of a Voyage to Japan . . . in H.M.S. Barracouta, pp. 397-99.) 

224 



Armstrong was again quite unwell with considerable 
fever; and the other, that he and Captain Bell refused 
to permit me to pay anything for my mess while I was 
on board, saying I had not cost the mess one cent extra; 
that I never drank any wine, nor had called for any 
different cookery; that I had not given any trouble, nor 
added to their expenses. They therefore declined receiv- 
ing anything from me. This was contrary to agreement 
as, before I left New York, I agreed with both the 
Commodore and Captain Bell that I should be allowed 
to pay my share of the mess. We were up until after mid- 
night in getting copies made of my dispatches. The 
spar came on shore just at dusk, too late to put up 
my staff.^" 

Thursday, September 4, 1 8 56. Slept very little from 
excitement and mosquitoes, — the latter enormous in 
size. At seven A. M. men came on shore to put up my 
flagstaff. Heavy job. Slow work. Spar falls ; break cross- 
trees; fortunately no one hurt. At last get a reinforce- 
ment from the ship. Flagstaff erected; men form a 
ring around it, and, at two and a half P. M. of this day, 
I hoist the "First Consular Flag" ever seen in this 
Empire. Grim reflections — ominous of change — un- 
doubted beginning of the end. Query, — if for the real 
good of Japan ?^'^ The San Jacinto left at five o'clock,"^ 

287Wood, Op. cii., p. 318, wrongly states that this task was completed on 
Sept. 3rd. 

288An interesting chapter might be written on this query of Townsend 
Harris's, for it is a thought which occurred time and again to the early visitors 
and representatives to Japan from the Western powers. 

289'rhe San Jacinto left for Shanghai, where she arrived on Sept. n, 1856 
(35-2, S. Ex. Doc., no. 22, pt. 2 — ia Serial no. 983 — p. 963: Commissioner Peter 
Parker to Consul Caleb Jones). 

225 



saluting me by dipping her flag which was answered by 
me, and then she left me "alone in my glory," not feel- 
ing very sad, for in fact I was too busy in opening boxes, 
searching out eatables and mosquito nets, to think of be- 
ing downhearted. Go to bed at eight P. M. and sleep well. 

Friday, September 5, l8^6. Busy all day in open- 
ing packages, arranging contents, ordering various 
articles from the Japanese. Get an old belfry made into 
a nice pigeon house in which I installed my four pairs 
of pigeons. Clear all day. 

Saturday, September 6, 1856. Same employment as 
yesterday. Am getting things to look a little com- 
fortable. Find that the ichibu is equal to 1,600 seni or 
cash. This takes two thirds off the prices of everything 
I buy, as the Japanese have only allowed us 1,600 seni 
for the dollar, although the dollar weighs three times as 
much as the tchibu,^°° consequently is worth 4,800 seni. 

Moriama,^" the Yedo official, visited me to-day on a 



290'rhis word, spelled in such a variety of ways in the early accounts, stands 
for ichi-bu, meaning one bu, or part. "To talk of 'a hundred ichibus' is as 
though a Japanese were to say 'a hundred one shillings.' " (Lord Redesdale 
(Mitford), Tales of Old Japan (London, 1908), p. 262, note i.) 

29iMoriyama Yenosuke (Mr. Mountain Grove), a Samurai and chief in- 
terpreter of the Foreign Office of the Shogunate, at Yedo. He took a prominent 
part in all the early contacts between Japan and foreign nations, and is con- 
stantly mentioned in all the narratives of the first visitors to Japan. His first 
appearance on the stage of the diplomatic relations between the United States 
and Japan is dated Sept. 2, 1848, when he visited the imprisoned sailors of the 
whaler Lagoda, at Nagasaki. One of these sailors, Robert McCoy, in the sworn 
statement of their captivity, made on Apr. 30, 1849, to Commander James 
Glynn, of the Preble, calls our interpreter Moreama Einaska (32-1, S. Ex. 
Doc, no. 59 — in Serial no. 620 — p. 17). 

Moriyama was involved in so many important historical events that a 
biography of him would not only make an interesting monograph, but would 
constitute a valuable contribution to the history of our Japan relations. A good 
beginning could be made with Lewis and Murakami, Ranald MacDonald, 
p. 2o8, note 237 ; cf. also the index. 

226 




THE U. S. CONSULATE AT SHIMODA IN 1856 

From a drawing in India ink by Mr. H. C. J. Heusken. This drawing gives the earliest 
and only authentic view of the grounds of the consulate, of its buildings, and of the flag- 
staff flying the first consular flag ever seen in Japan. See Journal Thursday, September 
4, 1856. 



mere visit of friendship, as he said. Gave him "cakes 
and champagne." 

My tailor is proving to be a desperate character. He 
will not work and says he does not care how much I cut 
his wages. He is the first Chinese I ever saw who was 
indifferent on this point. 

I gave him a serious lecture. Told him if he expected 
to eat that he must work ; that I had the power of put- 
ting him in jail and causing him to be fed on very spare 
diet, and also might order him to be whipped every 
day; that I would give him until Monday to reflect 
which he would take, — work, wages and good food, — or 
prison, hunger and whipping. 

Hear a curious insect of the cricket tribe to-night. 
Sound was precisely like a miniature locomotive at 
great speed. Bats in rooms. See enormous tete de mort 
spider; the legs extended five and a half inches as the 
insect stood. Unpleasant discovery of large rats in num- 
bers, running about the house. Light showers in the 
night. 

Sunday, September J, l8§6. No work to-day. Hoist 
my flag, which is to be flown on Sundays, holidays — 
Japanese ditto — and when foreign ships are here. The 
Japanese were much pleased when I told them I 
would hoist my flag in honor of their holidays, and gave 
me a list for six months. The wind fresh all day from 
the west. Thermometer 84°, but there is so much vitality 
in the air that one does not feel oppressed by the heat. 
My flag badly made, the wind has whipped out the end 
hem and frayed the bunting in many places three inches 

227 



— so badly is all government contract work done. The 
sealing wax sent me from the Department is so bad 
it will not run or even drop. It appears to be composed 
of rosin and tallow, no wax or shellac in it. When a 
stick is lighted it will burn to the end like a pitch pine 
splinter. No rain. 

Monday, September 8, l8^6. Weather same as yes- 
terday. Get on very slowly in fitting up the house with 
shelves, closets, tables, etc., etc. Every carpenter that 
comes to do anything is attended by an officer. It may 
be to keep him from stealing, but more likely to prevent 
any communication between us. I have required my 
poultry to be all hens or pullets. They inform me that 
in Japan fowls are always hatched in pairs — one cock 
and one hen — therefore, they must give them to me in 
the same manner. Send to each of the first Governors two 
five-pints of champagne, one quart brandy, two quarts 
whiskey, one cherry bounce and one anisette. This after- 
noon we discover a Russian cemetery with three tombs 
of the same patterns as the Americans'. They are of 
persons who belonged to the Russian Frigate Diana, 
and died in 1854 and 1855. One tomb is evidently that of 
an officer, but I cannot read the letters to make out his 
name or rank. 

This tomb is decorated with two crosses deeply cut in 
the stone. One is four inches, the other about sixteen 
inches long. The presence of these crosses serves to prove 
that the Japanese of the present day have not that exces- 
sive hatred of the cross that was said to animate them 
formerly. On Saturday last I showed Moriama my 

228 



Mitchell's Atlas, the frontispiece of which contains a 
colored engraving of the "Landing of Columbus," in 
which a large cross is prominently engraved. Moriama 
paid no attention to it, or rather said nothing. 

Spalding says that he asked a Japanese for his auto- 
graph, which he was about to write in his (Spalding's) 
prayer-book, but, discovering a cross in the frontispiece, 
he with great trepidation refused to write.^^^ No rain. 

Tuesday, September g, l8§6. I applied on Friday 
last (5th) for two boys as house servants. Am told to- 
day that they must write to Yedo about them. Get 
measures of distance from Japanese (see record 
book).''^^ Weather fine, but little wind. Thermometer 
at noon 82°, but it is not oppressive. I am anxious to 
get my house arranged, so that I may begin to wander 
about the country and see how it looks, which I cannot 
now do, being constantly wanted for directions, etc., 
etc. At nine o'clock a heavy thunder shower. The 
lightning was as vivid as I ever saw out of the tropics, 
and the thunder appeared to be interminable, so long 



292J. w. Spalding, The Japan Expedition, New York, Redfield, 185?, pp. 
222-23 : 

"They would present their fans on which they desired some sentiment to 
be written. . . . Their own cards were presented. . . . They were very 
polite in writing names in Japanese characters in our books. I requested one 
to write a name on the title-page of a Book of Common Prayer, which 
happened to have a steel engraving of the cross upon it. He had dipped his 
camel's-hair pencil into his portable inkstand, passed the point through his 
lips, and was about to write when his eye rested upon the cross; he in- 
stantly shook his head, threw the book upon the table, nor could he be 
induced to touch it again." 

293We do not know what Towns^nd Harris meant by Record Book. There 
is extant, however, his manuscript copybook entitled Common Place Book, on 
p. 8 of which are found not only the Japanese measures of distance, but also 
the cloth measure. 

229 



were the echoes prolonged among the hills. The ther- 
mometer marked 81° during the whole shower. There 
was not much wind with the shower, which lasted 
forty minutes. At eleven P. M. another shower, without 
lightning. 

Wednesday, September 10, 1856. Quiet rain set in, 
in showers at three A. M. and continued until eleven 
A. M,, closing with some few claps of thunder. The 
wind then came from [the] east and the thermometer 
fell to 70°. 

Much trouble with the lock of the iron chest. Pro- 
cure mechanics to open it; and, after removing a load 
of mortar placed over the lock, find it cannot be re- 
paired. Caution: Never buy an iron chest with a patent 
lock of Mr. Gaylor's or any other man's make, especially 
if you are going to a semi-civilized country. I can close 
and bolt the chest, but not lock it. It is a protection from 
fire (soi disant) , but not from thieves.^®* Moriama and 
suite visited me this afternoon. He said he came from 
the Governor to inquire if I was frightened by the thun- 
der of last night — a Japanese; ruse. He quietly diverged 
to the subject of Japanese servants, which I had 
asked for last week. Said there were none at Shi- 
moda; must write to other places; that they had to 
reflect on every new proposition a long time; that they 
could not decide as quickly as the men of the West, etc., 
etc. I replied that I believed that servants could at once 
be procured for me in Shimoda ; that it was treating me 

29<This perverse iron chest had been purchased in New York from the 
Japan Contingent Fund. "Sepr. 24th [1855]. Paid J. E. Van Antwerp for an 
Iron Safe for the Consulate at Shimoda $87.75." (^- ^•' ^°1' '> P- 5-) 

230 



improperly to leave me to wait on myself. I showed him 
my blistered hands, which had so become by my being 
compelled to do work in fault of proper servants. He 
then begged me to give them some more time to pro- 
cure them {i. e., to invent lies to deny them if they think 
best to do so) . I said I did not wish to appear impatient, 
and would wait for the remainder of the week. I com- 
plained of the very great delay there was in executing 
my orders. I had for many days been expecting a num- 
ber of slight things to be done (naming some of them) , 
and, although time enough to do them four times over 
had elapsed, yet none of them had been done ; that I felt 
that I was neglected and expected it would be remedied. 

He at once began blowing up the officers who were 
with him and gave me some of their excuses. A greater 
tissue of lies was never heard. The matter was closed by 
an assurance on his part that I should have the matters 
attended to in the morning. After this he got quite jolly 
on champagne. At ten P. M. the thermometer marked 
77°. Wind east. 

Thursday, September II, 1 8 56. A fine breezy morn- 
ing. Thermometer, 75°. Wind N. E. 

Men are here working on various matters for my 
house. Had a flare-up with the officials, who told me 
some egregious lies in answer to some requests I made. 
I told them plainly I knew they lied ; that, if they wished 
me to have any confidence in them, they must always 
speak the truth ; that, if I asked anything they were not 
authorized to grant, or about which they wished to con- 
sult, let them simply say they were not prepared to an- 

231 



swer me, but that to tell lies to me was treating me like 
a child, and that I should consider myself as insulted 
thereby; that in my country a man who lied was dis- 
graced, and that to call a man a liar was the greatest 
insult that could be given him ; that I hoped they would, 
for the future, if they told me anything, simply tell me 
the truth, and that I should then respect them, which I 
could not do when they told me falsehoods. Send Mori- 
ama an Atlas as a present.^^^ 

Friday, September 12, l8^6. As lovely a morning as 
I ever saw. The wind fell before daylight, and we have 
light airs from the west with a sky so blue it looks like 
ultramarine. Thermometer, 79°. The Vice-Governor 
and Moriama, with the usual suite. 

The object of the visit was my demand for two boys as 
house servants. It was a rare scene of Japanese deceit, 
falsehood, flattery and politeness. I at last got them cor- 
nered, and they were compelled to promise me to supply 
my wants by the i6th. They fought hard to have the 
boys leave at sunset and return at daylight, but I was 
firm and carried my point. I may here remark that at all 
these visits they readily drink all I offer them, — ^wine, 
cordials, brandy, whiskey, etc., etc., and many of them 
drink more than enough. Spirits of all kinds they drink 
raw. 

Saturday September 1 3, 1856. To-day is the anni- 
versary of the Patron Saint^®" of Shimoda, and is one of 



295Very likely his copy of Mitchell's Atlas, which he had showed Moriyama 
on Sept. 8, 1856. 

296Ushijiwa no Jinja (Griffis, Toivnsend Harris, p. 64, note). 

232 



their greatest holidays ; but, as my house is not in order, I 
remain at home arranging books, etc., and trying to 
eradicate the cockroaches, which I have brought from 
the San Jacinto by thousands. They are a pest of the 
most disagreeable kind. Mr. Heusken went out to see 
what was doing, and says he saw a large procession bear- 
ing a metal mirror and pieces of white paper (emblems 
of the Shinto religion) ; a large drum borne by three 
men was beaten by one. The fashion of the drum was like 
the Chinese, — i. e., a cylinder with one parchment head. 
He did not see any change of dress; a number of per- 
sons were throwing themselves into extravagant atti- 
tudes and shouting or screaming loudly. The procession 
went to a temple where a large quantity of holy water 
was showered on them by the attending priests. After 
their devotions they visited another temple, after which 
he left. He did not see any of the theatricals referred to 
by Kaempfer, Fischer, and Heer DoefiP. A fine day. 
Wifid from west. Thermometer, 84°. 

Sunday, September 14, l8^6. A smart thunder 
shower at five A. M., but the day has been a fine one. Some 
of my Chinese servants went out to walk. They were 
followed by three policemen. They offered to purchase 
some fruit, but were refused, and finally, on asking for 
a drink of water from a man who was by a well, he re- 
fused, and ran away with the drinking vessel. 

Monday, September l^, 1856. Commenced raining 
at four A. M. with a raw wind from north, although the 
thermometer is 82° in our open rooms, but protected 
from the wind. I expect the Governor to visit me to-day, 

233 



as I wrote him on Saturday asking him to order the 
proper officer to receive from Mr. Heusken $500 in sil- 
ver coin, and to give him the same weight of Japanese 
silver money.^" I am sure he will refuse, as they have 
heretofore refused to take the dollar for more than their 
ichibu, or quarter of a tael of silver. The value of the 
tael is about $1.36. The ichibu is therefore worth 34 
cents. We have heretofore paid nearly 200 per cent, over 
price, — from their only allowing us 34 cents for our dol- 
lar. But this must have an end, and I am fully instructed 
by my Government to insist on our money being taken at 
its proper value. 

In the afternoon Moriama and the third Governor 
and suite visited me, bringing two boys of the ages of 
fifteen and sixteen years. Their names are Ske-zo and 
Ta-ki-so i"^^ the latter I take for my servant, and the other 
for Mr. Heusken. 

On showing Kaempfer's work on Japan to the Gover- 
nor, he at once pointed out the place of his and Mori- 
ama's house in Yedo, showing the general correctness of 
the plan of that city. I tried in various ways to get at 
the population of Yedo from them, but without any suc- 
cess. They said it was a large place; that there was such 
a large number of persons going and coming daily, that 
it was out of their pov/er to state the population, etc., 
etc. Complained to the Governor that my servants on 

29Tin the same letter (L. B., vol. i, pp. 116-17), Townsend Harris states 
that he had received a letter from Captain Bell complaining of the poor quality 
of the coal that had been furnished the San Jacinto, and transmits the Captain's 
desires as to future supplies. 

The Dutch translation of this letter is to be found in L. B., vol. i, pp. 99-100. 

288Sukezo and Takezo (Griffis, To<wnsend Harris, p. 65). 



Sunday last had been followed by policemen ; that they 
had been refused fruit which they offered to buy, and 
even denied a drink of water. I remonstrated sharply 
against such conduct as disgraceful, inhospitable, etc., 
etc., and they promised that the matter should be in- 
quired into. Constant rain until four P. M. Got some 
fine, ripe grapes and persimmons to-day and am 
promised a regular supply, so long as they are in season. 
They have constantly denied to me having any such 
fruits here, and it was only after my cook had seen them 
in the streets on Sunday and I charged them with false- 
hood about fruit that they would bring them to me. 

Tuesday, September l6, 18^6. A fine bright morn- 
ing. Sky as blue as sapphire. Wind light from northwest. 
Thermometer, 76° at eight A. M. At eleven o'clock go out 
for a walk. The paths lead over towards Yedo Bay, and 
the views were enchanting. Sky clear — water blue — 
whitecaps cresting the waves. High lands on the oppo- 
site side of Yedo Bay (northeast side) dimly seen. Jap- 
anese junks with their large square sail scudding merrily 
before the wind. Ground here is cultivated wherever 
water can be procured to irrigate it. It appears to be 
equally rich on the steep hillsides as on the little plains. 
A streamlet of water is found running down the gorge be- 
tween two hills. The ground is cut into terraces, then the 
water is led from the highest part right and left from the 
stream to the upper terraces, thence it trickles down to 
the next, and the next, until all the terraces have been 
watered down to the foot of the hill. I never saw such fine 
crops of rice, or rice of so good a quality as here. Rice is 

235 



the chief produce ; some maize, millet, a little wheat, bar- 
ley and buckwheat are also grown. A great variety of 
pulse and lentils are also grown. I see [that] many 
oleaginous seeds of whose names I am ignorant are also 
cultivated. A bulbous root — the taro of the South Seas — 
is also grown here. We pursued our pleasant walk until 
we reached the highest hill in this vicinity, — say some 
2,800 feet ; and from that we could just see the top of the 
celebrated Fusi Yama, the highest mountain in Japan, 
which is 1 2,500 feet high and not many miles from Yedo. 
It is said that this mountain is always crowned with 
snow, but the distance from which we viewed it was too 
great to permit us to say whether it was so covered or not. 
This mountain is the most celebrated spot in Japan. It 
is the seat of their most terrible volcanoes. It is cele- 
brated in the histories of their gods as the scene of many 
remarkable events, and its picture figures on everything 
that is highly decorated.^^^ 

298The annual celebration at The College of the City of New York known 
as Charter Day took place in the year 1925 on May zoth. The speaker of the 
day and the guest of honor was His Excellency Tsuneo Matsudaira, who had 
courteously consented to unveil a bronze tablet of Mr. Townsend Harris. 
Having read the Ambassador's address, Baron Takashi Masuda, who, at the 
age of fourteen, had served in the Bureau for Foreigners, was stirred to write 
his Reminiscences of Tovinsend Harris, which he sent to the Japanese Am- 
bassador at Washington, who, in turn, caused them to be translated and then, 
with exquisite courtesy, presented them to the writer. 

From these manuscript Reminiscences we quote the following interesting, 
lines: 

"Before the departure of Harris from Japan, Mr. Ando [Tsushima-no- 
Kami] said to him, 'I wish to express my sincere gratitude for your friendly 
advice on our international policy, and although I am very anxious to give 
you a present, I am sorry that there is nothing I can give you which is equal 
to the value of the help you have been to us. I wish I could give you Mt. 
Fuji, but I am sorry that it is impossible.' " 

Remembering the role played in Japanese mythology, history, legend, and 
art by the famous Fujiyama, we realize that Ando Tsushima-no-Kami was 
offering the very heart of Japan to the man who had won it. 

236 



We reached home at three P. M. much pleased with our 
walk. Our distance out [and] in was about eight miles. 
Very nice grapes are furnished to us to-day at the rate 
of about two cents per pound. Pears, shaped like apples 
and of the exact color of russets, are also brought; not 
good to eat raw, as they are hard, dry and tasteless, but 
they cook very well. Persimmons, fully ripe, aVe now 
brought to us. Our poultry has been taken with some 
disease during the last few days and is dying off rapidly 
— ^while we are afraid to eat any of it that is not ap- 
parently sick, for fear it may have the seeds of disease in 
it. I charge the Japanese with selecting all the sick 
fowls they have and bringing them to me. They deny it, 
and say the poultry all around is dying off in the same 
manner. 

Cleaning up exterior of house. Oven, extraordinary 
affair — cut out of solid stone!! New paper on our win- 
dows, by the way of glazing them anew. 

Wednesday, September IJ, 1856. Not pleasant this 
morning. Cloudy. Wind N. E. Thermometer, 74° at 
eight A. M. 

Tuesday, September 23, 1856. Yesterday at four 
P. M. the wind began to blow fresh from E. S. E., with 
rain. The wind continued to freshen until at eight P. M. 
it became a heavy typhoon which continued up to mid- 
night, when it moderated. The wind at four P. M. was 
S. S. E., and continued to haul to S. S. W., at which point 
the gale was heaviest. After midnight the wind stood at 
W.N.W. 

I was under much apprehension that my house would 

237 



be blown down, as it shook in every post and beam, and 
swayed to and fro as the heavy gusts struck it. My 
kitchen was partly unroofed. Flagstaff blown over so as 
to stand at an angle of 65°. In the harbor every junk was 
cast ashore and many lives lost and much property de- 
stroyed. In Kakizaki, full one half the houses were 
blown down and some persons killed. The landing jetty 
and breakwater at Kakizaki are totally destroyed. 

At Shimoda, the bazaar part of the Goyoshi is totally 
destroyed, and a large amount of beautiful lacquer and 
inlaid ware lost. One hundred houses blown down and 
twenty lives lost. The Japanese say it was the severest 
storm ever known at this place.^"" 

Wednesday, October I, l8§6. The Dutch Steam 
Frigate Diana [Medusa^, Captain Fabius, arrived here 
to-day from Hakodate en route to Nagasaki.^" I went 
on board and was kindlv received by Captain Fabius, 
who gave me a salute of eleven guns on leaving. 

Captain Fabius informs me that a mine of superior 
coals has been discovered at Hakodate, which will 
greatly reduce the price of that article at that place be- 



^ooMr. Heusken's Diary says that this storm took place during the night 
from the 20th to the 2ist of September. (G. Wagener, Aus dem Tagehuche 
Hendrik Heusken's, in the Tokyo Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Natur — und 
Folkerkunde Ostasiens, Mittheilungen, June, 1883, vol. 3, p. 376.) 

On Sept. 2Sth, Townsend Harris wrote to the Governor of Shimoda 
{L. B., vol. I, pp. 1 17-21), protesting at the merely verbal answer given to his 
written communication of Sept. 13th (see Journal for Sept. 15th), refut- 
ing the Japanese arguments for refusing to provide him with Japanese 
coins, and renewing his battle for evaluating the dollar at three ichibus. (The 
Dutch translation of this letter is to be found in L. B., vol. i, pp. 101-04.) 

Finally, Heusken mentions a letter dated Sept. 25th and sent to Yedo to the 
Minister of Foreign Affairs (Wagener, op, cit., p. 376). This is an error for 
Oct. 2sth. 

soiSee Heusken's Diary, loc. cit, 

238 



sides giving a superior quality. Captain Fabius also says 
that two steam vessels are now being constructed in Hol- 
land for the Japanese, which are to be paid for as fol- 
lows : say one-fifth part in each of the following articles 
— copper, lacquer ware, etc., wax, camphor; and money 
or bullion for the remaining 20 per cent. 

Dutch mechanics of every branch connected with 
shipbuilding have been brought out for the Japanese, 
and they are now giving instruction to the Japanese in 
all the various branches above referred to at Naga- 
saki.^°^ 

It appears that for some years the Dutch have received 
a part of the returns of their annual cargo in money or 
bullion. 

The King of Holland has, as it is said, written a letter 
to the Emperor of Japan, strongly urging him to open 
his kingdom to the commerce of all nations.^°^ 



sozHere is the beginning of the building of the mighty fleets of Japan ! We are 
strongly reminded of the prophetic words of the imprisoned Russian Captain, 
Golownin, who, from observations made more than forty years before, had 
written (Memoirs, 2nd ed., 1824, vol. 3, pp. 33-34) : 

"However deeply a horror of everything foreign may be impressed on the 
Japanese and Chinese government[s], yet a change in their system is not in- 
conceivable: necessity may compel them to do that to which their own free 
will does not impel them! Attacks, for example, like that of Chwostoff, often 
repeated, would probably induce them to think of means to repel a handful 
of vagabonds who disturbed a nation. This might lead them to build ships 
of war on the model of those of Europe; these ships might increase to fleets, 
and then it is probable that the good success of this measure would lead 
them also to adopt the other scientific methods which are so applicable to the 
destruction of the human race.'" 

sosDr. Daniel Crosby Greene, Correspondence bet<ween William II of flol- 
land and the Shogun of Japan, A. D. 184.4., in Transactions of the Asiatic Society 
of Japan, vol. 34, part 4 (June, 1907), pp. 99-132. In this scholarly article. Dr. 
Greene gives both the versions through which the letter had to pass before it 
could reach Shogun lyeyoshi: the original Dutch text, on pp. 104-09; and the 
Japanese translation, on pp. 124-29. The English version appears on pp.i 10-14. 



Friday', October S, l8§6. The Diana [Medusa] 
sailed to-day for Nagasaki. As she will not go to Hong- 
kong I do not write by her. 

Saturday, October 4, J8§6. I am fifty-two years old 
to-day. God grant that the short remainder of my life 
may be more usefully and honorably spent than the pre- 
ceding and larger portion of it.^°* 

Sunday, October 5, l8§6. The American Schooner 
General Pierce arrived here from Hakodate. Left no 
American vessels there, as it is too early for them. She 
comes here to complete her trading.^"" 

Both the Diana [Medusa] and General Pierce were 
in the typhoon of the 22nd ult.^°^ 

Thursday, October Q, 18^6. The General Pierce left 
to-day. Wrote by her to : 



The letter of the King of Holland was dated Feb. 15, 1844; Japonice, the 27th 
day of the 12th month of the 14th year of Tempo. 

To return to the Journal. Oct. 1st being the beginning of a new quarter, 
Townsend Harris duly sent an order for supplies to Armstrong & Lawrence 
{L. B., vol. I, pp. 104-05) ; and, on the matter of his salary for the broken 
quarter ending Sept. 30, 1856, he wrote to Russell & Co., at Shanghai (L. B., 
vol. I, pp. 121-23), and to Baring Bros. & Co., at London {L. B., vol. i, pp. 
123-24). 

304Xownsend Harris lived to the age of seventy-four. He died of congestion 
of the lungs at 263 Fourth Avenue, New York City, on Monday, Feb. 25, 1878. 
His funeral took place at Calvary Church, Fourth Avenue and 21st Street, 
on the morning of Thursday, Feb. 28, 1878. He is buried in Greenwood Ceme- 
tery, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

This entry in his Journal, written in Townsend Harris's own hand, settles 
the moot point of the exact date of his birth, which is variously given in the 
encyclopasdias, and which is wrongly given even on his tombstone. 

305Xhe General Pierce arrived with a cargo of ammunition, which the 
Japanese did not permit to be landed because it was found to be too old 
(Heusken, in G. Wagener, op. cit., p. 376). She left on Oct. 9th, bound for 
Hongkong (L. B., vol. i, p. 125). 

306Compare above, entry for Sept. 23, 1856, and note 300. 
On Oct. 7th, Townsend Harris had an interview with the Governor of 
Shimoda, at which he discussed the currency question. {L. B., vol. 1, p. 126.) 

240 



The Secretary of State and Russell & Co., 

N. Dougherty of Shanghai, sending 

P. M. Wetmore a bill for my salary 

S. Drinker up to 30th ult. on 

S. B. Drinker Baring & Co. for 

Armstrong & Lawrence them to negotiate.^" 

Wednesday, October 22, 1856. I have not been well 
since the 17th of September. I am suffering from a 
bad wound in my left foot caused by treading on a large 
nail, and also from a total loss of appetite, want of sleep 
and depression of spirits. 

I attribute all but the wound to two causes : first, in- 
ability to take exercise in the open air; and second, 
smoking too much. The latter I must break off. As I am 
now much better, I shall begin to go out for exercise and 



^i) To the Secretary of State: Dispatch No. i6 (L. B., vol. i, pp. 124-25). 
Townsend Harris reports that he has already made progress in the 
matter of evaluating the dollar, which makes him feel sure that the 
making of a commercial treaty is only a question of time. Furthermore, 
the storm of Sept. 22nd proves that Shimoda is an unsafe harbor 
and should be exchanged for another. 

2) To S, Drinker: Acknowledged by letter dated Hongkong, Apr. 3 

and 4, 1857 (L. Sf P., vol. i, no. 62). 

3) To S. B. Drinker: Mrs. Susannah Budd Drinker, whose maiden name 
was Susannah Budd Shober. 

4) To Armstrong & Lawrence: L. B., vol. i, p. 124, which speaks of 
finances and supplies. 

Though not mentioned in the Journal, on this day Townsend Harris 
wrote at least two more letters: 

5) To the Governor of Shimoda {L. B., vol. i, p. 126), going over the 
ground covered during the interview of Oct. 7, 1856, and again main- 
taining that the silver dollar was worth three silver ichibus; 

6) To Captain H. H. Bell, in answer to one from him regarding the 
poor quality of the coal that had been furnished the San Jacinto 
{cf. L. B., vol. I, p. 116, Townsend Harris to the Governor of Shi- 
moda, Sept. 13, 1856; and see above, Journal for Sept. 15th, and taote 
297). We have not found this letter to Captain Bell. Both this lost 
letter and Townsend Harris's letter to Captain Bell of Dec. lo, 1856 
(likewise lost), are acknowledged by Captain Bell by letter dated 
Whampoa, Jap. ao, 1857 (^- ^ P-> vol i, no. 54). 

241 



hope to be in robust health again. The climate here is 
delightful. 

The thermometer since September i6th has not been 
above 80° nor below 61° Fahrenheit. 

The Japanese have three times sent me the flesh of 
what they call a wild hog.^°^ I find on examination that 
it is the baibarossa, or hog deer of India and the Indian 
Archipelago, and I am much surprised to find it so far 
to the north. The flesh is peculiar. It is very tender, 
juicy and of an excellent flavor. The taste is something 
between delicate veal and the tenderloins of pork. I am 
promised a full supply during the cold weather, which 
will be a great relief to my housekeeping. The typhoon 
destroyed all the grapes, but I have been well supplied 
with a great variety of the persimmon, some as large as a 
pippin and all of good quality. Chestnuts have also 
been sent to me. 

To-day a horse was brought to me to examine the 
saddle, bridle, etc. They are queer affairs, but I have 
ordered a horse and trappings to be sent to me from 
Yedo, — not only for actual use, but to give me increased 
importance in the eye of the natives. For the same reason 
I have ordered a norimon. 

The Japanese officials are daily becoming more and 
more friendly and more open in their communications 
with me. I hope this will grow and lead to good re- 
sults by and by. 

My poor pigeons have all been killed in one night by 

308See comment by Griffis, in Tovunsend Harris, p. 71, note. 

242 



my cat. I have sent up to Yedo for more. The itats, a 
species of large weasel, is a sad enemy to my hencoops. 

Thursday, October 23, 18^6. A lovely day. The 
weather is as balmy and mild as in New York in Oc- 
tober, but we have no smoke or haze in the air, and at 
night the thermometer does not fall below 60°. Took a 
walk of some five miles. The country is very beautiful — 
is broken up in steep volcanic cones, but every possible 
spot is terraced and cultivated like a garden. The labor 
expended in cutting down the rock to form some of 
these terraces is something wonderful. My walk led me 
first to Vandalia Point, the most southeastern part of the 
land. From this I had a view of the vast Pacific, and it 
was a curious thought that, looking due south, there was 
no land between me and Australia, some five thousand 
miles ! 

Turning more to the eastward I saw the Island of 
Oho Sima,^"* with its volcano smoking on its summit. The 
day is almost calm, so the smoke arose like a mighty pil- 
lar for thousands of feet. It then spread out forming a 
vast white cloud. 

This volcano has been in action for some centuries, 
and occasionally treats us here to an earthquake, as it 
did in December, 1853,^'° when a mighty wave rolled in 
on Shimoda, encountering as it entered a flourishing 
town of some eight thousand to ten thousand souls. When 
the wave receded, it left only fourteen houses standing; 



3090shima or O Shima (Great Island), also known as Vries Island. 
^lOA slip of the pen for Dec, 1854; see above, Journal for Aug. 21, 1856, and 
note 267. 



all the rest, — temples, bazaars and a large number of 
the inhabitants, — were swept into the bay by the reflux 
of this mighty wave, which was said to have been thirty 
feet high. Four times it returned, but the deed of de- 
struction was perfected by the first one. I passed through 
the village of Satora on the Yedo Bay, thence, through 
another village back of Kakizaki whose name I do not 
know, home. I saw to-day cherry, peach, pear and per- 
simmon trees, grapevines, ivy, althea, — the last just put- 
ting out new leaves. Blue privet — very pretty; many 
ferns; pine trees in variety; cedar, spruce, fir and cam- 
phor trees. Camellia Japonica forms the jungle here 
and is cut for fuel. 

I saw a few bushes of the common rose, but no flowers 
were on them. Among flowers whose names I know I 
found : blue bell, Canterbury ditto, Scotch thistle — the 
first I ever saw in the East — heart's-ease, yellow sham- 
rock, daisy and others whose forms are familiar but 
whose names I do not know, and then many that were 
strange to me. How much I wish I was a botanist. 

The fine clear bracing air, the high cultivation you 
see everywhere, combined with views which are of the 
most picturesque kind and which are constantly chang- 
ing, make a walk here a thing to be desired and long 
remembered. ^'^ 



311 While Townsend Harris was thus living Arcadian days, events of gieat 
importance were taking place in China. On Oct. 22nd, Captain Andrew Hull 
Foote, of the U.S.S. Portsmouth, landed eighty of his men at the Canton Fac- 
tories to protect Americans and their property; on the 23rd, British troops 
were landed, p.nd Sir Admiral Michael Seymour captured all the Canton Forts, 
from the Bogue Forts up, took also the Factories, and demanded an interview 
with Yeh. A few days later the walls of Canton were breached, and Captain 
Foote issued a proclamation of American neutrality. For these and many other 

244 



Friday, October 24, 1856. The Japanese brought me 
the entire carcass of what I have supposed to be the 
baibarossa, but it proves to be simply a wild hog. It has 
seven molars on each side of the upper jaw, while the 
baibarossa has only five. The incisors are not developed 
scarcely at all, or have been broken off. The baibarossa 
has four incisors on the upper jaw; again, the baibarossa 
has two large tusks which protrude through the upper 
jaw and sweep backwards in a curve which brings the 
points nearly in contact with the skin just below the eye. 
This boar had only small tusks in the lower jaw. 

Walked to the top of the hill that overlooks the har- 
bor, about one thousand feet high ; has a wooden cannon, 
about twelve pounder, bore. It is strongly bound with 
bamboo hoops from end to end, the hoops are close to- 
gether. Here also are two old iron guns, nine pounders, 
bearing the shield of the Dutch East India Company. 
These guns are only for signals. A lookout house is 
erected here and a guard is always here from daylight 
to dark. It commands a vast range of vision, and a ship 
could, in clear weather, be seen some twenty miles off. 

On my return I met a mountain-priest, — one of a class 
whose vow binds him to ascend all mountains he can 
meet with. He bears a staff surmounted with a circle of 
iron; within is a trident like that of Siva, four loose 
rings are attached to the circle, two on each side. These 
make a jingling noise when the priest shakes his staff. 



stirring details of the capture of the Barrier Forts and of Canton, see the very 
I6ng letter by Captain Bell to Townsend Harris, written at Whampoa over a 
series of days and dated Jan. 10, 18, 26, 28, Feb. 30, 25, 1857 {L. & P., vol. i, 
no. 54). 

245 



I get 4,800 of the small copper coin of Japan for one 
dollar. Ten of these given to the priest produced a long 
prayer and a great jingling of his rings. 

The priest was of a good pleasant countenance and 
very robust in appearance. 

Saturday, October 2^, l8^6. The Vice-Governor 
visited me to-day. He borrowed the Treaties of the 
United States with Foreign Nations, for the purpose of 
having it translated. It will be a heavy work for them, 
as they will have to do it by means of a dictionary in 
English and Dutch. 

The two Kamis, who are Governors here, are to visit 
me on Thursday next. I have visited the prison of Shi- 
moda. It corresponds generally with Golownin's de- 
scription of the prisons at Hakodate and Matsmai,^" but 
what he calls cages are simply cells made of squared 
joists of timber, placed some three inches apart. I am 
sure they are larger and not so solitary as the stone cells 
in the prisons of the United States. Imprisonment as a 
punishment for the Japanese is unknown. The punish- 
ments are either death or whipping, and the accused is 
only in prison until he can be tried. The Japanese code 
is somewhat sanguinary. Death is inflicted for murder, 
arson, burglary, grand larceny and for violent deport- 
ment towards a father. 

The parent cannot put his children to death ; but, on 



3i2Wassily Michailovitsch Golownin, a Captain in the Russian Navy. The 
reference is to his famous work: Memoirs of a Captivity in Japan during the 
Years i8li, 1812, and 1813, <with Observations on the Country and the People. 
Second edition, in 3 vols., London, Henry Colburn & Co., 1824. There are, of 
course, other editions. 

246 



complaint of disobedience of his children, the govern- 
ment will punish the child with whipping or death, ac- 
cording to the nature of the offence. The Japanese de- 
clare that infanticide of legitimate children is unknown 
in Japan. In cases where the parents are too poor to bear 
the incumbrance of an additional child, the government 
makes an allowance to them for the purpose. Paupers are 
placed with their relatives, and an allowance made for 
their support; but, if the pauper goes out begging, the 
allowance ceases. There is no law to prohibit begging, 
and in fact it would be difficult to frame one in a coun- 
try where all the priesthood, besides a large number of 
monks, hermits and nuns, live solely on charity. There 
were three prisoners in the jail awaiting trial : two for 
gambling, and one for a small larceny. They were to be 
tried to-day, and will either go home acquitted or else 
well whipped to-night. Whipping is inflicted with a 
small bamboo or rattan over the shoulders or back. The 
Japanese cannot understand our imprisonment for pun- 
ishment. They say for a man to be in a good house and 
have enough of food and clothing cannot be a punish- 
ment to a large portion of men, who only care for their 
animal wants and have no self-respect; and, as they 
never walk for pleasure, they cannot think it hard to be 
deprived of wandering about. ^" 

^i^On this day, also, Townsend Harris wrote to the Japanese Minister of 
Foreign AfiFairs (L. B., vol. i, pp. 127-29), stating that he had a letter from 
the President of the United States for the Emperor of Japan, and that he had 
concluded to go to Yedo, accompanied by his secretary, Mr. Heusken. He fur- 
ther requested that all necessary arrangements be made for this visit; sends a 
Dutch translation of his Treaty with Siam, and makes the tempting statement 
that, when in Yedo, he will inform the Japanese Government of the intentions 
of the British Government toward Japan. 

247 



Monday, October 2J, l8^6. A lovely day; bright, 
clear sky and the thermometer at 72°. 

Took a walk over the hills and up the valley of Shi- 
moda, making a circuit of some ten miles, part of it on 
the road to Yedo. This is simply a foot or bridle path 
of some six to eight feet wide, and is only practicable on 
foot or on horseback. Every new walk I take shows me 
more and more of the patient industry of the Japanese, 
and creates new admiration of their agriculture, while 
the landscape from the top of the hills, overlooking 
the terraces rising one above another like the steps of a 
giant staircase and running over the rich fields of the 
valley and terminating with a glimpse of the blue water 
of the sea, forms a series of charming landscapes which 
are well worthy the pencils of able artists. So far as 
buildings or monuments are concerned, there is nothing 
to mark the age of the country. 

There are no venerable ivy-grown ruins, no temples 
bearing the marks of the tooth of time on their stones. 
The temples and houses are from necessity built from 
wood or bamboo wattles plastered with clay, as a stone 
edifice would be very dangerous in a country so fre- 
quently visited with violent earthquakes. 

In my rambles over the hills I have met with some 
proofs that Shimoda has been settled for many centuries 
— I mean in the stone quarries. The stone is a soft and 
light colored sandstone which is easily wrought. 

In many places you see the face of the quarry in a 
smooth perpendicular wall of one hundred fifty to two 
hundred feet high, cut down in quarrying the stones. 

248 



The great number of these quarries, their vast size and 
the fact that the debris in many places is covered with 
trees of the largest size, all go to prove the antiquity of 
the place. This stone is used for foundations, for flag- 
ging, for ovens and cooking places ; for tombstones, for 
altars, for images, and, in fact, for all the purposes (ex- 
cept houses) that stone can be applied [to]. I see that 
some of it is shipped away to other places. 

The cotton here is a second crop which springs up 
just before the first is taken from the ground ; the stool 
and bolls are small and the latter few in number, but the 
staple is long, strong and fine. The hemp of Japan is 
probably the best in the world. It is water rotted, and 
for this purpose a small rivulet is dammed up to give 
sufficient depth to immerse the hemp, which is neatly 
put up in cylindrical bales of some thirty-two inches 
long by fourteen in diameter. 

There are quite a number of water mills on the prin- 
cipal stream of Shimoda. They are driven by undershot 
wheels, and are used for grinding rice, buckwheat, etc. 
Rice being the staple food of the country is, of course, 
the chief occupation of the mills. The water is sadly 
mismanaged, and a small increase of labor would con- 
vert many of the mills to an overshot power, but they 
appear to be either ignorant of the difference of power, 
or indifferent as to its application. 

There are deer, wolves, hares and wild monkeys 
among the hills of this place. 

I was much moved to-day on finding in the woods 
a bachelor's button. This humble flower, with its sweet 

249 



perfume, brought up so many home associations that I 
was inclined to be homesick, — /. e., miserable for the 
space of an hour. I am trying to learn Japanese. I have 
begun with some words to my servants and can give them 
all the orders necessary for my attendance. 

Tuesday, October 28, iS^O. Another lovely day, 
which I improved by walking some eight miles, skirting 
the shores of the Bay of Shimoda, and from Vandalia 
Point turning east until I came on the village of Sazaki, 
— a very ancient place, to judge by the vast number of 
heavy stone terraces for supporting temples, houses and 
gardens. The aggregate labor is very great, and all this 
among a village population of five hundied to six hun- 
dred souls. Thence I walked over the hills, and so along 
to the village of Satora on the Bay of Yedo. From here 
we cross over to Kakizaki by a valley which runs en- 
tirely across the peninsula, save a small hill just back of 
my residence. In this route I passed through the village 
of Wenoyama, celebrated for its terraces cut out of the 
living rock. 

I do not know what to think of the seasons here. 
I have before mentioned that the althea was putting 
out new leaves, being before completely bare. To- 
day I found flowers on the tea shrub and also cherry 
blossoms. 

Found a new variety of heliotrope and mayflower 
both in blossom, besides many flowers quite unknown to 
me. To-day I saw a camellia Japonica grown into a 
large tree. The boll was quite twelve inches in diameter, 
and the tree thirty to forty feet high. 

250 



I wish I could send bouquets of the wild flowers of 
Japan to some of my female friends. 

Neither flowers nor fruits appear to be cultivated 
anywhere in this vicinity. The last crop of rice is now 
being harvested, and they are planting sweet potatoes 
on all the cotton grounds. We have had sweet potatoes 
ever since the 21st of August. 

The cotton boll of Japan is divided into three cells, 
each containing three or four seeds, mostly four. 

These rambles over this broken country, climbing the 
steepest of possible hills, descending on a similar plane, 
is improving my health very much. My appetite im- 
proves and I begin to sleep better, though not as well as 
I could wish. 

Certainly a more genial climate than that of Shimoda, 
so far, is not to be found in the world. All that is wanted 
to make me quite happy is society. I hope when I have 
made some further progress in the language I shall find 
some pleasure in the society of the upper classes here. 
By a law of Japan no high officer can invite me to his 
house."* He may make friendly visits to me, but he can 

si^Townsend Harris's comment proves that the relations between him and 
the Japanese had developed to the point where a friendly visit to his home was 
no longer a matter of idle speculation. In fact, only two days later — on Thurs- 
day, Oct. 30, 1856 (see below) — he was visited by the two Governors of Shi- 
moda, accompanied by the Vice-Governor. This was indeed a red-letter day; 
for, as Treat says {Early Diplomatic Relations betvieen the United States and 
Japan, p. 59), on this day (Oct. 30, 1856) commenced "the process of instruc- 
tion in Western affairs — beginning with an account of the coast-surveying 
operations of the maritime powers." 

An even more significant day, however, was Tuesday, Feb. 24, 1857; ^o^) 
on that day, Townsend Harris was at last freed from the regulation of having 
to meet the high officers at the Shimoda Goyoshi, and was permitted to enter 
on terms of parity the home of two Japanese Daimyo, the Governors of Shi- 
moda — namely, Inouye, Shinano-no-Kami, and Okada, Bingo-no-Kami. {Cf. 
also Journal for March 7, 1857.) 

251 



only see me in return at the Goyoshi, a sort of "Hotel 
de Ville" or City Hall. 

Wednesday, October 2g, l8§6. The Japanese are 
much surprised to see me bathing in cold water, and 
particularly when the thermometer stands at 56°, as it 
does this morning. 

The Japanese are a clean people. Everyone bathes 
every day. The mechanic, day laborer, all male and 
female, old and young, bathe every day after their labor 
is completed. There are many public bath houses in 
Shimoda. The charge is six seni, or the eighth part of 
one cent! The wealthy people have their baths in their 
own houses, but the working classes all, of both sexes, 
old and young, enter the same bathroom and there per- 
form their ablutions in a state of perfect nudity. I can- 
not account for so indelicate a proceeding on the part 
of a people so generally correct. 

I am assured, however, that it is not considered as 
dangerous to the chastity of their females; on the con- 
trary, they urge that this very exposure lessens the de- 
sire that owes much of its power to mystery and diffi- 
culty. 

Toko Juro, one of my interpreters, says that Yedo 
contains more than a million of houses, and that the 
city is twenty-four Japanese ri in circumference. This 
is more than fifty-eight miles, English measure. In my 
walk to-day I visited a cove lying to the south of Shi- 
moda, but quite secluded on a pretty cove [sic]. In front 
of a decayed old temple (mia), I found two statues 
bearing marks of a higher antiquity than anything I had 
seen in Japan. 

252 



The figures represent a short, thickset human being, 
the lobes of the ears long and resting on the shoulders. 
Most of the features were so much obliterated by time, 
that it was difficult to determine whether they were 
taken from Japanese, Chinese or Indian types. But the 
most singular thing about them was that they were 
shadowed by two cobras capello, — after the same man- 
ner that Siva is so often represented in India. The tale 
runs in India that one day Siva was about perishing 
from excessive heat, no shelter or shade being obtain- 
able; on a sudden, he felt a sense of grateful coolness 
and a shadow was spread over him. On looking around 
he discovered that two enormous cobras were standing 
erect behind him; and, having spread or inflated their 
hoods to the greatest possible extent, they approached 
their heads together and then hung over him. For this 
benevolent act the cobra became sacred to Siva and his 
followers to this day. But no trace of any such worship 
can be found in Japan, nor is the serpent known here. 

The Japanese imperial flag is white, black and white 
in horizontal stripes of equal width. 

The national flag of Japan is an orange sun (without 
rays) on a white field. 

Thursday, October SO, l8^6. This will be remem- 
bered hereafter as an important day in the history of 
Japan. The laws forbidding the Imperial Governor of a 
city to visit any foreigner at his residence is to-day to be 
broken, and I am to receive the two Governors, with the 
Vice-Governor, in a friendly and informal way. 

They arrived about noon with a large suite, but only 

253 



four came into my private apartments with the two 
Governors and Vice-Governor. These Governors are of 
the highest rank of any men in Japan after the vassal 
Princes, being no-Kami, — i. e., men so learned that noth- 
ing can be taught them, and so sublimated in goodness 
that they rank in name — Kami — with the demi-gods or 
saints of Japan. This word — Kami — has a variety of 
meanings, — e. g., demi-god, noble, paper and hair. 

Moriama was the interpreter on the occasion. 

The Governors were very anxious on the subject of 
coast surveys, and inquired where Lieutenant Rodgers^^^ 
was, whether he would return here to survey; whether 
the American Government had given orders for any 
new expedition to survey the coasts, etc., and if I knew 
what the English intended doing in the matter of sur- 
veys, etc., etc. 

I told them that Lieutenant Rodgers had returned to 
the United States, and that I did not know of any in- 
tended expedition here for a similar purpose, and that 
the English had no such squadron out here at present. 
They wished me to promise to order off any vessels that 
might come here for such a purpose, but I told them 
that would be out of my power. I then informed them 
that the United States Government and all the other 
governments of the world expended large sums in sur- 

^^^Lieutenant John Rodgers, who was in command of the United States Sur- 
veying Expedition to the North Pacific Ocean, consisting of the U.S.S. Vincennes, 
the Fenimore Cooper, and the steamer Hancock. He was Midshipman, Apr. 
18, 1828; Passed Midshipman, June 14, 1834; Lieutenant, Jan. 28, 1840; Com- 
mander, Sept. 14, 1855; Captain, July 16, 1862; Commodore, June 17, 1863; 
Rear-Admiral, Dec. 31, 1869; died May 5, 1882. (Edward W. Callahan, List 
of Officers of the Navy of the United States; T. H. S. Hamersly, General Reg- 
ister; and Griffis, Tovinsend Harris, p. 81, note.) 

254 



veying their coasts and harbors, and that those surveys 
were published with charts so that any nation in the 
world could have them; that the whole world was sur- 
veyed except Japan; that these surveys made many 
books, and that all shipmasters purchased these books 
(for they were sold freely to all) before they went on 
any voyage to a part of the world that was new to them; 
that all this was done for the security of ships, it being 
the great object of all civilized nations to encourage 
commerce, which next to agriculture was the great 
spring of prosperity of nations; that, for the same rea- 
sons, both America and England (as well as other 
nations) had hundreds of lighthouses on their coasts, 
and the channels leading into their harbors were care- 
fully marked out with buoys, etc., etc. All of this aston- 
ished them much, and appeared to remove some of their 
anxiety, although at the beginning they told me that it 
was a matter of life and death to them, as they must per- 
form the hara-kiri, or "happy dispatch" (suicide), if 
the surveys went on. 

Moriama has been fasting for some fifty days on this 
account, but he was so much consoled by what I said that 
he ate flesh most heartily. He thanked me warmly for 
my friendly deportment towards them, and got down on 
his knees and prayed fervently for my welfare. My com- 
pany partook of my refreshments (which were prepared 
in our manner) without any hesitation, and by their eat- 
ing showed their approval. They drank punch, brandy, 
whiskey, cherry bounce, champagne and cordials, but 
the punch and champagne were their favorite drinks. 

2S5 



The last Governor warmed entirely and showed him- 
self (like the other Japanese) of a most genial temper. 
They did not eat or drink to excess in any respect, and 
their conduct during the whole visit was that of well- 
bred persons. I made the second Governor a present of a 
Colt's pistol of five discharges, with which he was much 
pleased. After staying about four hours they took their 
leave with abundant thanks for my hospitality. This 
P. M. they brought me a leg of real venison. It is ex- 
cellent, tender, juicy and well flavored. 

Tuesday, November 4, l8§6. Yesterday it rained 
steadily all day and only cleared up at daylight this 
morning. At eight A. M. we had an earthquake. It seemed 
like a heavy blow, which shook the house as though some 
ponderous thing had fallen, and was accompanied with 
a corresponding sound. Two or three light vibrations 
followed the great shock. The weather was clear and 
calm, and the adjacent volcano on Oho Sima did not 
show any increased action. 

The sound and vibrations seemed to come from the 
S. E. and proceed towards the N. W. Got my stove in 
order. It is a poor affair; it will not draw. The plates 
warped and cracked the first time a fire was kindled, 
although only a handful of charcoal was put in. I have 
now a smoky house, but luckily no scolding wife."" The 
stove appears to be a patent one and made by Abbott & 
Lawrence of Philadelphia. So miserable is it that 
bituminous coals go out even when the blower is up. Let 



3iGSee Proverbs, lo: 26 ; 2i : 9 and 19. It may be added that Townsend Harris 
never married. 

256 



me avoid all the works of Abbott & Lawrence as I would 
those of the evil one. A fine wild boar brought to me to- 
day. I take the saddle. It is the best flesh meat in the 
world!! 

Wednesday, November §, 1 8 ^6. A lovely day, 
superior to the American Indian summer, the sky clear 
and blue and the air balmy. At midday the thermometer 
stands in the shade at 62° to 65°. During the month of 
October the average temperature taken at eight A. M., 
noon, four P. M. and ten P. M. was as follows: mean, 
6435/100; highest, 77°; lowest, 51°. The weather was 
as follows : 



Heavy rain 


three days 


Showery 


five " 


Cloudy 


five " 


Fine 


eighteen 




Thirty-one days. 



Walked to-day about five miles up the Valley of 
Shimoda and nearly all the way by the banks of 
Shimoda River, or creek, as we would call it in America. 
I have no doubt from the size of the stream that the Val- 
ley must continue some fifteen or twenty miles fur- 
ther. The scenery is of the same character as heretofore 
described in my previous walks. The hamlets are almost 
continuous. You are never out of sight of a temple. The 
people are now in the middle of the rice harvest; and, 
except the rice fields, the ground is covered with green 
crops. Most of the deciduous trees have lost their leaves, 
but many of them are putting forth new ones. 

257 



I saw to-day some specimens of artemisia, but not 
equal to those of China. I do not see here any specimens 
of flower gardens of which so much has been written by 
Kaempfer and others. But this is a poor place, where all 
are poor and have enough to do to live without looking 
to the ornamental. 

But they live comfortably, are well fed according to 
their wants, and are abundantly clad, and their houses 
are clean, dry, and comfortable. 

In no part of the world are the laboring classes better 
off than at Shimoda. 

Visited a hot sulphur spring about three miles from 
Shimoda. A tank about twelve feet square, paved and 
lined with stone, contains the water which bubbles out 
between the interstices of the stone. The water is beau- 
tifully clear, about three feet deep, and is about 150" 
Fahrenheit in temperature. Some few bubbles of gas 
arise to the surface. The whole tank is covered with a 
building, and is a favorite bath for the Shimodeans. No 
charge is made for its use. It is held in high repute for 
its medical properties in cutaneous and rheumatic affec- 
tions. Rice is cleaned from the straw by a machine 
exactly like the hetchel used for cleaning flax with us. 
This is done by the women and children. They take a 
small number of rice straws (not over thirty) , draw them 
through the iron teeth which stand upright on a board. 
They are six inches long and they are usually some 
twelve in number. The straw is drawn once or twice 
through these iron teeth, which effectually strips every 
grain of paddy from the straw. 

258 



The process is a slow one, but the straw is ot more 
value than time; and, as the former is uninjured by this 
process, it is not likely the Japanese would adopt a more 
rapid process, if the straw would be injured thereby. 

Thursday, November 6, 1856. The thermometer at 
eight A. M. stood at 50°, being the lowest point it has 
reached as yet. 

I still continue my cold baths, much to the amazement 
of the Japanese. 

Walked to-day around the point "Vandalia" to 
Suzaki, thence over the hills to Satora and home. Lovely 
weather. Saw many blossoms on the cherry trees. Saw 
some fine specimens of camphor trees. They grow wild 
about the hills of Shimoda. 

Friday, November J, 1 8 ^6. Two hours of dirty 
work with my wretched stove. Happily I cannot make it 
worse by any experiments I may try with it, and some 
lucky hit may improve it. 

Went in a boat to a sand beach about three miles south 
from Shimoda, where I landed, and then had a fine 
ramble over the hills and through the valleys. What a 
field for an artist! Every half mile gives a new view 
well worth drawing. The weather is balmy, clear and 
pleasant. 

As usual the hamlets are most numerous in every val- 
ley or cove along the shore. Saw a village called Kisami 
or "the place of assured assistance." Saw some new 
varieties of artemisia. The Japanese name of this flower 
is keraye. 

The sandstone is curiously hollowed out by the action 

259 



of the water in every place around here, and the Jap- 
anese have aided nature by cutting out stones for use 
from these places; thus, in the course of time, curious 
grottoes, caves or chapels are created, — and they are 
sometimes used as mias or small temples, at others as 
receptacles for fuel, boat gear, etc., etc. The general 
formation is either lava, sandstone, or else a conglom- 
erate or pudding stone, composed of the debris of 
various rock, lava, sand and alumine, — the whole 
cemented so as to form a compact stone. It is the con- 
tents of craters which have been vomited forth by the 
projectile force of steam, gas or whatever composes 
that terrible force in volcanoes. 

Saturday, November Q, iS^O.^^'' The Russian Cor- 
vette Olivuzza, Commodore Possiet and Commander 
Korsacofif.^^^ She brought with her a schooner built by 
the Russians at the River Amur for the Japanese, and is 
a present, as I understand. ^^^ The schooner is built on 
the same lines as the one before seen by me, and makes 
an aggregate of five schooners (all on the same model) 
now owned by the Japanese. 

Commodore Possiet is the bearer of the Ratified 
Treaty made with Japan and will probably remain here 

3i"The correct date is Saturday, Nov. 8, 1856. 

3isXownsend Harris was very careless in the spelling of proper names, even 
in the case of Mr. Heusken, his own private secretary. The names of the two 
Russian officers were Captain Constantine Possiet (of the Olivuzza) and Cap- 
tain W. Rimsky Korsacoff — captains of the first and the second rank in the 
Imperial Navy, respectively. 

■dissimilarly, in commemoration of the Treaty between Great Britain and 
Japan (concluded Thursday, Aug. 26, 1858), Lord Elgin, in the name of Queen 
Victoria, presented the Tycoon with a charming little screw yacht of 318 tons 
and mounting six guns, called the Emperor. The Japanese later renamed her 
the Dragon, 

260 



some weeks.^^° I went on board the corvette soon after 
she anchored, and was much pleased with the officers. 
The corvette is a poor affair, old in age and older in 
model. She is armed with old-fashioned carronades, and 
looks to me like one of the old ships of the Russian 
American Company,^^^ although she now wears the im- 
perial flag. I was not saluted by the corvette. I also went 
on board the schooner. She has a pretty cabin, very 
handsomely furnished; has oilcloth on the floor, tables 
of fine woods, and the hangings are of mazarine blue 
velvet. 

She is commanded by Lieutenant Kolaxaltsoff. I pre- 
sume she is intended as a present on the exchange of rati- 
fications. 



320The Treaty between Russia and Japan had been signed at Shimoda by 
Admiral Poutiatine, on Feb. 7, 1855 (Russian style: Jan. 26th; Japanese style: 
2ist day, i2th month, 1st year of Ansei). Ratifications were exchanged at 
Shimoda on Dec. 7, 1856. For the French text of this Treaty and of the Ex- 
planatory Articles accompanying it, see John Harrington Gubbins, The Prog- 
ress of Japan, pp. 235-39. 

While Admiral Poutiatine was negotiating the Russian Treaty early in 1855, 
Commander H. A. Adams of the Pozvhatan (who had returned from the United 
States with the ratified Perry Treaty) was likewise negotiating with the Jap- 
anese authorities, and the Ratifications of the Perry Treaty (concluded Mar. 
31, 1854) were exchanged at Shimoda on Feb. 21, 1855 — exactly two weeks 
after Japan had concluded the Treaty with Russia. The Shogunate, therefore, 
was fast accumulating a great deal of valuable experience in dealing with 
foreign diplomats. These earlier dealings, indeed, constituted a preliminary 
course to the thorough-going and long-continued instruction they were about 
to receive over a series of years from the American Townsend Harris — the 
first representative of any country to be accredited to the Island Empire. 

32iThis is a reference to the Russian American Fur Company, established 
in the reign of Catherine H. All the islands lying between Kamchatka and the 
then Russian part of the Northwest Coast of America were granted to them 
in perpetuity. The principal depot of the Company was Alexandria (on Kodiak 
Island), so named after Alexander I, who had greatly extended the privileges 
of the Company and had declared himself their immediate patron. 

Many of the early contacts between Japan and Russia are linked with 
the names of Resanoff, Chwostoff, Davidoff, etc., and with this Company's 
pursuit of the fur trade; similarly, our own early contacts with Japan were 
due to the American seaman's pursuit of the whale. 

261 



Commodore Possiet promised me a copy of the Rus- 
sian Treaty with Japan,'" and, in return, I am to give 
him the American and [the] Dutch Treaties with J apan, 
and the Treaty with Siam which I made when at 
Bangkok.^" 

The Japanese have excellent provisions for watching 
fire, although the appliances for extinguishing it are not 
so good. In every street of length, there is a small build- 
ing occupied by the fire police, who perambulate the 
streets in turn from dark to daylight, and they warn the 
people to be cautious about fire by striking two pieces of 
bamboo or some resonant wood together; and, on hear- 
ing this noise, all are reminded to be careful. Doeff^^* 
says that once, when he was in Yedo, a fire broke out 
which burned over ground 9 miles long by i^ miles 
wide, equal to i3>^ square miles, equal to 8,640 acres 



322\yjii(.ii Townsend Harris received on Nov. nth. 

^23The American Treaty referred to was the one concluded by Commodore 
Perry on Friday, Mar. 31, 1854. 

The American Treaty with Siam was concluded by Townsend Harris at 
Bangkok on Thursday, May 29, 1856. 

At the time Townsend Harris penned these words, there were only two 
agreements between The Netherlands and Japan: 

1 ) A preliminary Convention, concluded by Jan Hendrik Donker Curtius, 
and signed at Nagasaki on Nov. 9, liss- (English Text in J. H. Gub- 
bins, The Progress of Japan, pp. 245-50; some good notes and re- 
marks, in J. M. Tronson, Personal Narrative of a Voyage to Japan, 
etc., pp. 47-5 1- ) 

2) A Treaty of Commerce, likewise signed at Nagasaki, on Jan. 30, 1856 
(Gubbins, op. cit., pp. 250-55). 

324Hendrik Doeff, Warehouse Master and Superintendent (Opperhoofd) at 
different times, from 1799 to 1817, of the Dutch Factory on the Island of 
Deshima, in the Harbor of Nagasaki. His memoirs were published under the 
title: Herinneringen <vit Japan, Haarlem, 1835, 4to. 

The great fire at Yedo here referred to and described by Doeff broke out 
on Apr. 22, 1806, at 10 A. M.: Charles MacFarlane, Japan, p. 349; Richard 
Hildreth, Japan and the Japanese, pp. 447, 451-52; Quarterly Review, July, 
1836 (vol. 56), p. 420. 

262 



American measure. In American cities, where the lots 
are larger than in Japan, this extent of ground, after 
taking out the streets, would give the enormous aggre- 
gate of 1,038,800 building lots! (120 lots to the acre.) 
Now, supposing only half the number of lots were built 
on and allowing only 5 persons to each building, it 
would give the astounding number of 2,597,000 per- 
sons who were rendered houseless by this fire. 

All the accounts I can gather of the extent and popula- 
tion of Yedo are so extravagant that I cannot give them 
credence. The Government of Japan carefully conceals 
all the statistics of population, agriculture, commerce, 
manufactures, and of the military. I am, however, con- 
vinced that what is called Yedo covers, or rather in- 
cludes, a greater extent of ground in its enceinte than 
any city of the world ; but whether this space is all built 
on or not I cannot decide, 

Monday, November 10, 18^6. The Russian officers, 
— Captain of the First Rank Possiet (he is not Commo- 
dore), Captain of the Second Rank Korsacofif, and 
Lieutenant Kolaxaltsofif, — I find them very agreeable 
persons and very friendly. 

We had much conversation about Japanese affairs, 
but nothing worthy of particular note except that the 
ratification of the American Treaty was not signed by 
the Ziogoon, or, as we [call] him, the Emperor, but by 
the Chief of the Government. The ratification stated, in 
terms, that it was signed by the Chief by the express 
order of the Ziogoon. 

I learn that the Ziogoon has written two letters to the 

263 



King of Holland, and Captain Possiet informs me that 
within the last eighteen months the Japanese officials 
have written nearly fifty letters to the Russians. 

The Captain promises to loan me a barometer and 
some other instruments until mine arrive from Hong- 
kong, and I am to turn them over to the Russian Consul 
who is expected to arrive here next spring. I am told 
the Russian Consul for Japan speaks English very well, 
and that he is very friendly to the Americans. I am in- 
clined to think he will bring a family with him. 

After the foregoing, I had a visit from three of the 
young gentlemen of the ship. I am very much pleased 
with them; their dress was neat, and their address 
superior. 

Tuesday, November II, l8§6. Captains Possiet and 
Korsacofif, the Lieutenant commanding the schooner, 
and three other young officers dined with me to-day. 
Previous to this I had a visit from two of the young 
officers. They spoke French very well. I never passed a 
more agreeable evening. The Russians behaved like 
polished men of the world, and at my table they did not 
merit the charge so often brought against them of being 
hard drinkers. They ate with good appetites (and my 
dinner was both good and abundant), and took their 
wine in moderation. I do think the same number of 
American or English officers would have drunk twice 
the quantity of wine the Russians did. Captain Possiet 
informed me that the Vice-Governor told him that he 
wished him not to pay any money at present, for that 
the American Consul General had made a demand on the 

264 



Government to have a just value put on the dollar, and 
that they expected a favorable answer in a few days. 

Captain Possiet brought me a copy of the Russian 
Treaty with Japan, which I have had translated from 
the Dutch (he gave me a Dutch translation), and shall 
send it to the Secretary of State. 

My company left me at an early hour, say half-past 
nine, and went on board. It was a glorious night, with a 
bright moon and clear, blue sky. 

Wednesday, November 12,1856. I was starting from 
my house to visit the Russians, when the sound of the 
corvette's guns told me that the Governors of Shimoda 
were visiting the ship. I therefore went over to the 
Goyoshi which is opened in a temple just behind 
Rioshen, and examined the wares they have opened for 
the Russians. I saw some new things, and a greater 
quantity of articles with the fine rattan work. 

I told them they would do well to have some bronze 
articles, some fine porcelain, and some of their prettiest 
toys against the arrival of another American ship, as 
those things would be liked by the officers. 

I went on board the corvette a little after four P. M. 
(the Japanese having previously left) . Captain Possiet 
kindly ofifered me one of the boats of the Diana as a 
present. I thanked him for his kind off^er, but the boats 
are all too heavy for my use, as none of them pulls less 
than six oars. I told the two Captains my washman should 
wash their linen for them, if they would send it on shore, 
as the Japanese do not know how to wash. I also said 
that I was sorry I could not offer the same compliment to 

265 



all of the officers, but my washman had no assistance. 

Captain Possiet is to send men on shore to set up the 
rigging and stays of my flagstaff in the morning. He also 
promises me some potatoes and spirits of turpentine, 
neither of which is to be had in Shimoda. 

Captain Possiet said the Japanese had again to-day 
referred to the money question, and repeated that they 
soon expected a favorable answer. 

The Japanese all say that their country must sooner 
or later [be] opened to foreign commerce, and that they 
are anxious to have the period arrive. 

Thursday, November 1 3, l8§6. The Russians came 
on shore this morning early to arrange my flagstaff. The 
Captain Possiet made me a visit quite alone. He desires 
that our visits should be without ceremony, and as be- 
tween friends ; that I should make myself at home with 
him, and he will do the same with me. All this I was 
quite willing to accede to. We had much conversation 
about the harbor of Shimoda, its insecurity, its small 
size, the incapacity of Shimoda to furnish supplies even 
to one ship-of-war, and the total absence of a commercial 
population. We agreed on the absolute necessity of an 
exchange of Shimoda for another port. 

Captain Possiet gave me a copy of a letter he wrote, 
by order of Admiral Poutiatine, after the wreck of the 
Diana frigate,^'' on the subject of the harbor of 
Shimoda, to the Japanese authorities. 



325Xhe Diana was the Russian frigate in which Admiral Poutiatine had come 
to Shimoda to negotiate his Treaty with Japan (concluded Feb. 7, 1855; see 
above). 

The Western Pacific Ocean, at the end of 1854, was the scene of tremendous 

266 



Captain Possiet informs me that, had the Diana not 
met with her misfortune, she would have examined a 
number of harbors on the east coast of Japan, and he is 
of opinion that an exchange would have been made of 
Shimoda for some more eligible place. The Russian 

disturbances — from Japan to the Bonin Islands (see the letter by Messrs. Reed 
and Dougherty to the editor of the San Francisco Herald, reprinted in the 
New York Herald of Oct. 15, 1855, p. i, coll. 5-6). 

The Harbor of Shimoda was visited by a terrible storm which lasted from 
Dec. 13 to Dec. 18, 1854, and which left the Diana almost a complete wreck. 
The even worse earthquake which shook Japan on Dec. 23, 1854 (a week later) 
hopelessly crippled not only the Diana, but the entire village of Shimoda and 
its harbor, rendering the latter absolutely unfit as an anchorage. (For a splen- 
did description of this storm, see Captain Sherard Osborn, A Cruise in Jap- 
anese Waters, 2nd ed., pp. 107-11; David Murray, The Story of Japan, p. 8, 
note 3; and Kinse Shiriaku — translated by Sir E. M. Satow, ed. 1873 — p. 51. 
The latest description of this storm and earthquake written prior to Townsend 
Harris's arrival at Shimoda, is by the American Commander H. A. Adams, 
in Perry's Narrative, 33-2, S. Ex. Doc, no. 79, vol. 2 — in Serial no. 770 — 
p. 2IO.) 

A few references to the subsequent fortune of these shipwrecked Russian:, 
give a clear insight into the dangers of travel in those days. After the storm, 
the Diana foundered at sea as she was being towed around to Toda (or 
Hey-da) Bay for repairs (Satow, Cambridge Modern History, vol. 11, p. 
830). The Japanese of Shimoda immediately gave their willing aid to the 
Russians in building a new ship, the Heda, in which the latter planned to 
return to Russia (Mechnikov, L Empire Japonais, vol. 4, p. 649). 

In the meantime, our enterprising Americans, Messrs. Reed and Dougherty, 
had, immediately upon hearing of the conclusion of the Perry Treaty, chartered 
the schooner Caroline E. Foote, and had loaded her with all manner of ship 
chandlery, intending to carry full supplies for the American whale ships 
which (they thought) would immediately flock to, and pass the winter at, the 
splendid port of Hakodate — the opening of which was provided for in the 
Perry Treaty. The C. E. Foote sailed from Honolulu on February 13, 1855, and 
arrived at Shimoda on March 15th. There they found the shipwrecked Admiral 
Poutiatine, Captain Possiet, and the rest of the officers and crew of the Diana. 
The date for the opening of Hakodate was still in the future ; and so, after 
some negotiations, the cargo was landed; and the Foote, having been chartered 
to the Russians, sailed for Petropaulowski with Admiral Poutiatine and other 
officers and men of the crew. (New York Herald, morning ed., Monday, Oct. 
IS. 185s. P- I.) 

Later, the brig Greta (Mr. Liihdorf, supercargo), of the Bremen Free State, 
visited Shimoda, and the rest of the officers and men of the Diana sailed away 
in her. On Aug. i, 1855 (during the Crimean War, that is to say), they were 
captured by the English man-of-war Barracouta when near their destination, 
and were finally taken to Ayan, in Siberia, which had recently been taken 
by the English from the Russians. (J. M. Tronson, Personal Narrative of a 
Voyage to Japan, etc., pp. 139-43. 146-47, 227; and Henry Arthur Tilley, 
Japan, the Amoor and the Pacific, p. 222.) 

267 



sailors finished work on my flagstaff about four P. M., 
when they left. I gave them a dinner, with plenty of 
brandy and tea, and I gave one dollar to each of the 
five men who were employed in the work.^^® 

This evening Captain Possiet sent me a bag of 
Hakodate potatoes, about one picul in weight. A great 
addition to my housekeeping. 

Friday, November 14, 1856. I dined with Mr. 
Heusken on board the Corvette Olivuzza.^^'' Captaifn 
Possiet gave me a salute of thirteen guns, although by 
the rules of the Russian service a consul general is 
saluted with eleven guns. Captain Possiet told me that 
he gave me thirteen guns so that I should not receive 
less than he gave the Japanese Governor of Shimoda. 

I passed a very agreeable evening. The more I see of 
the Russian officers the more I am pleased with them. 
They are polished in manner and exceedingly well in- 
formed. There is scarcely one of them that does not 
speak two or more languages. 

They speak in high terms of French generals and 
soldiers. They say the first have skill equal to any in 
the world, and the last are unsurpassed in military 
courage and enthusiasm. The English, on the contrary, 
they put directly opposite : generals without skill, and 
men without one of the prerequisites of a soldier, except 
mere bulldog courage; that to deprive an English army 



326L. B., vol. I, p. 135: "Paid to 5 Russian sailors for setting up flagstaflF, 
$5." (This memorandum is, however, dated Nov. isth.) 

s-'^Townsend Harris must have enjoyed this dinner heartily; for, writing 
to Conihiodore Possiet the next day, he complained of a headache caused by 
his overeating (L. B., vol. i, p. 129). 

268 



'i«sa^^^. 







MONUMENT DEDICATED TO THE MEMORY OF TOWNSEND HARRIS 

This monument was erected in the courtyard of the Gyokusen-ji, near Shimoda, — the home oi the 
first American accredited representative to Japan. It was unveiled on Saturday, October i, 1927. The 
front of the monument bears the English text; ^he back, the Japanese text. The Journal entry carved 
on the monument is that for September 4, 1856, commemorating the hoisting of the first consular flag 
ever seen in Japan. 



• V \ V^^ /t 



of its full supply of food and comfortable quarters is to 
demoralize it; that an English soldier dreads an attack 
on his belly more than a blow aimed at his head. A 
current remark at Sebastopol during the siege was that 
A or B had been out on so many occasions of sorties; 
the question was instantly asked against which force? 
If against the English, the querist would shrug his 
shoulders and say, "That was nothing" ; but if against 
the French, he would say, "Oh! then [he] had some- 
thing to do." 

Constant conversations are held by Captain Possiet 
with the Japanese on the subject of finally and fully 
opening Japan to the commerce of the world. All agree 
that it is only a question of time, and Moriama Yen- 
osky^^* goes so far as to place it less than three years 
distant. 

All these things will help to prepare the way for me 
in my attempt to make a treaty which shall at once 
open Japan (at different dates for different ports) to 
our commerce. 

I left the ship about eight P. M.; a bright moon 
shining; and a fresh breeze from the N. E. brought 
the thermometer down to 50° Fahrenheit. 

Saturday, November 1 5, 1 8 56. Wrote a chit to 
Captain Possiet sending him a few pounds of coffee, 
a Siamese sarong, and specimens of the three silver 



328The name of this historic interpreter is variously spelled. Williann S. 
Lewis and Naojiro Murakami, in their very beautiful and scholarly work, 
Ranald MacDonald (publ. by The Eastern Washington State Historical So- 
ciety, Spokane, Wash., 1923), use both Moriyama Einosuke and Murayama 
Yeanoske. 

269 



coins of Siam which are circulated in that country.®^^ 
I also sent a set of coins to Captain Korsacoff, — viz., 
one tical, one salung, one f uang. 

I am glad to find anything I can present to the Rus- 
sians as a small return for their favors to me. 

In the afternoon, was visited by Captain KorsacoflF 
and the surgeon of the corvette. This afternoon the 
Japanese brought me two small dogs, which are very 
fine ones.^^° They have the round, bullet-shaped head, 
short nose and large protuberant eyes of "King Charles 
spaniels," but the ears are small and short, and the hair 
on them is also short, otherwise they resemble those 
dogs closely, and I do not doubt they are the original 
stock from which those spaniels were bred. 

Sunday, November l6, 1856. I regularly read the 
service of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the 
United States every Sunday.^^^ I am probably the first 



829/,. 2., vol. I, pp. 129-30, which, in addition ta the information given in 
the Journal, also thanks the Commodore for his hospitality on board the 
Olwuzza the night before. 

While these social pleasantries were going on at Shiraoda, the British were 
having trouble with Yeh, the Chinese Commissioner at Canton. Also the 
United States Squadron was fired upon (Nov. 15, 1856), and in the following 
days Commodore James Armstrong silenced the Barrier Forts on the river 
between Whampoa and Canton. (The best and most minute description .of 
the American action on this occasion is the very long letter — still unpublished 
— to Townsend Harris by Captain H. H. Bell, of the U.S.S. San Jacinto: L. 
& P., vol. I, no. 54.) 

330These dogs Townsend Harris forthwith named Yedo and Miako, in 
honor of the two capitals of Japan — that of the Shogun and that of the Em- 
peror, respectively. These names, as well as a longer description of the dogs 
themselves, are given by Townsend Harris in a letter to Miss Drinker: see the 
Janvier Letters and Papers, folder 2, letter no. i, in the Manuscripts Division 
of the New York Public Library. 

33iThe writer has seen the Prayer Book used by Townsend Harris while in 
Japan. It has been rebound in red morocco. On one of the flyleaves in 
the front of the book, and on the left-hand side, is written "Townsend Harris, 
New York," in Townsend Harris's own handwriting. On the same page, and 

270 



resident of Japan who ever used that service. How long 
will it be before that same service will be used in Japan 
in consecrated churches? 

It is to me one of the pregnant facts that grow up 
daily under my observation, and which are the natural 
result of my residence here in a protected capacity. 

The Japanese brought me this evening the finest 
specimen of a male golden pheasant I ever saw. I shall 
measure it to-morrow. Beak to end of tail feathers, 
forty-four inches; tail, thirty inches; wings from tip 
to tip (across body), twenty-six inches.^^" 

Monday, November IJ, 1856. The Japanese 
brought me a very extraordinary production. It is a 
stone about six inches by three inches of irregular form, 
having some six pipes standing perpendicularly on it, 
somewhat like a coral formation, and out of these pipes 
spring bunches of what appear stifif horsehair, or rather 
like strong spun glass. This substance is of a snowy 
whiteness, is elastic and quite strong. I supposed at first 
it was artificial ; but, on examination, I found it to be 
natural. 

On putting the fibers into the flame of a candle, they 
fly into minute pieces with some little noise. The pieces 
sparkle to the eye, no smell accompanies the burning; 



underneath the above, there is another entry, stating that the book was the 
property of Mrs. Helen Kearny Harris Vreeland, grandniece of Townsend 
Harris. This precious Prayer Book of the man who (to use his own words) 
was "probably the first resident of Japan who ever used that service" was 
(in 1927) in the possession of Mrs. Henry Devereux Whiton (nee Gwendolen 
Whiton Harris), of Glen Cove, Long Island. 

ss2Xhis pheasant was destined to be the pihe de resistance at the dinner 
which Townsend Harris gave to Commodore Possiet and his officers on the 
night of Wednesday, Nov. 19th {L. B., vol. i, p. 131). 

271 



the remainder is hard, gritty and quite like minute 
particles of lime. The Japanese name for it is hoszuki, — 
horsehair shell. 

I should have noted before that the fibers are from 
twelve to eighteen inches in length, and the sockets from 
which the bunches spring are some five inches high; 
but the Japanese tell me that when taken out of the sea 
the tube covers all the fiber, except about one inch, and 
that they remove a part of it to show the beauty of the 
fiber. I am inclined to think this an entirely new marine 
production. I kn^ow it is a very beautiful one. The 
Japanese say it is found in the Bay of Yedo near Ura- 
gawa, but I place but little reliance on their statements. 

The Governor has sent special word to the village 
of Satora that all should go to work to procure me 
specimens of the marsupial fish, which is said to be 
found there.'"' 

Tuesday, November l8, 1 80. I wrote to the Gov- 
ernor yesterday urging a reply to my letters on the 
subject of the currency.''* To-day the Vice-Governor, 
a high official, and my old friend Moriama Yenosky, 
came to visit me. They apologized for their long ab- 



3330n this day, Townsend Harris also wrote the following letters: 

i) To Commodore Possiet, inviting him, Captain Korsacoff, and four 
other officers (to include the surgeon) to dinner on the night of the 
19th, at 6 p. M. (L. B., vol. I, p. 131) ; 
2) Two letters to Secretary William L. Marcy, both on financial mat- 
ters {L. B., vol. I, p. 156, Dispatch No. 17; and ib., pp. 155-56, Dis- 
patch No. 18). 
^^*L. B., vol. I, pp. 130-31, in which Townsend Harris emphasizes the fact 
that his former two letters on the currency question (dated Sept. 25th and 
Oct. 9th) are still unanswered; and, considering the time elapsed, he hopes 
that he may soon be in a position to inform his Government of the favorable 
settlement of this vexed question. 

272 



sence saying the arrival of the Russians had kept them 
much occupied, etc., etc. They brought me a cage con- 
taining six pretty tame pigeons, a present from the 
Governor, and they told me that he had v^ritten to Yedo 
expressly for them, as they are scarce in Japan. 

I knew the visit of ceremony and the present were 
all a pretence, and that something else was behind, and 
a short time brought it out. 

They (as if casually) said my letter of yesterday to 
the Governor had been at once forwarded to Yedo by a 
"Special Post" ; and that, as soon as an answer was re- 
ceived, the Governor would let me know it. I told them 
I was happy to see them at all times, but I could not 
consent to receive verbal answers to, or notices of, my 
written communications. I told them that I knew that 
the Ziogoon had written at least two letters to the King 
of Holland; that the high officers of Japan had written 
more than thirty letters to the Russians, within the last 
two years ; and that numerous letters had been written 
also to Captain Fabius of the Dutch Steam Frigate 
Medusa when he was here.^^'' 

That I could not consent to be treated with less for- 
mality than they had shown to the Russians and Dutch, 
and therefore I must insist on written answers to my 
letters. 

Wednesday, November IQ, l8§6. Commodore 
Possiet, his First Lieutenant, Surgeon and two junior 
officers dined with me. Captain Korsacofif could not 
come, as both he and the First Lieutenant cannot both 

886See above, entry for Oct i, 1856. 



leave the ship at the same time. I had a nice dinner, and 
the party was a very pleasant one. The Commodore 
says that the Japanese only give 1,500 seni among them- 
selves for the ichibu, while they allow 1,600 to 
foreigners. The Russian ruble is taken by them at 1,200 
seni — the same ratio as the dollar at 1,600. 

Thursday, November 20, l8^6. The Russians send 
me two barometers, but they are only marked for 730 
millimeters, a little over twenty-eight inches, conse- 
quently of no use except when the height of mountains 
is to be measured. 

The Commodore sends me as a present a new kind of 
thermometer — on the principle of the expansion and 
contraction of metals by heat and cold. It is in the form 
of a large sized watch, and both back and front are 
covered with a thick plate of glass. The metal acts on 
the small end of a quadrant, fixed on a pivot, and the 
periphery is cut into ratchet teeth which work a cog- 
wheel, moving a needle indicator. It is graduated for 
Reaumur, Centigrade and Fahrenheit. It is one of the 
prettiest things of the kind I ever saw. Made by Richter 
at St. Petersburg. I am informed that the horsehair 
shell is only found in detachea tubes. These the Jap- 
anese fasten together in clusters on a stone so naturally 
that it is almost impossible to detect it on a close 
examination. - 

Friday, November 21, 18^6. Busy in writing letters 
to go by the corvette."^- Captain Korsacoflf visited me. 

336Some of the letters bearing the date of the aist were: 

i) L. B., vol. I, pp. 132-33, to Commodore Possiet, returning thanks for 
the thermometer and the two barometers received the day before; 

274 



Wants me to cash some bills for them. This I cannot do, 
but offer to lend him $i,ooo to be returned at Hong- 
kong on the corvette's reaching that place, to my agents 
Armstrong & Lawrence. 

The Japanese sent me yesterday some singing birds 
which I asked for about the loth of September — so 
long does it take them to determine whether any new 
demand of mine shall be granted or refused. The birds 
are a pair of canaries, of course these are exotic birds, 
although they now breed them in Japan; a pair of bull- 
finches; a pair of birds much like a small sparrow in 
form, but the tail is very short, plumage a mixture of 
yellow, green and black; and a curious bird called the 
mountain bird. Its plumage is very pretty, has a black 
hood, a mask and ruff of tawny, wings a bright steel 
and black, breast a dull red, or rather Spanish brown. 
Its bill is long and sharply pointed. It feeds on hard 
seed, and in breaking the shell it makes a constant noise 
like the hammering of a woodpecker. As the cages are 
too small I ordered new ones made. To-day I am told 
that three of the four cages wanted must be procured 
from Yedo, as they cannot be made in Shimoda. I 
ordered some four quires of a soft cheap paper for 
waste, blotting, etc., etc., and to-day I am told that the 

2) L. B., ib., p. 134, to Armstrong & Lawrence at Hongkong, praising 
the climate of Shimoda and giving them an order for household 
supplies and sundries (for the list of these, cf., ib., pp. 189-90) ; 

3) And, most important of all, a very long letter to Catharine Ann 
Drinker, who many years later married Mr. Thomas Allibone Jan- 
vier. In this letter Townsend Harris describes the climate, the geog- 
raphy, and the people of Shimoda, and gives lengthy extracts from 
his own Journal. Above all, he describes his house — the first Ameri- 
can Consulate in Japan. (See the Janvier Letters and Papers, 
folder 2, letter no. i. New York Public Library, Manuscripts Division.) 



paper must be ordered from Yedo, as the quantity de- 
sired cannot be had in Shimodal ! ! 

Whether this is an untruth, or that the place is so de- 
plorably anti-commercial that four quires of common 
paper cannot be furnished, I cannot say. Nor can I see 
any object they have in telling a falsehood about it, as it 
is to be furnished. 

Saturday, November 22, l8§6. The Russians have 
presented to the Japanese all the guns that were on board 
the Frigate Diana. They consist of: 

1 8 short 24-pounders 
30 long 24-pounders 
4 Paixhan 68-pounders, shell guns. 

The Russiaos are assisting the Japanese in getting up 
all the fittings necessary for mounting the guns properly, 
such as screws, quoins, etc., etc., all of which were lost 
when the Diana sank.^" 

Monday, November 24, 18^6. The Goyoshi people 
came to inform me that my cook and tailor went to the 
apothecaries' shops in Shimoda yesterday, and asked 
tor opium, and were told they had none; but, the 
Chinese characters being on the drawers, they dis- 
covered it and demanded it in my name and with a show 
of violence. They took the whole they found in two 
shops, which was all the opium there was in Shimoda. 
They said to me that opium was only used as a medicine, 

3370n this day, Townsend Harrh wrote: 

i) L. B., vol. 1, p. 133, to Mrs. Drinker, at Macao, introducing Commo- 
dore Possiet, who will shortly visit that city on his way back to Russia ; 

2) L. B., ib., p. 134, to Mr. Patrick Stewart, at Macao, likewise intro- 
ducing the Commodore. 

276 



and that it was unjust that two men should have the 
whole of it, particularly as it was not wanted for medical 
purposes. They respectfully asked that I would order 
the Chinese to restore the greater part of it. I gave 
orders that the whole should be taken from them. Mr. 
Heusken got a lump of some six ounces from the tailor, 
but the cook had dissolved his in water to refine it in 
the Chinese way, so as to make it fit for smoking, and 
refused to give it up. I went to him myself ; he was very 
surly, and after some time brought me a dish containing 
a small quantity of sediment and water. I demanded the 
filtered liquid, and it was not until I had given him his 
choice between a prison and the surrender of the drug 
that he gave it up. The lump was restored to the Jap- 
anese, but they said they could do nothing with the 
solution, so that was thrown away. I directed the officers 
to tell the shopkeepers that my people were not to be 
supplied with opium, saki, or any kind of intoxicating 
beverage. 

Tuesday, November 2§, l8§6. Evacuation day in 
New York! What recollections of my "soldier life" 
this day brings up! My marching up and down Broad- 
way, Bowery, Hudson Street, Greenwich Street — to the 
Battery, to the Park, and there firing ofif "real guns," 
as Mr. Mantilini said. Commodore Possiet visits me. 
He took a long walk on Friday, twelve miles to the 
village of Matsusaki on the bay to the west of Yedo 
Bay, and he remained there all night. He speaks in such 
high terms of the beauty of the road that I shall take 
the same walk, as soon as the Russians leave here. He 

277 



had a message from the Governor on Monday, request- 
ing him to give orders that none of the officers should 
sleep on shore. The Commodore told them that he 
would give orders to his officers that if any of them 
went to a greater distance than seven ri, then they must 
not sleep there, but that, within the distance of seven ri, 
he claimed the right for himself and all other Russians 
to sleep on shore as often as it suited their con- 
venience.*^^ 

To-day finish a letter of fifteen sheets to my friend 
General Wetmore."" The Japanese bring my breeding 
cage for my canary birds.'" 

Wednesday, November 26, 1856. I have taken a 
violent cold ; have pains in my head, bones ; and some 
little fever. Take some Brandreth's pills, and diet. 

I do not give up to it, but employ myself in writing 
letters to go by the Olivuzza. 

338Art. V of Perry's Treaty (concluded Mar. 31, 1854) for the first time 
established the principle that shipwrecked men and other citizens of the United 
States "shall be free at Shimoda to go where they please within the limits 
of seven Japanese miles (or ri) from a small island in the harbor of Shimoda 
marked on the accompanying chart hereto appended." 

338In the entry for Dec. 10, 1856, Townsend Harris gives the date of this 
letter as Dec. 9, 1856. Commodore Possiet's delay made it possible for Town- 
send Harris to add to this letter, and very likely he then redated the entire 
letter. 

3400ther letters bearing this day's date were: 

i) L. B,, vol. I, pp. 157-60, Dispatch No. 19, to Secretary Marcy, in 
which Townsend Harris informs Mr. Marcy of Commodore Possiet's 
arrival as the bearer of the ratified Russian Treaty, of which he 
encloses an English translation; and adds that the Russians agree 
with him that the port of Shimoda is absolutely unfit either for supply- 
ing ships or for commercial purposes; 
2) L. B., vol. I, pp. 1 60-68, Dispatch No. 20, to Secretary Marcy, in 
which Townsend Harris points out that the friendship of the Jap- 
anese is increasing, as are also the prospects of an early abandonment 
of their exclusion policy, giving four evidences of the changing times. 
Very significant, too, is his report of the intentions of Sir John Bow- 
ring (Governor of Hongkong, and recently appointed Plenipotentiary 
to Japan) to impose a new treaty on the Japanese, whether peaceably 
or forcibly. 

278 



Moriama Yenosky came to see me, as he said, with a 
message from the Governor. Three horses have been 
offered, but none suits the Japanese; one is too old and 
clumsy, one too young and vicious, the third is too ill- 
looking for me. 

The Governor is a good judge of a horse and has 
promised to select one that will suit. He says he is re- 
sponsible for my personal safety to both the American 
and Japanese Governments, and if I should be killed by 
a vicious horse, he would have to perform the hara-kiri. 
I told Yenosky that I would be satisfied with any horse 
the Governor might select, etc. Commodore Possiet and 
Mr. Heusken took a walk southwest from Shimoda, and 
were followed by a Gobanyosi. The Commodore, in a 
decided and stern manner, ordered him to go about his 
business and not to follow him ; and the man left them. 
But soon afterwards he reappeared and pertinaciously 
kept with them. The Commodore then seized the man 
and gave him a thorough shaking, and when he was 
released, the Gobanyosi started off running like a deer 
and no more appeared. 

The First Governor's name is Inowouye 

Sinano no Kami. 
The Second Governor's name is Okado Bingo 

no Kami. 
First Vice-Governor's name is Matsmoura 

Chiwousiro. 
Second Vice-Governor's name is Wakana 

Miwosabra.'" 



3*iThese names are better written as: Inouye, Shinano-no-Kami ; Okada, 
Bingo-no-Kami ; Matsmura Chiwusiro; Wakana Miwosabra. 

279 



Thursday, November zg [27^, 1856. Somewhat 
better to-day ; medicine has operated well. Busy writind 
letters to go by the Russian corvette. 

Japanese bring me a basket of fine grapes to-day, 
which came from Kyushu. They look and taste like the 
Malaga muscatel grape, and have the same bloom on 
them. The price, 1,800 seni for about twelve pounds. 
Cheap enough.^" 

Saturday, November ZQ, 1 8 ^6. Quite recovered, 
and am still occupied with my letters, of which I have 
five to write to the State Department, and one of them 
explaining my action in trying to get to Yedo is of 
necessity a long one.^" I keep copies of all my letters to 
the State Department in my [private letter book, — 
which see.^" My washman washed some clothes for 

3*2A slight proof of the very practical aid which the American Townsend 
Harris (as Dean of the Diplomatic Corps in Japan) now gave to Commodore 
Possiet of Russia (as, later on, in far greater measure, to Lord Elgin of Great 
Britain, and to Count Friedrich von Eulenburg of Prussia) is the fact that 
on this day (Nov. 27, 1856) he sent the Russian Commodore four books on 
Japan — having already sent him a copy of Kaempfer's famous work. These 
books were a good selection, to wi;: 

J. W. Spalding, The Japan Expedition, New York, Redfield, 1855. (A 

volume on the Perry Expedition.) 
Charles MacFarlane, Japan, New York, George P. Putnam & Co., 1852. 
Richard Hildreth, Japan as It Was and Is, New York, J. C. Derby, 1855. 
Richard Hildreth, Japan and the Japanese. (Which edition is uncertain.) 

These books, to which Townsend Harris refers very briefly (L. B., vol. i, 
p. 13s, Memorandum), undoubtedly were from among the books which he had 
procured for his own use when in New York in Aug. and Sept., 1855. 

Similarly, Commodore Possiet, who had learned of Townsend Harris's in- 
disposition, was equally courteous in offering him the services of the ship's 
surgeon. (L. & P., vol. r, no. 47, dated Friday, Nov. .28, 1856.) 

3*8This was L. B., vol. i, pp. 160-68, Dispatch No. 20, outlined above, see 
note 340. 

3**The passage which I have enclosed in square brackets ("private letter 
book . . . table purposes," Nov. 29 to Dec. 1, 1856) was written on a dif- 
ferent kind of paper by Miss Bessie A. Harris. This sheet, numbered 113, 
is inserted in the original manuscript Journal of Townsend Harris in place 
of a page that was carefully cut out, and that must have been numbered 113 

280 



Commodore Possiet and Captain Korsacoff, for which 
they sent him three dollars. I direct him to refuse to take 
the money, not from any feeling of pride, but I wish 
to make them all the returns I can for their kindness to 
me; and his case is different from that of the Russian 
sailors, to whom I made a present for their labor. He 
is my private servant. They are in the employ of the 
Sovereign of Russia.^*^ 

Monday, December I, 1856. Engage another ser- 
vant, Kooski. His duty will be to scrub floors, sweep 
the compound, bring coals and do all the coarse heavy 
work about the house; is to come at sunrise, eat his 
food (which he is to furnish himself) here, and leave 
after sunset; wages 400 seni per diem. Present to the 
officers of the Russian corvette three bottles of Surat 

recto, and 114 verso. In other words, the material bracketed in this Journal 
entry gives Miss Harris's text, replacing a much longer original by Townsend 
Harris. What was in the passage thus deleted? 

Miss B. A. Harris made a manuscript copy of the entire Journal, which 
copy is now in the possession of The College of the City of New York, to- 
gether with the original. In her copy. Miss Harris did not hesitate to correct 
words misspelled in the original, to change "would" to "should," etc., to 
recast entire sentences, and to delete remarks that were somewhat too uncom- 
plimentary or that, in her opinion, were for various reasons to be suppressed! 
For instance: she omits entirely the entry for Jan. 21, 1857; and the entry 
for Jan. 8, 1857, in her version, ends thus: "but words will not do— I must 
have acts." 

3*^The intimacy and the cooperation between the Russian and the American 
representatives were growing apace. On this day. Commodore Possiet wrote to 
Townsend Harris telling him that he (the Commodore) was to see the Gov- 
ernors of Shimoda at noon, and asking Townsend Harris for the status quo 
of the currency question (L. & P., vol. i, no. 48). 

On the same day Townsend Harris answers that he will be glad to inform 
Commodore Possiet of all his (Townsend Harris's) conversations with the 
Japanese; that he has not discussed the currency question with the Japanese 
since Possiet's arrival ; and that late in the afternoon he will either call in 
person or send his secretary, Mr. Heusken, to get the news of Possiet's visit 
to the Japanese authorities (Z,. B., vol. i, pp. 136-37). 

This is a perfect, and the earliest, example of the cooperation among the 
foreign representatives in Japan, which later almost became the general 
rule. 

281 



oil,"® they having none; have been using common, Jap- 
anese oil for table purposes.] 

Visit the corvette, but am soon interrupted by a lot of 
Japanese officials who come to see the Commodore on 
the subject of boat landings. Commodore Perry's Ad- 
ditional Articles provided that certain landing places 
should be provided at Shimoda and Hakodate,"^ and the 
Japanese nov^ wish to confine us to landing at these 
places alone. I resist the propositions, as does the Com- 
modore. On my return home I send to Commodore 
Possiet letters of introduction to : 

Patrick Stewart, Esq., Macao, dated November 22, 1856 
Mrs. Drinker " " " " " 

I also send to Captain Korsacofif letters of introduction 
addressed to: 

Patrick Stewart, Esq., Macao, dated November 22, 1856 
Mrs. Drinker " " " " " 

Mr. Sandwith Drinker,"^ Hongkong, dated December 
I, 1856. 

346Surat is a district in the province of Bombay, India. 

347Article II of the Additional Regulations (signed at Shimoda, June 17, 
1854): "Three landing-places shall be constructed for the boats of merchant 
ships and whale-ships resorting to this port; one at Shimoda, one at Kakizaki, 
and the third at the brook lying southeast of Centre Island" (J. H. Gubbins, 
The Progress of Japan, p. 230). 

^^^of the letters here mentioned, those introducing Commodore Possiet to 
Mr. Stewart and to Mrs. Drinker have already been noticed (under their 
proper date). The two introducing Captain KorsacoflF have not been found, 
but must have been practically identical. "Not found" also is the letter ad- 
dressed to Mr. Sandwith Drinker, who, by letter dated Hongkong, April 3 
and 4, 1857, answers five of Townsend Harris's letters, dated Sept. i, Oct. 9, 
Nov. 25 (21st?), Dec. I, and Dec. 10 (L. Gf P., vol. 1, no. 62). 

There is extant also a letter by Captain W. Rimsky Korsacoff of this date 
(Dec. I, 1856, L. Gf P., vol. i, no. 49), which expresses appreciation of Town- 
send Harris's offer of assistance (see Journal, Nov. 29, 1856), and also 
acknowledges redeipt of the two letters of introduction just mentioned. 

282 



Get a further supply of the nice grapes from Kyushu. 
I find they have no pips or seeds. 

Tuesday, December 2, l8^d. The Third Governor, 
or Governor of Kakizaki, visits me to-day. His visit 
is on the important subject of the oil furnished for my 
lamps, which I have had difficulty in procuring of a 
good quality, or rather a regular supply of a good article, 
as on some days v^e have a capital article sent; then will 
follow some that will not burn for two hours. Told the 
[Third Governor] it was wanted for my lamps and not 
for eating. 

He promises a full supply of what I want now [that] 
they fully understand my wishes. I told the Governor 
that it was high time the jetty or boat landing of Kaki- 
zaki was repaired ; that it was destroyed on the 22nd of 
September, more than seventy days ago, that all the 
materials for its repair were still there, and that it was 
a great neglect to leave it so long. He promised it should 
be immediately attended to.^*^ 

In order to have a clear understanding about the 
orders I give, I have procured a book in which I write 
every order, and there are columns left in which to enter 



349Townsend Harris describes the terrible damage caused by the hurricane 
of Sept. 22, 1856, in his entry for Sept. 23rd. He is consistent in the date of 
the typhoon here and elsewhere in his correspondence — e. g., to Secretary 
Marcy (L. B., vol. i, p. 158) and to Captain H. H. Bell (L. B., vol. 1, p. 143). 
Mr. Heusken, however, says that the storm took place during the night from 
the 20th to the 21st of Sept. {Diary, in Wagener, op. cit., p. 376.) 

The Diary was written by Mr. Heusken in French; the text just referred 
to is in German; and it was published the following year in an English trans- 
lation in the Japan Mail, Jan., 1884. 

It would be a great good fortune and a distinct boon to students of thV 
early diplomatic days in Japan to find and to publish the entire Diary of the 
martyred Heusken, the first secretary of the American Legation in Japan. 

283 



the name of the interpreter to whom the order was 
given, with the date of it, and another column for the 
date at which it was executed. By this means I shall 
know whether my orders have been given by Mr. 
Heusken, or forgotten by him, and also whether the in- 
terpreter neglects them after he has received them. So 
far it works to a charm, and I have had more done in the 
last two days than in the previous fortnight. 

Still busy writing letters to go by the Olivuzza. 

Wednesday, December 3, 18^6. Captain Korsacoff 
calls to see about my barometers, to try to get them into 
working order. I fear it is a .bad job.^°° 

Still occupied with my letters. 

I have had a very bad cold and sore throat for the 
last four days. This arises from the habit Mr. Heusken 
has of never putting any fuel on the fire. During the day 
I attend to the fire myself and it is well kept up, but in 
the evening I get busy, and, as Mr. Heusken is on the 
side of the fire, I neglect it; and, being made with char- 
coal, it soon goes out, and with our paper windows and 
loose joints of the house, it soon becomes like sitting out 
of doors. I believe that Mr. Heusken only remembers 
when to eat, drink and sleep, — any other aflfairs rest 



35oxhough he does not mention it in his Journal, Townsend Harris on this 
day wrote on this very subject to Lieutenant Maury, U.S.N., at the Hydro- 
graphical Bureau, Washington, D. C. (L. B., vol. i, pp. 137-40). 

In this letter, Townsend Harris states that when in Washington in Aug., 
1855, he had been unsuccessful in obtaining meteorological instruments from 
either the Navy Department or the Smithsonian Institution (c/., his letter to 
Joseph Henry, of the Smithsonian, L. ST P., vol. i, no. 18, dated Aug. 20, 1855). 
He now renews his application, and sends Lieutenant Maury readings of the 
thermometer, and observations on winds, rains, etc., at Shimoda from Sept. 
15th to Nov. 30, 1856 — material that was quite new to our Hydrographical 
Bureau. 

284 



very lightly on his memory. Busy to-day in writing 
letters. 

Thursday, December 4, l8^6. Commodore Possiet 
and two officers came in this evening about half-past 
seven, having taken a long walk on the side of Yedo 
Bay. They were very hungry, and I gave them such re- 
freshments as my poor larder offered. 

They told me that they had seen some thin plates 
of ice in a high bleak place. The first I have heard 
of, as at my house the thermometer has not fallen be- 
low 42°. 

The Commodore told me that coals of a fair quality 
had been discovered at three points on the Amur River 
and also in the Island of Sakhalin, adding another im- 
portant source of this important mineral. 

Friday, December 5, l8^6. The Commodore sends 
me word that the ratified treaties are to be exchanged 
on Sunday next, and invites me to "assist" on the 
occasion. 

I much regret that I cannot attend. I am suffering 
from a very severe cold and great hoarseness; but the 
most important reason is that I cannot consistently 
"assist" in any such matter on a Sunday. From the time 
of my arrival I have refused to attend to any kind of 
business on that day,^^^ and after a short time the Jap- 
anese ceased to ask it of me. Should I now join the Rus- 
sians, I shall contradict all my previous acts on this 
account, and lose my character for consistency, a point 
that cannot be too carefully watched in dealing with 

^^^Comoare the entries for Aug. 22, 24, and especially 31, 1856. 

285 



people like the Japanese. They delight to convict a 
man of inconsistency. 

Sunday, December J, l8§6. About eight last night 
we had several distant, but very heavy claps of thunder 
w^ith some vivid lightning, which preceded violent 
squalls from the west, and heavy rain succeeded, which 
continued through the night. The barometer fell from 
30.50 to 29.72. About the same time I had a violent ex- 
acerbation of bile ; severe vomiting for two hours, and 
purging which lasted all night. It was a bright clear 
morning, with a true old-fashioned American north- 
wester, blowing a gale. 

The corvette fired a salute as the Commodore landed 
about eleven A. M., and at one fired a salute of twenty- 
one guns in honor of the exchange of ratifications.*" 

The Russian, American and Japanese flags were 
hoisted from the three masts, from noon until sunset. 

After the exchange was completed, the Commodore 
and the Japanese commissioners proceeded to the place 
where the guns of the Frigate Diana were placed. 

The guns have been neatly furbished up and a double 
guard of honor composed of Russians and Japanese were 
mounted over them. The guns were then formally pre- 
sented to the Japanese. The commissioners then at- 
tended the Commodore to the corvette, where they re- 
ceived a salute and a dinner, and thus completed the 
ceremonies of the day. 

Monday, December 8, 1856. The Third Governor, 
Moriama and some others visited me to-day. After kind 

862See note 320. 

286 



messages and inquiries on behalf of the Governors, they 
said they had been ordered to inform me of the exchange 
of ratifications, etc., etc. Moriama was quite communi- 
cative and oracular; said that a great change was im- 
pending in Japanese afifairs (as it relates to foreign in- 
tercourse), and that it would surprise all, when it took 
place, from its suddenness, etc., etc. 

The Governor and Moriama told me that the largest 
Japanese vessels were about 200 tons burden, and that, 
enumerating all vessels of 60 tons up to 200 tons, the 
aggregate number was about 1 00,000 1! This aggregate 
was so astounding that I made them repeat it in different 
forms, so that I might be sure there was no misunder- 
standing as to their meaning, but they all adhered to it, 
remarking that if they had counted all their craft of 
50 tons down to fishing boats, the number would be 
enormous. 

They said they had seen 700 junks all over 60 tons 
in Shimoda Harbor at one time 1 ! 

If these figures be correct, the tonnage of Japan ex- 
ceeds that of any nation in the world. 

Tuesday, December Q, 1856. Up at seven A. M. to go 
on board the corvette to see the Commodore before he 
meets the Japanese to-day on the subject of the cur- 
rency. I got him to agree that he would refuse to pay, 
except on the basis I had named, — viz., one dollar to pass 
for three ichibus; that he would pay that amount to 
them; and, if they were dissatisfied, he would place the 
difference in my hapds (until the arrival of a Russian 
Consul) to await the final settlement of the question. I 

287 



am much pleased with this, as it will greatly strengthen 
my demands for the adjustment of the question. Am told 
the corvette will leave on Friday next, and am invited 
to dine with them for the last time on Thursday next. 
I shall send two pairs of nice, pet fowls (for Mrs. 
Stewart^" of Macao) on board the ship on Wednesday, 
and embark my rascally tailor on Thursday. The Com- 
modore is anxious to get away, as this strong north- 
wester, which still blows, causes the ship to drag, and 
she is so situated that she cannot "cut and run." 
Busy closing up letters to go by the ship.^" 
Wednesday, December 10, 18^6. Begin to make up 
my mail. It consists of letters as follows:^" 

Secretary of State, five, Numbers 17 to 21. 

S. Drinker, two, November 21st and December ist 



353Wife of the Patrick Stewart mentioned in the entry for Dec. i, 1856. 

35*On this date, Townsend Harris wrote a second letter to Armstrong & 
Lawrence, at Hongkong (Z,. B., vol. i, pp. 141-43; cj., p. 190), which, there- 
fore, went off together with that of Nov, 21, 1856 (g.v.). 

In addition to routine matters of accounts, Townsend Harris urgently begs 
Messrs. Armstrong & Lawrence not to permit opium to be sent to any of his 
servants in Japan. This, of course, was the result of the incident described 
by him under date of Nov. 24, 1856. Townsend Harris was playing fair with 
the Japanese: he now extended to China the same interdict which he had only 
two weeks before given to the Goyoshi of Shimoda, and which later he in- 
corporated in his Treaty of Commerce and Navigation (concluded July 29, 
1858), Art. IV, in the historic words, "The importation of opium is pro- 
hibited," etc. 

ss^of the twenty-three letters here listed, eleven have been outlined above 
under their respective dates — namely, those addressed to Secretary Marcy (5), 
Armstrong & Lawrence (2), Miss Kate Drinker, Lieutenant Maury, Captain 
Bell, and Sir John Bowring. The remaining twelve have not been found. 

The answer, however, to Townsend Harris's numerous letters to Mr. Sand- 
with Drinker is extant (see above, note 348). Likewise, the letter to Mrs. Pat- 
rick Stewart (of Nov. 21, 1856) must have told her that he would send the 
gifts mentioned in the present entry of the Journal; while still another letter 
to Captain KorsacofF dated this day (not listed in the Journal) begged him 
to take these gifts to Mrs. Stewart at Macao (L. B., vol. i, pp. 140-41). 

288 



I. Harland November 21, 1856 

Dr. Lorraine " 21 " 

Armstrong & Lawrence " 21 " 

" " December 9 " 

General Keenan November 25 " 

Mrs. Stewart " 21 " 

Mrs. Spooner " 30 " 

Mrs. Drinker " 30 " 

Kate Drinker " 21 " three sheets 

Joseph Evans " 29 " 

Lieutenant Maury December 3 " 

Captain Bell " 10 " 

P. M. Wetmore " 9 " sixteen sheets 

N. Dougherty " 9 " three sheets 

Sir John Bowring " 10 " 

S. Drinker (for gun) " 10 " 



Send on board the Russian corvette a double coop with 
two pairs of pet fowls for Mrs. Stewart of Macao. Also 
send twenty-five catties each of rice and paddy, and some 
gravel for the fowls. 

Thursday, December II, 1856, Send my tailor"" 
on board the Russian corvette. He had the impudence 
to ask me to give him a good character ! Who can ever 
hope to fathom the want of moral principle in a 
Chinese? Captain Korsacofif called this morning and I 
loaned him $1,000, — 1,000 Mexican dollars to be repaid 
in the same coin to my agents Armstrong & Lawrence 
at Hongkong, the Captain taking duplicate receipts 



3*^In the letter which this tailor took aboard with him (Z,. B., vol. i, pp. 
152-53), Townsend Harris gave Captain Korsacoff some good advice as to 
how to treat the "rascally" servant. 

289 



for the payment, one of which he is to forward to me."' 
The weather is the most lovely ever seen at this season 
of the year in a similar latitude. The sky is as blue as 
a sapphire, and a light air from the west raises the 
thermometer to 53°. Last night the thermometer fell 
to 38°. 

My black pet hen commenced to incubate on the 9th 
inst., therefore I shall look for some chicks from her 
about New Year's Day."* 

Friday, December 12, l8^6. Dine on board the cor- 
vette. After dinner see the process of lacquering per- 
formed on some boxes of Commodore Possiet. 

Saturday, December 1 3, 1 8 56. Go on board the cor- 
vette to see her off, but the wind being so unfavorable she 
could not get out of the harbor. Not feeling well, I bid 
adieu to all and go on shore.'" 

Sunday, December 14, 1856. The corvette went to 
sea early this morning."" The Commodore paid one- 



867Xownsend Harris's letter of this date to Armstrong & Lawrence (L. B., 
vol. I, p. 154) gave them the necessary instructions in connection with this 
loan. 

8680n this day, Townsend Harris acknowledges receipt from Commodore 
Possiet of a mountain barometer, for delivery to the Russian Consul when 
he should arrive in Japan (Z,. B., vol. i, p. 153). 

8690wing to the different valuation set upon the Russian and the Japanese 
currency, Commodore Possiet and Townsend Harris finally agreed (in the 
course of this visit of leave) that the Russians pay their accounts according 
to their own reckoning and leave the balance in Townsend Harris's hands 
against the time when the currency question should be properly adjusted 
(L. Sf P., vol. I, no. 50, Commodore Possiet to Townsend Harris, Dec 13, 
1856). 

Further financial dealings just previous to the departure of the Russians 
obliged Townsend Harris to write a second note to his agents at Hongkong, 
Armstrong & Lawrence, in which he revised the figures in the letter written 
on Dec. it, 1856, to read $1,835.50 (L. B., vol. i, p. 155, dated Dec. 13, 1856). 

86op[eu8ken's Diary states that the corvette sailed on December 15th (Wag- 
ener, op. cit., p. 376). 

290 



third of the Japanese bill for pilotage and boat hire,'" 
and sent the other two-thirds to me to await the final 
settlement of their accounts. I am quite ill. I find my 
complaint to be "Saint Anthony's Fire." Face and fore- 
head much swollen, and burning hot and itching. 

Thursday, December l8, l8§6. Have drenched my- 
self with purgative medicines, but my complaint is but 
little relieved. 

To-day the Vice-Governor called ; and, being anxious 
to settle the question about the guards, I admitted him. I 
demanded the immediate removal of the people who 
have been in my compound from the day of my arrival. 
The Vice-Governor said he would report it to the Gov- 
ernors. I complained that the shopkeepers of Shimoda 
would not sell anything to my people or even give the 
prices. I added that I had before complained of this and 
had been promised redress, but things went on just as 
they did before. I also demanded ten silver ichibus 
to make presents to my Japanese servants on Christmas 
Day, according to the custom of my country. The Vice- 
Governor said that orders to the shopkeepers should 
again be given. As to the ichibus, he must report that 
to the Governors. 

Saturday, December 20, 1 8 56. At last my horse has 
arrived. It is not a high mettled racer, but will answer 
my purpose. The price is nineteen kobangs, about 



88i0n Commodore Perry's visit to Shimoda, three Japanese pilots were ap- 
pointed and the scale of charges agreed upon— on June 22, 1854 (Perry, 
Narrative, 33-2, S. Ex. Doc, no. 79, vol. i, p. 488, note). 

The Pilot Regulations for the Harbor of Shimoda were signed the next 
day — ^June 23, 1854 — and the English and the Dutch versions thereof are 
given ib., p. 487, note. 

291 



twenty-six dollars. The saddle and bridle are real curi- 
osities and cost thirty kobangs, about forty-two dollars, 
or about 60 per cent, more than the horse I The groom 
to attend the horse costs me seven ichibus per month, 
about one dollar [and] seventy-five cents. The horse is 
shod with straw sandals, which last about an hour on 
the road.'^' 

Monday, December 22, 1856, I am refused the ten 
ichibus. I am told I must give orders on the Goyoshi, 
and the money will be paid to the bearer of the order. 
I reply that such a proposition is offensive and must 
not be renewed, and I do not get the money. I renew my 
complaint about the guards and demand their imme- 



382Xhe Englishman Robert Fortune visited Yedo after Nov. 30, 1857, and 
enjoyed Townsend Harris's hospitality. In his book (Yedo and Peking, London, 
John Murray, 1863, pp. 200-01) he gives this interesting anecdote: 

"Mr. Harris related an amusing circumstance connected with the shoeing 
of horses in Japan, which illustrates the ready way in which the people of 
the country adopt foreign customs when seen to be improvements on their 
own. I have already had occasion to mention the marked difference which 
exists between the Chinese and the Japanese in this respect. 'Oula custom' 
— old custom — is the barrier to every foreign introduction in China, while 
the Japanese adopt with promptness every improvement which is set before 
them. When Mr. Harris first went to reside in Yedo, his horse was shod 
with iron shoes in the usual way. Up to this time the horses of the Japanese 
either wore straw shoes, or were not shod at all. One day an officer came 
to Mr. Harris and asked him to lend him his horse, and to be good enough 
to ask no questions as to the purpose for which the animal was required. 
This strange request was good humouredly complied with, and the horse, 
after being away for a short time, was duly brought back. The officer to 
whom it had been lent came to the American Legation a few days after- 
wards, and told Mr. Harris, as a great secret, that the Prime Minister 
had sent for the horse to examine his shoes ; and now, he said, the Minister's 
horse had been shod in the same way, and all the horses of the other officers 
were likewise being shod!" 

We are indebted to Mr. Fortune for this delightful anecdote for which 
Townsend Harris found no room in his Journal — for those were the busy, 
fruitful days of his first visit to Yedo, when he was giving daily lessons 
to the Japanese authorities in everything pertaining to the politics, finance, 
and international law of the Western World {cf. below, Journal for Oct 5, 
1857). 

292 



diate removal. I am told it must be referred to Yedo for 
settlement. 

Tuesday, December 23, 1856. Mr. Heusken walked 
out to-day alone and unarmed. On the road he met a 
Japanese wearing a coat-of-arms on his sleeve. As soon 
as he saw Mr. Heusken, he flourished a long stick he 
had in a threatening manner and then drew his sword, 
which was also flourished. Mr. Heusken at first halted 
and then, being unarmed, turned back. [I] directed him 
never to go out unarmed again, 

Thursday, December 25, l8§6. Merry Christmas 1 
How happy are those who live in lands where these 
joyous greetings can be exchanged! As for me, I am 
sick and solitary, living as one may say in a prison — 
a large one it is true — but still a prison. I will here note 
where I have been on Christmas Day for the last eight 
years : 

Christmas, 1849, at sea in the North Pacific Ocean 



1850 


' Manila 


I85I 


' Pulo Penang 


1852 


' Singapore 


1853 


' Hongkong 


1854 


' Calcutta 


1855 


' Ceylon 


1856 i 


n Japan 



The weather here is as fine as one could desire. The 
fields are very green with wheat which has been largely 
planted or "sowed," and the camellias begin to appear. 

Friday, December 26, 1856. Moriama Yenosky has 
gone to Yedo to see about the currency question and to 

293 



try to hurry a decision. I have given notice that I will 
not allow any spies to come into my presence or even on 
my premises; that, when they wish to see me, I will 
only receive the principals and interpreters, excluding 
spies and secretaries. The Japanese term for spy is "a 
looker across.'"^^ 

Wednesday, December ^l, 1856. The last day of the 
year. How many events of great importance to me have 
occurred during this year! I am very low spirited from 
ill health and from the very slow progress I am making 
with the Japanese. However, I must keep up my spirits 
and hope for the best. My pet hen has presented me with 
five chicks, — the merest mites of chickens ever seen. 
The weather this month has been very fine. The ther- 
mometer was as follows: mean for the month, 48 9/10; 
highest, 69°; lowest, 36°. First white frost, December 
1 2th. Rain on no days, showers on four days, clear 
twenty-seven days. 

January I, iSSJ- Happy New Year! What a busy 
day in dear old New York, what universal joy appears 
on the faces that throng the streets, — each hurrying 
along to get through "his list of calls." It is a good 
custom and one that I hope will never be given up. 
How many friendships are then renewed which, without 
the occurrence of this day of "oblivion of neglect," 
would otherwise die a natural death. I pass the day in 
calling, in imagination, on my friends; but, as to Japan, 
not a soul has darkened my door. I could only exchange 
greetings with Mr. Heusken, and present my Chinese 

sesThe Metsuke, or (with the honorific prefix) Ometsuke. 

294 



servants with the expected cumshaw.^^* All my New 
Years since Christmas, 1849, were passed in the same 
place as my Christmas, except New Year's Day of 1855, 
which was at Benares in northwestern India; the pre- 
ceding Christmas was at Calcutta.^®^ 

Saturday, January S, 1^57 ■ Assam, my butler, goes 
to Shimoda. Is refused a few cakes he wished to buy 
for refreshment. 

Monday, January 5, l8§y. Vice-Governor calls to 
say that orders have been given to all the shopkeepers 
to give prices or sell anything my people may ask for. 
I asked when those orders were given? He said they 
had been frequently given, but were specially renewed 
eight days ago. I then told him what had occurred on 
Saturday, and added that I did not believe one word 
they said ; that it was an infraction of the Treaty, etc., 
etc. I also told him that I demanded the instant removal 
of the guards; that their presence made me in reality 
a prisoner and was a gross outrage and open violation 
of the Treaty. 

The poor Vice-Governor shook in every joint, and 

2^*Anything given as a present or as a tip. The word itself is a corruption 
— a pidgin {i. e., business) English pronunciation of the word "comnnission," 
current in China. 

sssQn this day, Townsend Harris wrote: 

1) Two routine letters to James Guthrie, Secretary of the Treasury 
(L. B., vol. 2, p. 10, Dispatches Nos. i and 2) ; 

2) Three letters to Secretary of State Marcy — of which two merely sent 
duplicates of former Dispatches (L. B., vol. 2, pp. ii and 12, Dis- 
patches Nos. 22 and 23), and the remaining one transmitted an ac- 
count of disbursements under the head "Contingent Expenses in 
Japan," for the quarter ending Dec. 31, 1856 {ib., p. 12, Dispatch 
No. 24) ; 

3) A letter to Baring Bros., at London, informing them that he had 
drawn upon them for £258. 5. 3. — his salary for the quarter ending 
Dec. 31, 1856 (L. B., vol. i, p. 174). 



the perspiration streamed from his forehead and that of 
the interpreter. I also complained of the insult to Mr. 
Heusken, and demanded the arrest and punishment of 
the offender. The Vice-Governor begged me to believe 
that everything should be done to give me satisfaction 
that lay in their power; that they wished to keep the 
Treaty faithfully, and that he would hurry over to the 
Governor's at once, etc., etc. 

Tuesday, January 6, l8§J. Invited to meet the 
Governors at the Goyoshi to-morrow. Although quite 
ill I consented. 

Wednesday, January J, 1 8 57- Went to the Goyoshi 
at noon and there met Bingo-no-Kami and Shinano-no- 
Kami, or the Prince of Shinano and Prince of Bingo, 
the two Governors of Shimoda. The two Vice-Gov- 
ernors were present, but no secretaries ^^^ 

The business commenced by the Governors inform- 
ing me that they had been directed to give an answer to 
my letter of October 25th to the Minister of Foreign 
Affairs. I inquired if it was a written answer? They said 
it was not. I told them I must decline any verbal answer 
(delivered by a third person) to a written letter from 
me. They asked if I objected to their rank? I told them, 
"No." They told me that the laws of Japan forbade 
the writing of letters to foreigners. I told them I knew 
better; that letters had been written by the highest offi- 
cials, and even by the Emperor himself, to Commodore 
Perry, to the Russians, and to the Dutch ; that to assert 
such palpable falsehoods was to treat me like a child ; 

366For the full names of these officials, see Journal for Nov. 26, 1856, and 
note 341. 

296 



and that, if they repeated it, I should feel myself in- 
sulted. They not opening any other matter, I then re- 
peated what I had told the Vice-Governor on the 5th 
about the guards and the shops, and enlarged upon it, 
telling them that it was not only a breach of the Treaty, 
but a violation of the laws of nations, and that my Gov- 
ernment would never submit to such treatment. The 
Governors were in great trouble. They gave me their 
private word of honor that the complaints about the 
shopkeepers should be instantly attended to, and begged 
me to wait until they could write to Yedo about the 
officers which are stationed at my house ; that I mistook 
their nature; that they were there simply to protect me 
against intrusion from the Japanese; that the Shimoda 
people were very rude, and would be sure to give me 
cause of offense if the officers were not there to keep 
them away ; and closed by saying they had no power to 
remove the officers, but must refer to Yedo. 

In reply I told them they could not disguise the fact 
of my being under guard by a mere change of name; 
that I had no fears of the Shimoda people, who I knew 
were friendly when not under the eyes of their officials ; 
that I would not consent to the delay of one day longer 
as to the guard ; that more than three months had elapsed 
since I had requested their removal ; and finally, so long 
as they remained, I declared I should consider myself 
a prisoner and would not leave the compound, and that 
I would write to my Government the manner in which 
they had treated me. The trouble of the Governors in- 
creased. Finally they told me the officers should be re- 

297 



moved. "When?" said I. "Very soon," was the reply. 
"How many days?" They hesitated. I repeated firmly 
that, now [that] I had so strongly brought the matter 
up and that they had consented to the removal of the 
guards, every day they remained was a new outrage, 
and they must abide the consequences. They then said 
that the officers should be removed to-morrow. Knowing 
their duplicity, I told them the removal must be real 
and not nominal ; they must not post them near, or even 
in sight of, my house; that, if they made any such at- 
tempt, I should consider it as an aggravation of the 
wrong already done me. 

They assented to the justice of my remarks and said 
the officers should be brought back to the Goyoshi. 

They then said they hoped I would not let what had 
passed interrupt the good feelings heretofore existing 
between us; that they were most anxious to give me 
every proof of their friendship, etc., etc. 

I told them they had a queer way of showing friend- 
ship and hospitality; that I had been in the country 
four months and a half, and had never yet been invited 
to enter the house of a Japanese,^®^ and that they had 
even refused to dine with me on my New Year's Day, 
making a ffimsy excuse ; that in my country New Year's 
Day was kept as it is in Japan, by making friendly visits, 

3«7In his Journal for Oct. 28, 1856, Townsend Harris had expressed the hope 
that he would some day find pleasure in the society of the upper class — if 
only he could be invited to the home of some high officer (cf. above, and note 
314). On this day (Jan. 7, 1857) Tovpnsend Harris makes vyhat are certainly 
some very pointed remarks on the subject. Mr. Heusken, the inferior officer, 
managed to visit the home of a Japanese gentleman as early as Jan. 21, 1857; 
while Townsend Harris himself finally received full recognition — both official 
and social — on Tuesday, Feb. 24, 1857 {q.v., and also Mar. 7, 1857). 

298 



etc., etc., but not a single Japanese came near me on 
that day, and closed by saying that in America such con- 
duct would be called inhospitable. 

I then asked if the man that threatened Mr. Heusken 
had been arrested. They said they did not know who it 
was; therefore, could not arrest him. I told them the 
person was one of a small class ; that he had a crest on his 
clothes and wore a sword; and that, if they did not 
arrest him, I should have a right to think the person 
was acting either under direct orders from them, or ac- 
cording to their secret wishes, adding that hereafter we 
should go out armed and any insult would be promptly 
punished by us, since they were either unable or un- 
willing to punish such persons. 

I then remarked that with such a system of espionage 
as they had, I well knew that everything that occurred 
to us in our walks was reported to them. 

I then inquired about the currency question and re- 
ceived the old reply, "Waiting for decision from Yedo." 
I told them that it had the appearance of a determina- 
tion on their part to postpone the question indefinitely. 
They eagerly assured me that it was their wish to close 
the matter as speedily as possible. So, after four hours 
of stormy debate, I went home, where I was agreeably 
surprised to find the officers and guard packing up to 
leave, and, in effect, they did leave in the evening. So 
much for showing them a bold f ace.^^® 



3880n the very day that he was thus firmly maintaining his stand in Japan, 
Townsend Harris was elected Corresponding Member of The China Branch 
of The Royal Asiatic Society, whose headquarters were at Victoria, Hong- 
kong: L. & P., vol. I, no. 53. 

299 



Thursday, January 8, iS^J. Quite ill. Write a letter 
to Minister of Foreign Afifairs about the verbal answer 
offered to me (see private letter book).^°* Bingo-no- 
Kami, one of the Governors, goes to Yedo to-day. I 
suppose in consequence of the flare-up of yesterday. I 
am determined to take firm ground with the Japanese. 
I will cordially meet any real offers of amity, but 
words will not do. They are the greatest liars on 
earth."" 

Monday, January 12, iSSJ. There is a fine show of 
a bulbous flower around my house. It has but little scent, 
is of a pale yellow, and is, as I think, a species of jonquil. 
It gives a cheerful look to everything. The camellias are 
increasing in number and the wheat fields are as green 
as emeralds. I noted in October that the althea was 
putting out new leaves. These fell after the frost of 
December. The Japanese cannot pronounce the letter L, 
but substitute the letter R. This is exactly the reverse 
of what the Chinese do. They cannot articulate the R, 



869Xhis was a very important letter (L. B., vol. i, pp. 172-74). In addition 
to what 18 stated in the Journal, Townsend Harris with this letter begins to 
lay down very definite lines indeed of the course he is going to pursue to 
obtain a treaty from the Shogunate. He rather vaguely hints at dire calamities 
that are threatening Japan and that emanate from a government other than 
that of the United States. He concludes with the statement that already it 
may be too late; and therefore urges that the authorities make arrangements 
without delay for his visit to Yedo, where he may confer with them on these 
impending dangers. 

3^<>In spite of this inauspicious beginning, a thoroughly sincere and mutual 
esteem gradually grew up between the Japanese authorities and Townsend 
Harris. Indeed, when Townsend Harris resigned his position, the Shogunate 
made every effort to retain their first and best friend, and expressed their 
deep regret at his going. (Letter by Kuze, Yamato-no-Kami and Ando, Tsu- 
shima-no-Kami, to Secretary William H. Seward, dated May 5, 1862: Diplo- 
matic Correspondence, 1862, pt. 2, p. 812.) 

For some sane remarks on this subject, see J. H. Longford, in Jas. Murdoch, 
A History of Japan, vol. 3, p. 627, note i. 

300 



but substitute the L for it. Thus, instead of rice, they 
say lice. This may be added to the many other proofs 
that the Japanese are not a cognate people with the 
Chinese. The English preposition of becomes no in 
Japanese. Example: Shimoda-no-Minato, Bay of 
Shimoda; Yedo-no-Mitisi, the road of Yedo; Shinano- 
no-Kami, Prince of Shinano. It is a singular coin- 
cidence that this is the very word used in the South Sea 
Islands. When Captain Cook was in Ulietra, one of the 
Friendly Islands, the chief asked him the name of his 
burial place. Cook told him, "Stepney." The chief then 
repeated many times to his people, "Stepney Marai No 
Toote," "Stepney is the burial place of Cook." 

Thursday, January I§, l8^y. Ill, ill, ill. I have 
cured the "Saint Anthony's Fire," but I am constantly 
wasting away in flesh. 

I have a relax that takes me every four or five days, 
and continues about the same time. I am most careful 
in my diet, but all is of no avail. I use exercise now in 
my compound, walking from five to six miles every day. 
My liver acts well, and what it is that ails me I cannot 
say. I left Penang on the 2nd of April last, and am now 
forty pounds lighter than I then was."^ 

We are well supplied with wild boars' hams, some 

37iOn Apr. 2, 1856, Townsend Harris left Pulo Penang on the San Jacinto, 
on the way to Bangkok to negotiate the new Treaty with Siam. 

It was surely due to Townsend Harris's well-founded anxiety over his fre- 
quent illness that almost exactly a week later than the present entry, on Jan. 
23, 1857, he appointed Mr. Heusken Vice-Consul, 

"to discharge all Consular Duties within the Consulate of the United States 
of America within the Empire of Japan, during such period as I may be 
absent or unable to discharge the Duties of said ofEce in Person." (For the 
full tejct of this Document, see L. B., vol. i, p. 175.) 

301 



venison, plenty of fine golden pheasants, and large and 
good hares. 

Friday, January l6, iS^J. Walked to Vandalia 
Point, but the climbing the steep hills knocks me up. 
I have no wind. I must continue my exercise in the 
compound. 

Sunday, January l8, iS^J. First snow seen on the 
hilltops. I cannot sleep nor can I study. I have laid aside 
the Japanese entirely, my reading is unsatisfactory; I 
have a craving for something I cannot define. 

Wednesday, January 21, iS^J. First ice seen at my 
house. Mr. Heusken reports some queer examples of 
Japanese manners. To-day he entered the house of a 
respectable Japanese, who received him quite cordially, 
gave him tea, etc., etc. He then began to inquire the 
names of various things in English — parts of persons — 
hand — arm — eye. I should have noted that thfere was 
present the mother, wife and daughter of the man, who 
[had] gathered around so as to see and hear all. 

After asking many names of things, the man opened 
his dress and taking his privities in his hand — in sight of 
all the females — asked the names of the various parts in 
English! On another occasion Mr. Heusken went to the 
Hot Springs and found three men, entirely naked, lying 
in the tank; while he was looking on, a young female 
some fourteen years of age came in, coolly stripped 
herself to her "birthday suit" and lay down in the bath 
in close proximity to a young fellow of some twenty 
years of age. I asked the Vice-Governor if this promis- 
cuous bathing was not rather injurious to the chastity of 

302 



their females. He said it sometimes did so happen. I 
then inquired what a man did when he married a 
female who was supposed to be a virgin, but on consum- 
mation he found she was not one. "Nothing," replied 
the [Vice-] Governor. "What can he do?" and then 
naively added, "I was once served in that way myself, 
but what could I do? It was not my fault." 

Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, January 26, ZJ , 28, 
iSsy. Festival of the Japanese New Year. Everyone 
released from labor; all in their best clothes; faces shin- 
ing with saki and everybody paying visits of ceremony 
to everybody. Persons of rank put on their camissimo 
or dress of ceremony on these occasions."^ I went out on 
Thursday to see the decorations of the houses. Ever- 
greens, rice in the straw, oranges, radishes, etc., etc., 
were festooned about the front of every house. Before 
each house was a pine or cypress branch planted in the 
ground to represent a tree, while at the base of the tree 
a quantity of firewood some fourteen inches long was 
set on end, forming a bulk of some seven feet in cir- 
cumference. The fuel was kept in its place by straw 
ropes. At some houses wheat straw was neatly twisted 
into the form of a cornucopia, in others the universal 
shoe of Japan, — /. e., a straw sandal, — was hung up. 
Everyone appeared under the influence of saki, while 
but few were intoxicated and none quarrelsome. 

Saturday, January ^l, iS^J. To-day closes ^he first 
month of the year. I wish I could say that my health and 
spirits were as good as the weather is fine, as the follow- 

a72'riie Kami-shimo. or ceremonial dress of Old Japan. 



ing summary will show: mean temperature for the 
month, 45 i/io; highest, 54**; lowest, 32°. Rain two 
days, showers one, cloudy three, fine tweniy-five days. 
A good return for the month of January in latitude 35° 
north. All writers on Japan speak much about the fogs. 
As yet I have not seen one. Ice formed on the 21st, 22nd, 
23rd and 29th of this month. 

Monday, February 2, iSjy. Ice this morning at 
the Consulate three quarters of an inch thick, but it is 
much sheltered; while in the valley, where the north 
wind has a fair sweep, it freezes oftener and harder 
than at the Consulate. 

Friday, February 6, iS^J. I made an effort to-day 
and walked some seven miles up the valley of Shimoda, 
as it is level ground. This was in part a new walk to me, 
never having gone so far before in that direction. The 
vegetation improves as you recede from the seacoast, and 
I found the bamboo quite green in many places. Hamlet 
succeeds hamlet in quick succession; the houses, 
temples and cultivation all of the same character as at 
Shimoda. The hills are equally steep; sometimes they 
all but close the valley, only leaving a passage for 
Shimoda-no-gawa, or Shimoda River. 

Tuesday, February 10, iS^J. A violent attack of 
cholera morbus, — being the third I have had since last 
December, and it has so happened that I ate potage a la 
puree on each of those days. I shall, therefore, with 
great regret give it up. First snow on the level ground 
to-day, about one inch, but it soon melted and by eleven 
o'clock was all gone. 

304 



Monday, February l6, iSSJ. Bingo-no-Kami, now 
at Yedo, sends me from thence a present of English wal- 
nuts and dried persimmons. They call the latter figs 
and, indeed, the best quality of them is very like a good 
dried fig. I am daily expecting his return here, when I 
hope I shall be able to bring our pending matters to an 
amicable conclusion. 

Thursday, February IQ, 1857- Rain, sleet and snow. 
Learn that Bingo-no-Kami, with one of the Vice-Gov- 
ernors and Moriama Yenosky, chief interpreter, has 
returned from Yedo. 

Friday, February 20, iS^J. The Vice-Governor and 
Moriama call on me on their return from Yedo. 

Saturday, February 21, 1 8 57- Bingo-no- Kami, one 
of the Governors of Shimoda, calls on me on his return 
from Yedo. After the usual compliments, he presented 
me with two pieces of Japanese crepe, a really good 
article, and a Japanese sword !1 It was in a common, 
white wood scabbard, and had a handle to slip on of the 
same. In fact, was simply a packing case. He told me 
the blade was one he had worn for some years ; that it 
was by the first swordmaker of Japan, etc., etc.; that, 
having procured another blade, he had shifted the scab- 
bard and mountings to it, and therefore presented me 
with the blade; that no foreigner had ever before ob- 
tained such a blade, etc., etc. ; and to all this I made the 
required replies. The blade is really a superb one"" and 



s^^On the occasion of his Audience of Leave (Apr. 26, 1862), the Tycoon pre- 
sented Townsend Harris with another splendid sword, which Townsend Har- 
ris, in his turn, later presented to Lieutenant General U. S. Grant for havinis; 
saved "my beloved country from the ruin that threatened her." (See the manu- 



has the "shark teeth mark" the whole length of it. This, 
I am told, is not a mere surface mark, but extends 
through the metal like the pamom in some Malay 
krisses. The Governor invited me to visit him and 
Shinano-no-Kami, at their private residence, which I 
accepted. He then asked me if I would have European 
or Japanese cookery. I selected the latter. So I am at 
last to see the inside of their residence."* 

Tuesday, February 24, 185J. Norimons were sent at 
nine this morning, but I did not leave until eleven, when 
I proceeded with quite a train of attendants. The 
norimon is a horrible affair. The only position you can 
assume is to sit on your heels, Japanese fashion, or else 
cross-legged. It is only four feet long and about three 
and a half feet high. I was received with all formality 
by the two Governors in an ante-room. I was then con- 
ducted to an inner apartment furnished with seats, bra- 
ziers, etc., etc. After drinking a cup of tea and smoking 
three whifiFs of tobacco, I was again conducted to the 
room of my entertainment. This room, out of compli- 
ment to me, was furnished with seats and tables. On the 
table before me were pipes, tobacco, a brazier, etc., etc. 
My seat was on the left of the Governor and close to the 
toko,^'"^ or sacred place, and consequently the seat of 
honor. The meal consisted of fish cooked in every pos- 



script letter, L. & P., vol. i, no. 322, dated Union Club, New York, Nov. 15, 
1865; and General Grant's courteous answer, ib., no. 323, dated, "Headquar- 
ters Armies of the United States, Washington, D. C, Nov. 23, 1865.") 

3T*See above, Journal for Oct. 28, 1856, and Jan. 7, 1857, and notes 314 and 
367. 

sTBXhe toko-no-ma. 

306 



sible Japanese way, and fish raw; the latter cut from a 
large fish which was brought to me to see. It was in a 
large dish, decorated with a mast and sail, the colors 
of the latter indicating welcome. 

A pate made of lobster was very nice ; sweet potatoes 
and radishes served up in various forms were the vege- 
tables. Contrary to my expectations, neither rice nor 
bread was served with the dishes. Some ten courses were 
served, all brought to me in wooden cups brightly lac- 
quered. On a table placed across the foot of the room 
was a dwarfed cedar tree, decorated with storks cut out 
of radish and neatly colored. These were fastened to the 
tree by springs of twisted wire, which continued any 
motion for a long time. Flowers also, both real and 
artificial, were used to decorate the dishes of cakes, bon- 
bons, etc., etc., which were also placed on this table. I 
was told the storks were a wish for my longevity, and 
that the various flowers had a complimentary meaning 
in them. After all the fish dishes were done, rice was 
served without salt or any other condiment. Saki was 
the beverage, but I plead ill health and only drank tea. 
When the heavy part of the meal was over, Shinano-no- 
Kami had brought to him the prettiest toy tea-making 
apparatus I ever saw. It was in a neat, plain, wooden 
case, which when opened displayed a tiny furnace for 
boiling water, teapot and two cups, a jar of tea, mats for 
the teapot and cups, a scoop for the tea, and a curious 
machine for heating the tea over the fire before it is 
put in the water. Shinano-no-Kami then proceeded to 
boil the water, measure and heat the tea, place it in pot, 

307 



pour on the boiling water, and then pour out a cup and 
hand it to me with his own hands; whereat all the 
Japanese fell into immense admiration, and then the 
matter was expounded to me, — that the making of tea by 
the Prince of Shinano and serving it with his own hands 
was a proof of friendship only given to those of exalted 
character and position, and I was requested to view it 
in that light, whereupon I agreed so to regard it. Then 
Shinano requested my acceptance of the whole concern 
as a proof of his great regard, and this was also agreed 
to."^ 

The conversation now took the usual Japanese turn. 
The lubricity of these people passes belief. The mo- 
ment business is over, the one and only subject on which 
they dare converse comes up. I was asked a hundred dif- 
ferent questions about American females, as whether 
single women dressed differently from the married ones, 
etc., etc. ; but I will not soil my paper with the greater 
part of them, but I clearly perceived that there are 
particulars that enter into Japanese marriage contracts 
that are disgusting beyond belief. Bingo-no-Kami in- 
formed me that one of the Vice-Governors was specially 
charged with the duty of supplying me with female 
society, and said if I fancied any woman the Vice-Gover- 
nor would procure her for me, etc., etc., etc. 

I was asked if their people could receive some instruc- 
tion in beating the drum when the next man-of-war came. 
I replied I had no doubt the commander would be will- 
ing to gratify them on that point. They said they had 

sTexhis was the Cha-no-yu, the tea ceremony so characteristic of Japan. 

308 



brass drums copied from the Dutch. They asked me 
about the various signals given by beat of drum, which I 
answered as well as I could. Then — oh, shame! They 
asked me if we had not a beat of the drum as a signal to 
our soldiers to go to the houses of ill fame, and I em- 
phatically replied no. They evidently did not believe me ; 
for, said they, "We know the Dutch do so at Nagasaki, 
and all your armies are much the same." I gladly took my 
leave at three P. M. and reached home quite jaded out. 

Omitted '.'''' 

Monday, February 23, 1857. I applied to the Jap- 
anese to fire a salute for me on "Washington's Birthday" ; 
but, as it fell on Sunday, I wished the salute to be on 
Monday."^ This was agreed to, and this morning they 



areaxownsend Harris thus indicates that he omitted to write the entry for 
February 23rd in its proper, chronological order. 

377Again Heusken's Diary diflFers slightly from that of Townsend Harris in 
wrongly dating the firing of this salute on Sunday the 22nd (Wagener, op. cit., 
p. 376). 

The friendly policy here followed by the Japanese was quite in accord with 
the advice given them by the Dutch in the beginning of 1857, to the effect that 
the Japanese should not enter on a policy of hostility with the foreigners lest 
they go the way of China ten years before (Wagener, op. cit., p. 375). And it 
was at just about this time (some time between Jan. 25 and Feb. 22, 1857) 
that "the ex-Chiunagon of Mito declared his unwillingness to have any further 
share in public affairs. This resolution was attributed to his dissatisfaction with 
the course pursued towards foreigners by the Bakufu" {Kinse Shiriaku, tranal. 
by Sir E. M. Satow, ed. 1873, p. 7). 

In connection with the salute here fired by the Japanese in honor of Wash- 
ington's Birthday, we are reminded of the astonishment felt by the officers of 
Commodore Perry's expedition, when they first, on Monday, Feb. 20, 1854, 
talked with the Japanese and learned that the name of George Washington 
not only was not new in Japan, but, indeed, that it was a name already re- 
spected and esteemed. 

Dr. Francis L. Hawks, in Perry's Narrative of the Japfin Expedition, 
expresses himself thus (33-2, S. Ex. Doc, no. 79, vol. i, p. 333) : 

"They seemed perfectly acquainted with the name of the great father of 
our country, and expressed a desire to participate in celebrating the occasion 
[Wednesday, Feb. 22, 1854], asking to be permitted to come off to see the 
guns fired. They were, of course, politely invited, and [were] requested to 



sent over two handsome brass howitzers, exactly copied 
in every respect from one Commodore Perry gave them ; 
every appointment about the gun, down to the smallest 
particular, was exactly copied : percussion locks, drag 
ropes, powder or cartridge holder and all. 

The cartridges were made of paper, and for wads they 
used wood. The firing was good, quite as good as I have 
seen among civilized persons. 

Judging from the report, their powder is much better 
than that of the Chinese or Siamese. The Japanese say 
they have made i,ooo howitzers like those used at the 
salute!! But they are great liars, consequently you do 
not know when to believe them. 

Wednesday, February 25, iS^y. Met the Governors 
at the Goyoshi at noon to-day. They brought in, with 
great ceremony, a box which was reverentially placed be- 
fore me. Then a Vice-Governor opened the box, which I 

bring their ladies with them; the latter part of the invitation they, however, 
jeered at as a very amusing but quite an impracticable joke." 

Writing many years later, in Sept., 1890, Mr. John S. Sewall (who in 1853 
and 1854 had been Captain's Clerk on the Saratoga in the Japan Expedition) 
gave a very good explanation of this knowledge of George Washington on 
the part of the Japanese. He asks {The invincible armada, in The Neiu Eng- 
lander and Yale Revieiv, Sept, 1890, pp. 207-08) : 

"Whence came all this knowledge ? We naturally credited it to the Dutch, 
the only nation besides the Chinese which had for the last three centuries 
maintained its hold upon the good graces and the commerce of Japan. But 
it appears that the Japanese printers had been in the habit of reprinting 
in Japanese the manuals and text-books our missionaries had prepared for 
the use of their schools in China. Their [the Japanese] knowledge of 
America came straight from Dr. [Elijah Coleman] Bridgman's History 
of the United States, which had been published in China, and which had 
enjoyed what Dr. Bridgman had never dreamed of, a wide circulation in 
the Mikado's dominions. That book had already prepossessed them in our 
favor." 

There is further interesting material on this small History of the United 
States. It had a truly wonderful adventure, and its fate constitutes a shining 
example of the Biblical behest to cast one's bread upon the waters. 

310 



found to contain five pieces of a very poor satin damask, 
which I was told was from five members of the Regency 
at Yedo, — one piece from each person. This over, 
another box was brought which, as I was told, contained 
an answer to my two letters to Yedo, and at last they 
mustered courage to open it and unfold a sheet of paper 
about five feet long by eighteen inches wide, written 
quite full and bearing the seals and signatures of the 
following Princes who are members of the Regency : 

Hotta Bittsyu-no-Kami -.u t-^ . u . i .• 
. , , -r -^ ,^ . with a Dutch translation 

Abe Isen-no-Kami , ^, u- t. .1 

, , , . T,. ,, . or the same, which they 

Makino Bizen-no-Kami , j • a/i tr i j 

placed in Mr. Heusken s 



Kuze lamato-no-Kami 
Naito Ku-no-Kami 



hands, 



378 



I directed Mr. Heusken to put the letter and transla- 
tion in the box and close it. The Governors wished me to 
have it translated into English at once. This I declined, 
saying I should prefer having it done at leisure, and that 
in the meantime I should like to hear their answer on 
the currency question. Now ensued a scene quite Jap- 



s'^SThis letter (written in classical Japanese) is in the possession of The 
College of the City of New York. It is endorsed (in Townsend Harris's own 
hand) : "Letter from the Council of State, Yedo, February 1857." It was signed 
by: Hotta, Bitchiu-no-Kami ; Abe, Ise-no-Kami ; Makino, Bizen-no-Kami; 
Kuze, Yamato-no-Kami ; Naito, Kii-no-Kami. 

In addition to what is stated in the Journal, the original letter pointed out 
that the Shogunate had appointed special Governors for the ports of Shimoda 
and Hakodate from the moment these ports had been opened to foreign trade; 
and that, inasmuch as Yedo placed complete confidence in these Governors, 
Townsend Harris should communicate with them, for this would be the same 
as if Townsend Harris were to communicate directly with Yedo. 

This letter from the Great Council was written in answer to Townsend 
Harris's two letters dated Oct. 25, 1856, and Jan. 8, 1857. Townsend Harris 
wrote a dignified protest to the Great Council on Mar. 28, 1857. (See above 
notes 313 and 369.) 



anese, which occupied full two hours. The substance of 
it was that they admitted the justice of my demand in 
part, but said my offer (five per cent.) to pay for recoin- 
ing was not sufficient ; that they should lose by it, and 
they therefore begged me to reconsider it and make them 
an increased offer. I asked them what was the cost of 
coining money in Japan? They gravely replied twenty- 
five per cent. ! I Twenty- five per cent. I told them it was 
simply impossible ; that the cost in Europe and America 
for such labor was not one per cent. ; that I would bring 
competent moneyers from the United States who would 
do the whole work for five per cent., or even less. They 
said the laws of Japan forbade the employment of for- 
eigners about their coinage. 

I endeavored to elicit a direct ofifer from them, but 
without success. Among other statements made by them 
was this: that gold and silver before coinage had no 
value ; that it was the mint stamp that gave it its value, 
etc., etc. I told them their Government had an undoubted 
right to deal with the precious metals produced in Japan 
as they pleased, but they had no such right over a 
foreigner, and that to attempt to exercise such a right 
over him would in effect be a confiscation of his property ; 
that they might stamp pieces of paper or leather, and 
compel their own subjects to take them in lieu of gold 
and silver, but they could not expect the foreigner to take 
them in exchange for his merchandise, or to have his 
coin measured by the intrinsic value of such worthless 
tokens. This ground was traveled over and over again, 
the Japanese always reasoning in a circle and trying to 

312 



gain their point by simple pertinacity.- I passed four 
weary hours and left at four P. M., appointing the next 
day to meet again. On reaching home, Mr. Heusken 
translated the Dutch copy of the letter, and found it to 
be a simple announcement that all business was to be 
transacted with the Governors of Shimoda or Hakodate, 
and not one word in reference to the President's letter to 
the Emperor of Japan, of which I told them I was the 
bearer. 

See Journal No. 4."' 

^'^SThe title-page of the fourth volume of the manuscript Journal reads: 
"Journal No. 4. Commencing February 26th, 1857, and Ending December 7th, 
1857." (In Townsend Harris's hand.) 



Z^3 



Journal No. 4 

Commencing February 26, 1857, and 
Ending December 7, 1857 

Thursday, February 26, iS^J- On reaching the 
Goyoshi to-day, the Governors asked me if I had pe- 
rused the letter from the Regency, etc., etc., and said they 
had something to add, which was that they had full pow- 
ers to receive from me any propositions I had to make, 
and to treat on all the matters referred to in my two 
letters to the Minister of Foreign Affairs,^®" and then be- 
gan to question me as to certain matters contained there- 
in. I told them I was not yet ready to answer, but rather 
to ask questions, and that I wished to know the nature of 
their powers. Could they give me answers at once on all 
matters I might propose without waiting to hear from 
Yedo? They assured me in the most solemn manner that 
they could. I then asked could they make a new treaty 
without such reference? Their answer soon proved what 
I before suspected, — that, in any minor matter, they 
could decide, but, on any important one, they could only 
hear and report. I then said, "I have some matters under 
the Treaty which properly come under your jurisdic- 



38osee above, Journal for Oct. 25, 1856, and for Jan. 8, 1857, and notes 313 
and 369. 



tion, and will now proceed to open them." They wished 
to renew the discussion of the currency, but I told them, 
unless they had some new matter, or a distinct propo- 
sition to make, I should prefer leaving that for the 
present. 

I then stated that the Port of Nagasaki had been 
opened to the Russians as a place where their ships 
could obtain necessary supplies and coals for steam- 
ers,^" and I demanded the same rights for the Ameri- 
cans. This was finally agreed to.^®^ My next was, that 
American ships in want of supplies and not having 
money, that goods should be taken in payment.^^^ They 
said this was already granted by our Treaty.^®* I told 
them, if that was the case, of course they could have no 
objection to reaffirming it, and this was agreed to.^" My 
next was that Americans committing offences in Japan 
should be tried by the Consul and punished if guilty ac- 



38iThe Treaty between Russia and Japan (signed at Shimoda, Feb. 7, 
^855) provided for the opening of the three ports of Shimoda, Hakodate, and 
Nagasaki. Art, III of the Treaty continues as follows (J. H. Gubbins, The 
Progress of Japan, p. 236) : 

"Dans ces 3 ports, les navires russes pourront reparer leurs avaries, 
s'approvisionner d'eau, de bois de chauffage, d'aliments et autres objets 
necessaires, de charbon de terre meme, li oii il s'en trouverait; ils paieront 
tous ces objets en monnaie d'or ou d'argent, ou a defaut d'especes, en 
marchandises de leur chargement." 

3827'his matter became Art. I of the Convention of Shimoda, concluded 

by Townsend Harris on June 17, 1857. Indeed, this article is a translation of 

the corresponding portions of the Art. Ill just quoted from the Russian Treaty. 

383xhis represents the rest of Art. Ill of the Russian Treaty; compare Art. 

V thereof. 

88*The Perry Treaty (concluded Mar. 31, 1854) provided in Art. VII: 

*'It is agreeJ that ships of the United States resorting to the ports open to 
them [at that time only Shimoda and Hakodate] shall be permitted to ex- 
change gold and silver ~oin and articles of goods for other articles of 
goods," etc. 

386Xhis matter became Art. V of the Convention of Shimoda. 

316 



cording to Japanese laws.^*° To my great and agreeable 
surprise this was agreed to without demur. I next told 
them that I demanded the right for Americans to lease 
ground, buy, build, repair, or alter such buildings at 
their pleasure, and that they should be supplied with 
materials and labor for such purposes whenever they 
might require it. I told them I founded this claim on the 
1 2th and 13th Articles made with the Dutch at Nagasaki 
on the 9th of November, 1855, by which all the ground 
at Deshima was leased to the Dutch and the buildings 
sold to them ; and that they also had the right to build, 
alter or repair, etc., etc. ;^" that I claimed those same 
privileges under the 9th Article of the Treaty of Kana- 
gawa.^^^ 

s86Xhis is a slip of the pen for "according to Americans laws." This matter 
became Art. IV of the Convention of Shimoda, and was later repeated in Art. 
VI of the Treaty concluded by Townsend Harris on July 29, 1858. "Consular 
Courts" thus agreed upon (already to be found in Art. VIII of the Russian 
Treaty and in Art II of the Dutch Treaty of Nov. 9, 1855) were to be the 
cause of endless and most serious trouble till abolished by treaties concluded 
many years later. (For the United States, compare the Treaty of 1894, Articles 
I and XVII.) 

38^The Treaty between The Netherlands and Japan, concluded by Jan 
Hendrik Donker Curtius, reads (Gubbins, op. cit., pp. 247-48) : 

Art. XII— 
"Except the outer wall, the guard-houses, and public buildings of Deshima, 
all the dwellings and warehouses shall be sold, through the intervention 
of the Governors of Nagasaki, to the Netherlands Factory, and the ground 
of Deshima let. They shall be under the direction of the highest Nether- 
lands officer dwelling there, and be maintained at the cost of the Nether-' 
lands Factory." 

Art. XIII— 

"For the performance of the necessary repairs, the building or pulling 
down of warehouses or dwellings, or for making alterations and improve- 
ments therein, the Netherlands Factory shall be at liberty to employ Jap- 
anese tradesmen and to buy Japanese materials, for which payment shall 
be made in kambang money. Previous notice of these operations shall be 
given to the Governor of Nagasaki." 

assperry Treaty, Art. IX: 

"It is agreed that if at any future day the Government of Japan shall grant 
to any other nation or nations privileges and advantages Which are not 



The Governors were amazed. They never heard of 
any such convention.^^® It did not, it could not, exist. 
When, where and by whom was it made? I told them. It 
was not known to the Government at Yedo ; had never 
been ratified, and therefore had never gone into effect. 
I then read the 29th Article which declared the Conven- 
tion should go into full effect on the ist of January, 1856, 
and extended the time of exchange of the ratifications to 
the 9th of November, 1857;''^° but the ratifications had 
been exchanged, and that I had with my own eyes seen 
the ratified Japanese copy. They then asked where the 
ratifications were exchanged, and where it was I saw 
it? 

I told them Captain Fabius of the Dutch Navy 
brought the Dutch ratification to Nagasaki in August 
or September last, and that when he came here in the 
Frigate Medusa he had the ratified Convention on 



herein granted to the United States and the citizens thereof, that these 
same privileges and advantages shall be granted likewise on the United 
States and to the citizens thereof, without any consultation or delay." 

The introduction of this "most favored nation" clause in the Perry Treaty is 
said to have been due to Dr. S. Wells Williams, for many years a missionary- 
printer in China. 

389Meaning, of course, the Treaty concluded with the Dutch at Nagasaki, 
Nov. 9, 1855 (see below). 

890The pertinent portions of Art. XXIX of the Treaty with The Netherlands, 
read (Gubbins, op. cit., p. 250) : 

". . . and the ratifications signed by high officers empowered thereto on 
both sides, shall be exchanged at Nagasaki within the space of two years 
from the date hereof [Nov. 9, 1855]. 

"All the stipulations of this Convention come into immediate operation 
with the exception of the following Articles: 

"Art. I. The freedom therein granted comes into operation on the 1st 
December, 1855, and Articles IX, XII, XIII, XIV, XVIII, XX, and XXVI 
come into operation on the ist January, 1856." 



board, and that what I held in my hand was an authentic 
translation of it.^" 

Now, will it be believed that during all this time 
(more than one hour) the Governors had an authentic 
copy of that very Convention lying before them in a dis- 
patch Dox? It was so; and all this barefaced falsehood 
was a fair specimen of Japanese diplomacy. 

They then took new ground. The Dutch had been in 
Japan more than two hundred years; that these were 
old matters and had no relation to the present state of 
affairs. I replied that I claimed none of the rights the 
Dutch had before the Treaty of Kanagawa was signed ; 
that I only claimed the same new rights as had been 



39iThe Medusa, Captain Fablus, had been at Hakodate; and, on the way 
to Nagasaki, stopped at Shimoda on Oct. i, 1856, sailing away for Nagasaki 
on Oct. 3, 1856 (see above Journal, under these dates). 

Though the Preliminary Convention of Commerce concluded with the Dutch 
on Nov. 9, 1855, went into operation in the manner provided in Art. XXIX 
(from which we have just quoted), it was never duly ratified. (Gub- 
bins, op. cit; p. 66). Only a short time elapsed before the Dutch signed at 
Nagasaki a second Treaty of Commerce — Jan. 30, 1856. Townsend Harris, 
in his discussions thus far with the Governors of Shimoda, quotes entirely 
from the Dutch Treaty of Nov. 9, 1855. It would seem, therefore, that when 
Captain Fabius visited Shimoda in Oct., 1856, he was quite generous in giving 
Townsend Harris the text of the Dutch Treaty of Nov. 9, 1855, because he 
was aware that this Treaty had already been superseded by the one of Jan. 30, 
1856; and the terms of the latter Treaty he seems to have felt himself bound 
to keep secret until such time as the ratifications thereof should have been 
exchanged. This last took place at Nagasaki, Oct. 16, 1857, about eight months 
after Townsend Harris's present discussion with the Japanese. 

In other words, Townsend Harris, not knowing the full facts, was at a dis- 
advantage with the Japanese Governors, who, in their manoeuvring for 
diplomatic position, could well adhere to their statement that the Dutch Treaty 
of Nov. 9, 1855, had never been duly ratified and that therefore, to all intents 
and purposes, it did not exist And, of course, they did not give the slightest 
inkling of the existence of the later Dutch Treaty of Jan. 30, 1856. 

Townsend Harris finally received a copy of the Dutch Treaty of Jan. 30, 
1856, and from the Governor of Shimoda himself, only on Wednesday, Nov. 
i8, 1857— on the eve of his departure for his audience with the Tycoon at 
Yedo. (See his entry in the Journal for that date, and his remarks on this 
very point of leasing ground and buying buildings at Deshima.) 



granted to the Dutch ; that under the old regulations the 
Dutch lived in Deshima simply on sufferance, had no 
written rights and were liable to be ordered away at 
any moment, but the Convention of November 9, 1855, 
placed them on new and secure ground. They had ac- 
quired fixed and indefeasible rights, and among others 
that of permanent residence in Japan. 

Again the ground was shifted. The privileges granted 
to the Dutch were in effect to the Dutch Government, 
represented by a factory, and not to the Dutch burghers 
at large; that as I had told them the Government of the 
United States never engaged in trade, of course it could 
not have a factory; and, as a natural consequence, the 
claim on my part was ill founded. I replied that it was 
a privilege of trade and residence granted to Dutch- 
men, no matter whom they represented ; that the effect 
was the same, whether they traded for themselves or for 
the Dutch Government. 

Four o'clock having arrived, I left them to meet again 
to-morrow at the same hour.^®^ 

Friday, February 27, iS^J. At the Goyoshi at noon. 
The Governors opened the business by travelling over 
the same ground as yesterday (on my last proposition) ^^^ 



392\\rhile Townsend Harris was thus ably presenting the point of view and 
the claims of the United States, his good friend Nathaniel Dougherty, in far-off 
New York City, was drawing up a memorial in behalf of Townsend Harris, 
praying compensation for him ($12,000) for the successful conclusion of the 
American Treaty with Siara. This memorial was presented to the Senate on 
Friday, Feb. 27, 1857, by another friend of Townsend Harris — Senator Wil- 
liam H. Seward. It was referred to the Committee on Commerce, and ordered 
to be printed (34-3, S. Misc. Doc, no, 52, pp. 1-2). 

393Namely, "the right for Americans to lease ground, buy, build, repair, 
or alter such buildings," etc. 

320 



for nearly two hours, not one new idea or argument be- 
ing started. At last, when they questioned the correct- 
ness of my translation, I suddenly asked them to give 
me a copy of [the] 12th and 13th Articles according to 
their version, which they promised to do — apparently 
for the moment forgetting their denial of any knowledge 
of such a Convention only yesterday. 

I next claimed the right to have purchases made for 
me by any person I mighty employ, and that payment 
should be made directly to the seller without the inter- 
ference of any Japanese official.^®* I also claimed that 
the limits of seven ri and five ri at Shimoda and Hako- 
date did not apply to me as Consul General, but that the 
whole Empire of Japan was included in my Consu- 
late.^^^ The arguments with which I supported this 
claim will be found at large in my private letter book.^^® 

There was less falsehood in their replies to this point 
than there was to the preceding one, but this arose from 
the want of opportunity rather than the want of inclina- 
tion. Two hours were thus consumed, and I left at four 



394This was breaking new ground. The Russian Treaty (of Dec. 7, 1856) 
distinctly said in the Explanatory Articles {ad Art. V) : 

"Les Russes . . . eflFectueront le paiement ou I'echange des marchandises 
dans le dit entrepot par I'entremise des employes japonais." (Gubbins, op. cit., 
p. 238-) 

Townsend Harris won his point, and this matter became Art VII of the 
Convention of Shimoda. 

395This matter became Art. VI of the Convention of Shimoda. 

388These arguments were indeed given "at large" in the lengthy letter which 
Townsend Harris addressed to the Governors of Shimoda, dated Mar. 13, 
1857 (L. B., vol. I, pp. 182-88, and vol. 2, pp. 1-3). 

Incidentally, this reference, made on Feb. 27th, to a letter that was written 
on Mar. 13th, is but one of many proofs that Townsend Harris first wrote a 
rough copy of his Journal and copied it into the present manuscript volumes 
some time thereafter — in the present case, two weeks later at least. 

321 



p. M., they promising to send me their version of the 
1 2th and 13th Articles of the Dutch Convention. 

Saturday, February 28, iS^J. At home all day, and 
very glad to rest after the vexing labors of the last three 
days. The weather this month was as follows: ther- 
mometer, mean 45 5/10; highest, 63° ; lowest 32°. The 
thermometer is noted at eight A. M., noon, four and ten 
P. M.; but at four A. M. on the nth, the thermometer 
stood at 28°. Ice on 2nd, 3rd and nth; and it snowed 
on the loth and 25th. It rained four days, showers on 
four days, cloudy four days and clear sixteen days. The 
mean of the coldest day this winter was 36 25/100 on the 
2nd of February. 

Monday, March 2, iS^J. Moriama Yenosky comes 
here to-day with their version of the 12th and 13th 
Articles of the Dutch Convention. They agree in every 
essential with my version ! 

Moriama informs me he was promoted one step when 
last at Yedo, and has a place in the Revenue Board. He 
says his name is now changed to Moriama Tatsitsio, in 
place of Moriama Yenosky; that each time a man rises 
a step in office, he takes a new name. He introduced the 
"currency question" by saying how very anxious he was 
to have it settled, and tried to persuade me to open the 
question with him. He assured me that he knew of his 
own knowledge it did cost twenty-five per cent, on all 
their coinage; and, on being pressed, he admitted that a 
whole army of officers were quartered on the mint; that 
some of them had very large salaries, etc., etc. I inferred 
from what he said that the mint is a sort of pension estab- 

322 



lishment for the Empire. On inquiring of him as to the 
revenue of Japan, I could get no satisfaction; nobody 
knew, most of the dues were paid in rice. But this I did 
learn: that all the lands in the imperial domains are 
crown property, and the tenants are perpetual lease- 
holders; the rent paid varies from forty per cent, to 
thirty per cent, and twenty per cent, of the gross product 
of the land. All rents are estimated as rice; although 
wheat or any other cereal or green crops are raised, it is 
all estimated as rice. The tenant may pay his rent in kind 
or in the money value of the place on the day he pays it. 
This applies to the imperial domain. As to the domains 
of the vassal princes, I could not get any satisfactory 
answer. No publication of any kind as to public affairs is 
ever made in Japan. The head of a department knows 
only what belongs to that department; and under such 
a jealous government as this, surrounded by spies on 
every hand, he may well tremble even at the idea of seek- 
ing information that does not directly and officially per- 
tain to him. For these reasons nothing can be accurately 
known as to the amount of their army, or navy, or 
police, or the number of officials, or of the paid spies. 
The same remarks will apply to their tonnage and the 
action of trade. As to the latter I much doubt if the Gov- 
ernment keeps any statistics of its action.^^' 

Tuesday, March 3, 1857. Met the Governors. The 



8970n this date, Senator William H. Seward wrote to Secretary Marcy, 
asking (among other things) whether the Department of State would recom- 
mend additional compensation for Townsend Harris for his services in con- 
cluding the Treaty with Siam {L. & P., vol. i, no. 59). On the same day, 
Secretary Marcy gave a favorable answer (ib., no. 55). 



currency question was introduced, and they at last made 
a distinct offer. They said that heretofore the dollar had 
been taken by them for i,6oo seni (or cash) ; that this 
was not right. They proposed to weigh coins brought 
here by Americans — gold coins with Japanese gold 
coins, and silver coins against Japanese silver coins — 
weight for weight, and from the amount of Japanese 
coin to deduct fifteen per cent, to pay for the loss of 
melting and coining. I told them the demand was un- 
reasonable and that I could not agree to it. They then 
asked me to give them a counter proposition. I accord- 
ingly made three distinct offers : 

I St. The dollar in silver to pass by tale for three 
ichibus or 4,800 seni ; 

2nd. Weighing the coin as proposed by them and de- 
ducting five per cent. ; 

3rd. That inasmuch as they said their coin was com- 
posed of pure silver or pure gold and without 
alloy, — that, if that statement was correct, I 
would allow them ten per cent, discount, and 
that any alloy found in their coin should be 
deducted from that allowance, and that any in- 
crease of alloy in the coins brought by Ameri- 
cans, over the present standard, should go to 
swell the discount. 

The third proposition was instantly rejected with 
such manifest trepidation that I am convinced that their 
coin contains a large amount of alloy. They also said 
that to weigh the coin would be more just than to have 
it pass by tale, as from wear or other causes old coins 

324 



were never as heavy as new ones. We then went over 
the ground again on my two last propositions. At last I 
told them I had something of great importance to com- 
municate confidentially, and to them alone. To my great 
surprise the room was at once cleared of all but the two 
Governors and Moriama Tatsitsio. I then read to them 
an extract from a letter to me from the Secretary of 
State, which was to the effect that, if the Japanese sought 
to evade the Treaty, the President would not hesitate 
to a^k Congress to give him power to use such arguments 
as they could not resist. The fluttering was fearful — the 
effect strong. They thanked me for the confidence I had 
placed in them by reading that part of the Secretary's 
letter, and asked if they might communicate the same to 
their Government. I told them they could do so. They 
then asked me to give them a written translation of the 
paragraph so that they might make a correct transla- 
tion. This I declined, but told them I would have it 
translated and that Moriama might use that paper in 
my presence to translate it to them, but that the paper 
must be returned to me. This ended our proceedings for 
the day at half-past four P. M."'^ 

Wednesday, March 4, iSSJ. Met the Governors at 
noon. The room was cleared and I then handed them the 
Dutch translation referred to yesterday, and it was care- 
fully translated into Japanese by Moriama, and then the 
paper was returned to me. Travelled over the debates of 
yesterday, like a horse in a mill. I finally demanded a 

sessecretary Marcy's letter to Senator Seward (dated Mar, 2, 1857) was 
read to the Senate and was ordered to be printed (34-3, S. Misc. Doc, no. 55, 

P.O. 

325 



categorical answer to the three points open, — viz., cur- 
rency, residence of Americans, and the Consular rights. 
They requested me to place all my propositions in writ- 
ing. This I declined, telling them that, once I had 
placed my name to a paper, it could not be modified and 
that I wished to leave a door open by which we might 
arrive at a solution of the questions. It was finally agreed 
that Mr. Heusken, as from himself, would give them an 
unsigned paper containing the substance of my demands, 
the paper to be sent to the Governor's residence in the 
morning of to-morrow, and that we should meet again 
for the dispatch of business on Friday, the 6th inst. 

Friday, March 6, iSSJ. Met the Governors at the 
usual place, — /. e., the Goyoshi. 

I asked them if they were prepared to give me answers 
to the points remaining unsettled, and soon found they 
were anything but ready. They said these were im- 
portant matters and must be calmly considered ; that the 
Japanese took a great while to consider every question; 
that in this respect they differed from the Americans, 
who decided promptly on all questions. 

The currency question again came up and was again 
gone over for the twentieth time. At last I told them 
my mind was made up and that I would not allow more 
than five per cent, for re-coinage; that their demands 
were exorbitant, etc., etc.; that their plea that it cost 
twenty-five per cent. I had fully met by offering to 
have it done for five per cent., and that it appeared as 
though the Government wished to squeeze the Ameri- 
cans who came here, etc., etc. This elicited a direct offer 

326 



on their part of taking our coins at six per cent, discount. 
To show how great a step this was in our favor, it should 
be remembered that heretofore the dollar passed for 
1, 600 seni, but the last offer of the Japanese would give 
4,670 for the dollar, or nearly two hundred per cent, 
more than they formerly allowed. 

I refused to advance from the five per cent. The Gov- 
ernor, the Prince of Shinano, rose from his seat and 
came to me; and, while standing, begged me as a per- 
sonal favor to him to yield the one per cent, of differ- 
ence; that they were most anxious to have the matter 
settled, but that it was impossible for them to go fur- 
ther than they had done, and {mark this) that, if they 
took the coin of the Americans at less than six per cent., 
the Government would lose by the operation of re-coin- 
age. Contrast this with their solemn assurance that it cost 
twenty-five per cent, to coin the money of Japan. The 
mendacity of these men passes all human belief. We 
finally adjourned to some day next week. I am really ill, 
yet I am forced day after day to listen to useless debates, 
on points that have been exhausted, and are only varied 
by some new phase of falsehood I 

Saturday, March y, 18^7- On looking over my Jour- 
nal for February 25th, I find I have omitted two im- 
portant matters. On the 4th of October, 1855, the Secre- 
tary of State wrote me^^^ that the Navy Department had 



399Townsend Harris made two copies of this Letter of Special Instructions 
(L. Sf P., vol. I, no. 21 ; and vol. 2, no. 21). In addition to what is stated in the 
text, Secretary Marcy suggests an additional article to the Perry Treaty, 
which should establish the right of temporary residence in Japan; discusses 
the currency question, and the establishment of a Consulate at Hakodate; and 
closes with the hope that the Japanese will reciprocate in kindly feelings and 



received dispatches from Lieutenant Rodgers to the 
effect that Reed and Dougherty, two Americans who 
had gone to Japan to establish themselves there, had 
been ordered away from Shimoda and refused permis- 
sion to land at Hakodate."'^ Lieutenant Rodgers also 
wrote that the Japanese version of the seventh Article 
of Commodore Perry's Treaty contained the words 
"such as may be necessary for them" in connection with 
the agreement to permit Americans to make purchases 
of goods in Japan. I was informed by the Department 
that these words were not contained in the English, 
Dutch or Chinese versions of the Treaty, and 1 was 
directed to inquire into the matter and see if they were 
actually inserted in the Japanese version. 

I asked the Governors if they had an authentic copy 
of the Treaty of Kanagawa; and, on their answering in 
the affirmative, I requested them to turn to the seventh 

that consequently Townsend Harris will succeed in procuring greater privi- 
leges than were procured by the Perry Treaty. 

The question of residence was completely settled by Article II of the Con- 
vention of Shimoda (June 17, 1857), which provides "that American citizens 
may permanently reside at Shimoda and Hakodate," etc. 

^ooMessrs. W. C. Reed and T. T. Dougherty (and party) had left Shimoda 
in the American schooner Caroline E. Foote, Captain A. J. Worth, early in 
June, 1855. Arriving at Hakodate, they tried in vain to land and establish in 
that city their store for general ships' supplies for the American whaling 
fleet — in vain, in spite of the help rendered by Lieutenant John Rodgers, who 
had arrived at that port a few days before them in the U.S.S. Vincennes, of 
the U. S. Surveying and Exploring Expedition to the North Pacific Ocean. 
(See Lieutenant Rodgers's letters to Messrs. Reed and Dougherty written at 
Hakodate, June 19 and 25, 1855.) The C. E. Foote therefore left Japan on 
June 27 or 28, 1855 ; put in at Guam for supplies on July 15th; and left on July 
31st for San Francisco, where she arrived safely on Sept. 17, 1855, bringing: 
firstly, dispatches from Admiral Poutiatine, who had just (Feb. 7, 1855) con- 
cluded the Russian Treaty with Japan; and, secondly, the first cargo ever 
imported directly from Japan to the United States. (Read the copious corre- 
spondence of this unsuccessful commercial venture to Japan by Messrs. Reed 
and Dougherty in the New York Herald, Morning ed., Monday, Oct. 15, 1855, 
p. I, columns 2-6; and see above, note 325.) 

328 



Article of the Treaty, and then asked them if the words 
above noted were contained in it. They at once said they 
were not in the Article. I then told them that, when 
Lieutenant Rodgers was here, the Governor had assured 
him that those words were contained in the Japanese 
version of the Treaty. 

With unmoved faces they assured me they never heard 
of any such statement; that the Governor could not have 
said so, and that there must be some mistake about it. 
I then complained of the ordering away of Messrs. Reed 
and Dougherty from Shimoda and refusing them per- 
mission to land in Hakodate. They answered that that 
was wrong, that they ought not to have ordered them 
away from Shimoda, nor have refused them permission 
to land at Hakodate. 

I also omitted a description of the interior of the 
houses occupied by the Governors. These are some 
twenty to thirty buildings in one grand enclosure, all of 
which are occupied by the various officials of this place. 
The houses are all of wood covered with tile roofs. The 
sides of each room are a series of paper windows some 
six feet high, and have sliding shutters to close them 
in durifig storms or cold weather. The houses are very 
open and are only warmed by charcoal braziers. The 
rooms are covered with very soft and beautiful mats. 
These mats are the same size all through Japan, — /. e., six 
feet long and three feet wide. At the outer door the Jap- 
anese take off their straw shoes and walk into the house 
in their stockings, consequently the mats are always 
clean. The mat serves as a seat by day and a bed by night. 

329 



In cold weather they wrap themselves in a thickly 
wadded blanket made with sleeves; a wooden pillow 
three inches high supports the neck (not the head), and 
prevents the hair being tumbled. At their meals a stand 
of lacquered wood about one foot high and some eight- 
een inches square serves as the table of each person, and 
their food is served entirely ip wooden vessels, except 
tea and saki, which are drunk from porcelain cups. No 
sofa, chair, table, sideboard or other furniture is to be 
found in the rooms. In the bedrooms some chests or 
cabinets contain their clothes, arms, books, etc., etc. 
The walls are sometimes decorated with paper hang- 
ings, with trees, flowers, storks, etc., drawn on them, but 
generally they are the plain wood or simple figured 
paper. Their wardrobe is always a small one, as the 
quantity of clothes required or rather allowed by their 
sumptuary laws is limited. I do not think the world con- 
tains a people so truly frugal and plain in matters of diet 
and dress as the Japanese. No jewelry is ever seen on a 
man. Gold is chiefly used to decorate their swords. In 
some particular cases, gold brocades are used with scar- 
let or yellow, but these are rare cases. They form the 
exception and not the rule. The colors of the dress are 
either black or gray; the material for the nobles is of 
silk, [for] all others it is cotton. They are a people of 
but few wants. 

Sunday, March 8, 18^7. A cannon from the Signal 
Hill announced a foreign ship at noon to-day, and caused 
emotions of sincere pleasure. On ascending a height 
near the Consulate I saw the blessed Stars and Stripes 

330 



flying from a barque, which was standing towards the 
inner harbor, having a signal for a pilot flying, and the 
pilot was seen pulling off to her, but as the pilot neared 
her she filled away, stood off until she was fairly in Yedo 
Bay, and then stood southward. 

What does it mean? It was like the Flying Dutch- 
man. 

Monday, March Q, 185J. At nine this morning the 
barque again made her appearance and anchored in the 
outer harbor. Mr. Heusken went on board, and when he 
returned he brought with him Captain Homer of the 
Barque Messenger Bird, from Boston via the Sand- 
wich Islands and Guam. Mr. Edward F. Hall, the 
supra-cargo, presented a letter of introduction writ- 
ten by the Hon. David L. Gregg, U. S. Commissioner 
to the Sandwich Islands."^ Captain Homer has his wife 
and two children on board — one an infant born at sea 
off the Caroline Islands. 

Mr. Hall having come via San Francisco, I got news- 
papers up to the 8th of November, or six months later 
than my last dates. So, Mr. Buchanan is President. 
When I last saw him in London on the 31st of October 
last, I told him that I had no doubt he would be the 
next President.*"^ I am glad to hear it, and trust that 
under his administration peace and quiet will settle on 

*°iMr. David L. Gregg had been consulted by Messrs. Reed and Dougherty 
(who, it will be remembered, had sailed for Japan from Honolulu on Feb. 
I3i 1855) and had expressed his opinion that they were quite within the terms 
of the Perry Treaty in trying to establish themselves at Hakodate. 

402Xownsend Harris had visited James Buchanan, then Minister to London, 
on Oct. 31, 1855, when, on his way back to the Far East as Consul General to 
Japan, he had gone to the American Legation to have his passport vis6d. 
(See note 16.) 



the land; as the newspapers were only from the 20th 
of October to the 8th of November, there is a large 
hiatus in details, and Mr. Hall being only eighteen years 
of age could not give me many particulars. Mr. Hall 
informs me that he has an assorted cargo and wishes to 
trade here, and that he shall then proceed to Hakodate 
and thence to the Amur River, at which last place he 
is to establish himself in business as a ship chandler. I 
told him that I was still negotiating with the Japanese 
about the currency, and told him he could depend on not 
losing over six per cent, on the money he should ex- 
pend here, which gave him great satisfaction. 

Sent word to the Governors that I wished to see them 
to-morrow. 

Tuesday, March 10, iS^J. Met the Governors. Told 
them the arrival of a ship required a settlement of the 
currency question. They stuck at the six, and I at the 
five per cent. I proposed that this ship should settle at 
the six per cent., but that it should not be used as a 
precedent. 

They said they required ten days to settle the cur- 
rency question, as they must send to Yedo. They then 
opened on ground that even astonished me, used as I am 
to Japanese falsehood. They roundly declared the 
Dutch Convention did not exist, that it was a false re- 
port. I told them with some sternness that I had seen it 
with my own eyes, on board the Dutch Frigate Diana 
[Medusa'] in October last. They then said it had not 
been ratified. This I also stopped by saying that it did 
bear the ratification of the Japanese Government. This 

332 



point was asserted and re-asserted by them time and 
again and as often met by a plain statement of the 
truth by me.*°' 

Now came a new turn. They said the 12th and 
13th Articles had been stricken out of the Japanese 
copy. 

In reply I asked, if that was so, how was it that they 
gave me a correct version of the 12th and 13th Articles 
from their copy? Bingo-no-Kami said he got a copy 
made for himself when at Yedo before it was acted on 
by the Government. I asked to see his copy, when 
lo! it was a printed, and not a manuscript copyl I 
called their attention to this fact, but they made no 
reply.*"* 

I then said that the evidence of the authenticity of 
my version was quite satisfactory to me, and that it 
would be so to my Government, who would act on it as 
authentic. 

They then repeated that those two Articles never went 
into operation, etc., etc. I told them that Captain Fabius 
of the Dutch Navy had informed me that the buildings 
at Deshima had been sold to the Dutch, and the ground 



403See above, Journal, Feb. 26, 1857, and the discussion in the notes on this 
moot point, especially note 391. 

*04The document in the hands of the Governors of Shimoda must have been 
a printed copy of the first Dutch Treaty — that of Nov. 9, 1855. Therefore, the 
text of Art. XII and XIII was bound to be the same as that in the copy which 
Townsend Harris had received from Captain Fabius. The Japanese naturally 
made no reply, because the only reply possible under the circumstances would 
have revealed the existence of the second Dutch Treaty, in which (as was 
justly maintained by the Japanese) the privileges granted in Art. XII and XIII 
of the first treaty had been withdrawn. 

(Articles XII and XIII of the Dutch Treaty of Nov. 9, 1855, became Art, 
XII of the Treaty of Jan. 30, 1856.) 

333 



leased to them. They vehemently denied the truth of that 
statement. 

I told them that negative proof was nothing against 
credible, positive testimony. It was now past four, and I 
closed a very stormy interview with an appointment for 
the next day. 

Wednesday, March II, iS^J. I went yesterday on 
board the Messenger Bird, and saw Mrs. Homer, a nice 
person indeed, with a bouncing baby in her arms. This 
home sight almost made me homesick. 

At the Goyoshi at half-past eleven. The Governars 
again wished to open the currency question. I told them 
if they would give me satisfaction on the other unsettled 
points, I would satisfy them in the matter of the cur- 
rency. After a great deal of debate, in which, however, 
they did not repeat the barefaced assertions of yester- 
day, they requested me to put the two claims of residence 
of Americans and consular rights on paper, and give 
them time to consider about it, as it was a matter of much 
gravity, etc., etc. I assented to this and so closed our busi- 
ness for the present. Again visited the barque, and after 
chatting for an hour went home. 

Captain and Mrs. Homer and Mr. Hall are to break- 
fast with me on Friday noon. 

Friday, March 1 3, l8SJ. Breakfast party as above. 
Walk to a place where [we] can see Oho Sima.*"' Day 
fine, and pass it most agreeably. Company leave at five 
P.M. 

In the evening write letter to the Governors on the two 

405Oshirna. 

334 



points, which I support with a few of the strongest argu- 
ments (see private letter book) .*°^ 

Saturday, March 1 4, 1 8 57- Mr. Heusken has trans- 
lated Mr. Hall's lists of merchandise and goes with him 
to assist as his interpreter. 

Sunday, March 1 5, l8S7- I have never been so ill 
for seven years as I am to-day; vomited a quantity of 
fresh blood. 

Monday, March 16, iSSJ- Gave Captain Homer a 
list of some supplies I wish to purchase from him.*" 

Thursday, March IQ, iS^J. I have been and still am 
very ill. Earthquake at ten P. M. Heavy rumbling sound ; 
house rattles. Comes from S. S. E. and goes N. N. W. 
Lasts about three seconds. 

Saturday, March 21, iSSJ- Better to-day. Weather 
fine. Wheat grows beautifully. Japanese busy in plant- 
ing potatoes, etc. I have a camellia tree in my yard 
which is some twenty feet high. It is now in full flower, 
and has perhaps thousands of flowers out — the finest 



*''8See above, Journal, Feb. 27, 1857, and note 396. This very long letter 
ends with the following threat (L. B., vol. 2, p. 3) : 

"Your Excellencies will bear witness of [to] my anxious efforts to secure 
the present friendly relations between Japan and the United States, and 
how carefully I have avoided giving offence myself, or allowing any mem- 
ber of my family to do so. It is my earnest hope that, after a careful ex- 
amination of what I now communicate, you will give an evidence of your 
wish to preserve the friendly relations between the two countries. 

"At the same time candor compels me to say, as I now say to Your Excel- 
lency [sicj, that a refusal of these two points will endanger the good feeling 
now happily existing and may lead to results that I am sure Your Excellen- 
cies would deplore as deeply as I should lament." 

On this day, ratification of Townsend Harris's Treaty with Siam was advised 
by the Senate with Amendment (S. Ex. J'l, vol. 10, p. 256). 

*°^0n this day, Townsend Harris's Treaty with Siam was ratified by the 
President. 

335 



sight of the kind I ever saw. It commenced blooming 
abou* the 5th [of] January, and is now in full flower. 

Monday {^Sunday'\, March 22, 1857. Mr. Hall can- 
not sell anything to the Japanese, and no wonder, for 
his prices are most exorbitant. 

Tuesday, March 24, iSSJ. Mr. Hall has completed 
his purchases. Instead of over three thousand three hun- 
dred dollars which they would have demanded under 
the old rates, he paid them about one thousand one hun- 
dred and fifty dollars; this saving of over two thousand 
dollars is owing to my action. 

Wednesday, March 2^, iS^J- Get a portion only of 
my supplies from the Messenger Bird, the remainder is 
stowed either quite forward or quite below a large 
quantity of cargo. This is bad management. A vessel on 
such a voyage should have her cargo so stowed that any 
portion of it may easily be got at, so as to be ready for 
trade, however small, at any port.*"* 

Thursday, March 26, 1857. Pay my bill to Mr. Hall 
in silver at very high prices, and in return he wished 
to pay me in gold, which entails a loss of seventy-five 
per cent, to me here in Japan, as their ratio of gold as 
to silver is only three and one seventh to one, instead of 
sixteen to one, as with us. It takes a New England man to 
do such things. 

Saturday, March 28, 185^. Moriama called and 
wished to discuss the two points, which I decline. In an- 
swer to my questions as to the state of public opinion at 



408Here Townsend Harris is speaking from personal experience. See 
Introduction. 



336 



Yedo regarding intercourse with foreigners, he says that, 
taking ten persons in authority, three would be in favor 
of opening the country at once, two would be in favor 
but with delay, three would refuse so long as force is 
not used, but would yield to such a demonstration with- 
out fighting, and two would fight to the last. Moriama 
says the Prince of Shinano wishes to call on me to- 
morrow. I request the Prince to excuse me on Sunday, 
but that I shall be very happy to see him on any other day 
oftheweek.*"" 

Sunday, March 2g, iS^J- The Barque Messenger 
Bird went to sea early this morning, bound to Hakodate 
and the River Amur. 

Monday, March 30, l8SJ. The Prince of Shinano 
visited me to-day. He was attended by a very large 
train, but only a Vice-Governor and the interpreters 
were admitted to my private rooms. I have completely 
broken up the system of having a cloud of secretaries and 
spies crowding into my private rooms. All are delighted 
except the writers and spies. Gave the Prince a Colt's 
revolver, one of three that was put into the case of arms 
I purchased for the Kings of Siam in lieu of discount. 

Tuesday, March 31, iS^J. This has been a fine 



*°8This reservation of Sunday is quite in keeping with Townsend Harris's 
early expressed resolve to keep holy the Sabbath Day. (See Journal, entries 
for Aug. 22, 24, 31, Dec. 5, 1856, and Feb. 15, 1858.) 

On this day, Townsend Harris wrote to the Governors of Shimoda, acknowl- 
edging receipt of their letter of Mar. 26th (?). He expresses surprise that 
they must needs refer to Yedo the two points which he had raised by letter 
of Mar. 13, 1857; and states his belief that they are simply trying to procrasti- 
nate. Such delay he considers tantamount to a denial of the points raised. He 
closes with the statement that he is daily expecting the arrival of an American 
man-of-war, by which he will have to send reports to the United States 
(L. B., vol. 2, pp. 4-s). 

337 



month. The mean of the thermometer was 51 6/10; 
highest, 63° ; lowest, 38°. Had rain on five days, showers 
on four, cloudy two, clear twenty. 

This month the wind sometimes had southing, the first 
time for sixty-four days. 

Wednesday, April I, iSSJ. Dispatch letter dated 
March 28th to Council of State in reply to their letter 
received February 25th (see private letter book)."" I 
have delayed writing this letter so long in the hope of 
bringing things to a quiet close here.*" 

Friday, April S, i8sj. Busy putting seeds in my 
little garden; have doubts about their vitality. Gover- 
nors wish to see me. Go to Goyoshi at two P. M. They 



410L. B., vol. 2, pp. 5-9. On Feb. 25, 1857, Townsend Harris received from 
the Council of State a letter in reply to two of his — namely, to those dated 
Oct. 25, 1856, and Jan. 8, 1857. In his reply of Mar. 28, 1857, Townsend Harris 
repeats the arguments of his two former communications (see Journal, entries 
for those two dates, and notes 313 and 369) ; points out the great discourtesy 
of the Japanese Government in insisting on receiving the President's letter 
through the Governors of Shimoda — a discourtesy which he forgives on account 
of their ignorance of Western procedure; says that he cannot make communi- 
cations through the Governors of Shimoda, because they have not been given 
full powers; and that he will reveal his knowledge of the intentions of the 
British Government only at Yedo. 

He again closes (as in his letter of even date to the Governors of Shimoda, 
note 409) with a statement designed to bear pressure — namely, that he is 
daily expecting the arrival of an American man-of-war, by which he will have 
to send reports home. 

*ii0f this date, also, are the following routine reports: 

i) To Hon. James Guthrie, Secretary of the Treasury: 
Dispatch No. 3: L. B., vol. 2, p. 11 
" No. 4: " " " " " " 

No. 5: " " " " pp. 14-15 
z) To Hon. William L. Marcy: 

Dispatch No. 25: L. B., vol. 2, pp. 12-13 
No. 26: " " " " p. 15 
3) To Baring Bros., of London: I. B., vol: 2, p. 13. 

These dispatches transmitted reports for the quarter ending Mar. 31, 1857; 
that to Baring Bros, was a draft for his salary for the same quarter— 
£258. 5- 3. 



wish to know the contents of my letter to Council of 
State. Sorry, but it would be improper in me to disclose 
it. They ask the meaning of certain words in [the] 12th 
Article of [the] American Treaty.*^^ I ask for a piece 
of ground for a garden, which is promised, 

Saturday, April 4, l8SJ. Busy enclosing duplicates 
of dispatches to Department of State, also returns of 
fees to Secretary of Treasury for quarters ending 31st 
December"^ and March 31st. Send to Secretary of State 
my accounts of contingent fund for the same quarters. 

Monday, April 6, 185J. Moriama calls about garden 
spot. Have given me the piece asked for, about one 
eighth of an acre. Rent six ichibus per annum, or two 
dollars and ninety-seven cents. 

Tuesday, April J, iSSJ. Moriama again. Brings 
me a gardener, the occupant of the land I have hired. 
Have a chat with Moriama as he is quite alone and there- 
fore more communicative. He says that I will soon have 
an answer to the two points, and that it will be satis- 
factory to me ;"* that I must not hurry them too much ; 

4i2Art. XII of the Perry Treaty is the last Article, and deals with the man- 
ner of ratifying the Treaty itself. 

*i*For the reports for the quarter ending Dec. 31, 1856, see Journal, Jan. i, 
1857, and note 365. 

*i4The long letter in which Townsend Harris presented his "two points" 
to the Governors of Shimoda was dated Mar. 13, 1857 (Z,. B., vol. 1, pp. 182-88 ; 
and vol. 2, pp. 1-3). The "two points" were : first, that American citizens should 
be allowed to lease ground, buy, build, repair, or erect buildings for their 
use at Shimoda and Hakodate (Townsend Harris basing his claim on what 
he at this time supposed to be the ratified Treaty concluded with the Dutch 
on Nov. 9, 1855) ; and, second, that the American Consul General should be 
allowed to make purchases anywhere in Japan and without the intervention 
of Japanese officers. 

Compare Townsend Harris's reference to these "two points" in Journal, 
Apr. 20, 1857. Also, see above. Journal, Feb. 27, 1857, notes 393, 394, 396; 
and Mar. 13, 1857, note 406, where the closing vigorous paragraphs of this 
long letter are quoted. 

339 



that but a short time need elapse before a commercial 
treaty can be negotiated, etc., etc. He says the letter to 
me was signed by the whole of the High Council of 
Regents,"^ the power next [to] the Ziogoon ; that there 
is another council of five to seven persons who are under 
the Regents. The Regents are not hereditary officers, they 
are appointed by the Ziogoon and hold office during his 
pleasure alone ; that the story of an appeal lying to [rest- 
ing with] the Princes of the Empire when there is a 
difference of opinion between the Ziogoon and his 
Regents (when the defeated party, if a Regent, per- 
forms the hara-kiri; if the Ziogoon, he resigns), is not 
true; no appeal from the Ziogoon exists, — his veto is 
final. If a Regent proposes a measure which is nega- 
tived by the Ziogoon, no harm arises ; but if he renews 
the recommendation and it is again rejected, then the 
Regent does perform the hara-kiri. 

No reports of the Treasury, War, Marine or Com- 
merce. The results are only known to the Ziogoon and 
Regents and the heads of each department. Moriama 
says "it would be considered impolite for a person to 
make any inquiries concerning a department with which 
he is not connected." The English of it is that he dare 
not make such inquiries. I put down the information I 
get from time to time from [the] Japanese. I know there 
is much falsehood, but I cannot at the time separate the 
true from the false. 



^I'^This was the letter which Townsend Harris received on Feb. 25, 1857. 
See note 410. 



Simonoski, one of the interpreters, told Mr. Heusken 
that all the buildings at Deshima had been sold to the 
Dutch.*^^ 

Wednesday, April 8, iSSJ. Plant four rows of Irish 
potatoes in my new garden. The seed grew at Hakodate. 
A peach tree in my compound just begins to bloom. The 
blossom is very double, and of the color and size of the 
"Cinnamon Rose" of the United States. Cherry trees in 
full bloom, but no fruit comes from the peach or cherry 
blooms. Why, I cannot say. My grand camellia is still 
in fine bloom. Busy filing papers and making out my re- 
maining quarterly reports. Men employed to recover 
the mats that have become worn or soiled. These mats 
may properly be called mattresses. They are made on a 
frame and composed of layers of mats, the coarsest at the 
bottom, until they are about two inches thick. The ordi- 
nary exterior cover has quite the appearance of Chinese 
matting. They make a very good bed. 

Easter Sunday, April 12, iS^J. I have kept a very 
good account of the festivals of the church since my 
arrival here. It has served to bring up many pleasant 
recollections and association of ideas in my mind. The 
day is a lovely one ; the fields around me are green with 
the waving wheat, or finely decorated with flowers. An 



*i6The significance of this remark is that it served to confirm Townsend 
Harris in his wrong opinion of the status quo of the Treaty concluded with 
the Dutch at Nagasaki, on Nov. 9, 1855, ^nd particularly in his belief in the 
concessions supposedly made by Art. XII and XIII thereof. (See above, Journal, 
Feb. 26, 1857, and notes 387-391, 393.) The concessions which Townsend 
Harris assumed had been granted to the Dutch by those two Articles are in- 
cluded in the "two points" he himself was now seeking to obtain from the 
Japanese. 



abundance of violets grows about here. Thermometer, 

69°. 

Monday, April IS, iS^J- A strong wind and driv- 
ing rain from the S. W. serve to inaugurate Easter Mon- 
day at Shimoda. 

Moriama calls on me, nominally to see me, but in 
reality to settle the wages of my two Japanese boys, 
which is at last settled at six ichibus per month, or about 
two dollars. The Vice-Governor last December wanted 
me to pay them sixteen dollars per month. 

Moriama tells me as a most profound state secret 
that the Prince of Satsuma is father-in-law to the 
Ziogoon. I knew this last October. Moriama says that, 
although the Ziogoon has the supreme power to ap- 
point or displace the members of the High Council, yet 
he is influenced by a cabal of six persons or families, to 
wit: three princes of the blood, and three powerful 
nobles; among the latter is the Prince of Satsuma. In 
other words, that an oligarchy governs Japan. Moriama 
says that Japan will be opened to foreigners within the 
year. 

He admits that the Japanese are now negotiating a 
commercial treaty with the Dutch,"" but I should 
greatly distrust the provisions of a treaty so made. The 
Dutch are altogether too fond of monopolies to make a 
treaty suited to the present wants of the commercial 
world. 

Moriama informs me that the guns presented to the 

"^In his Journal for Apr. 15, 1857, Townsend Harris states that Moriyama 
said that the Japanese were not negotiating a commercial treaty with the 
Dutch. 



Japanese (fifty-two in number)"* have been taken to 
Yedo ; that eight or nine of them are to be mounted on a 
corvette they have built on the Western model. The 
corvette is 120 feet keel. 

Tuesday, April 14, iS^J. The chief of the Goyoshi 
came to see me to-day. At last they have brought me my 
accounts for seven months. The total looks alarming, as 
it is 2,087,009 of their coins, but luckily that is fully 
liquidated with the sum of $447. My servants (i. e., the 
Chinese) are the heaviest item of my expenses here, as 
their wages amount to more than $700 per annum, that 
is for four men, and I also give them their food and lodg- 
ing, while for five Japanese I pay $132 per annum and 
they board themselves. 

The Goyoshi man also brought me a Japanese dic- 
tionary and promises in a few days to bring me some 
school books, works of fiction and history. In my account 
for the last seven months are many things that I shall not 
have to renew, such as furniture, norimon, horse, etc., 
etc., all of which amount to $144, — so that leaves about 
$300 as my expenses for seven months. But my bread, 
tea, sugar, spices, pickles, coffee, etc., etc., are all brought 
here and are a very considerable item. I think however 
that $2,000 per annum will cover all my expenses; but, 
had I not brought them to terms about the currency, I 
should have found my salary insufficient for my sup- 
port. 



*^®These were the guns that had been removed from the crippled Russian 
Frigate Diana before she set sail from the Harbor of Shimoda for that of 
Toda (or, Hey-da), whither she was going for repairs. (See note 325. For the 
caliber and names of these guns, etc., cf. Journal, Nov. 22, 1856.) 

343 



Wednesday, April !§, l8§'/. Moriama visited the 
Consulate to-day. I had proposed to the Governors that, 
when the next American man-of-war came here, salutes 
should be exchanged after our fashion. 

Moriama says the Governor would be much pleased 
by such a mark of friendship as would be indicated by a 
salute of the Flag of Japan, but proposed to return it in 
the Japanese manner, — i. e., after the salute, to send a 
high officer dressed in his camissimo, or robes of cere- 
mony, to return thanks for the salute. I told him that 
would hardly be satisfactory; that our custom was to 
give gun for gun, the ship being a visitor to salute first, 
and then to have it returned from the land. 

I told him that I was anxious that the Japanese should 
take their place among the civilized nations of the 
world, and that all these small things were so many steps 
in that direction. I then entered at large into the system 
of salutes, and explained the manner in which they were 
given and returned. 

The Governors having expressed a wish for books on 
all branches of military and naval science, as taught 
at West Point and at the Naval School, I sent them word 
that, if they would address me a letter on the subject, I 
would at once forward it to the Secretary of State, and 
that I had no doubt the books would be at once sent. 
Moriama then said that he wished to ask me a question, 
and that he wanted me to consider it as a dream, — i. e., to 
forget it. The query was: "Suppose the Governors of 
Shimoda should wish to make a commercial treaty with 
you, what would you do?" I replied that I should first 

344 



ask to see their full powers, and if those were satisfac- 
tory, that I would then show them mine, and after that 
we would go to work at a treaty at once. He said if that 
was so, that they had misunderstood me, that they sup- 
posed that I would only negotiate at Yedo and with the 
High Council. 

I told him that they had confounded two things ; that 
what I had to say confidentially as from my Government 
could only be said at Yedo, so also the President's letter 
could only be delivered by me at Yedo and in the im- 
perial presence, etc. 

That negotiations were a different thing; that I was 
ready to negotiate with any person of proper rank who 
could show me the requisite full powers, etc., etc. He de- 
clared that they were not negotiating with the Dutch 
a commercial treaty; that, as soon as they were ready 
to negotiate on that point, they would negotiate with 
me. 

Moriama says that almost all the books of Japan are 
simple reprints of Chinese classics, such as Confucius, 
Mencius, etc., etc. ; but that I shall have copies of such 
purely Japanese works as they have. My young pigeons 
fly from the parent nest and "sit up for themselves," be- 
ing thirty-six days old. 

Moriama says that firearms were first introduced into 
Japan 300 years ago; that they were first introduced in 
the South, at the Island of Tanagasima;"^ that a pistol 
to this day is called Tanagasima by the Japanese. The 
place and date both serve to support the assertion of 

^iBTanegashima, an island south of Kyushu. 

345 



Mendez Pinto that he first taught the Japanese the use 
of firearms. 

Saturday, April l8, iS^J. I have been overlooking 
my accounts from the Japanese, which they have now 
rendered to me for the first time. Although they charge 
me double prices for everything they furnish to me, yet 
my bills to them for food, fuel, lights, etc., etc., will not 
exceed $500 per annum. My servants are the heaviest 
charge, as I am compelled to pay three times the wages 
to my Chinese servants that they receive in China. My 
servants cost me nearly $700 per annum. To this I must 
add, for my full expenses, the cost of flour, tea, sugar, 
hams, butter, lard, bacon, salt, beef, pickles, spices, etc., 
etc., etc., which will amount to some $500 per annum 
more. But Mr. Heusken pays me $365 per annum for 
his board, washing, etc., which reduces my expenses to 
less than $1,500 per annum. Clothing, books, and the 
wine I must use when I have guests will probably leave 
the full outlay about $1,750 per annum.^^^ 

My servants consist of a butler, cook and his mate, 
washman, two house boys, one water carrier, one sweep- 
er, one gardener, one groom, — in all ten persons, and not 
one that I can do without. 

I am well supplied with fine pheasants at about six- 
teen cents each, and so large that one makes an ample 
dinner for Mr. Heusken and myself. 



420The attention to financial matters both here and in the entry for Apr 
14th was doubtless due to the numerous reports Townsend Harris had had 
to prepare on matters financial, both for Secretary of State Marcy and for 
Secretary of the Treasury Guthrie, for the quarter ending Mar. 31, X857 
(see above). 



The day is a lovely one. How I wish my dear friends 
in New York were here to enjoy it with me. 

I am much concerned at the non-arrival of the San 
Jacinto. Commodore Armstrong promised to be here in 
March, and now more than one half of April has slipped 
away.My last letters from the United States were dated 
March 17, 1856. More than thirteen months ago. How 
much may have happened in that time. My health is not 
good. On the i6th I had a violent attack of cholera 
morbus and I have an almost constant relax. 

I wish the frigate would arrive that I could have some 
medical advice. 

Monday, April 20, iS^J. A miserable wet day. Send 
word to the Governors that I wish to meet them at the 
Goyoshi to-morrow at noon. I wish to engross the 
Articles already settled with them, and have them make 
their translation, as the last is always a work of much 
time, and thus I shall be able to expedite the whole mat- 
ter the more promptly when I get a decision on the "two 
points." My hen pigeon that has just raised a pair of 
young, commenced hatching a new nest to-day. Sharp 
work, as her last brood came out of the shell on the 
1 2th of March, or thirty-nine days ago. In my previous 
statements of my expenses of living here, I have en- 
tirely omitted rent. As yet I have not paid any, but when 
I shall occupy a house specially built for me, I shall of 
course have to pay it. This item will probably bring the 
total to a little over two thousand dollars per annum. 

Tuesday, April 21, 1857, Met the Governors at 
noon at the Goyoshi. Agreed to settle the wording of the 

347 



points already agreed on. Told them I should write 
them a formal letter requesting them to give me their 
version of the seventh Article of the Treaty of Kana- 
gawa, as, when Lieutenant Rodgers was here (May, 
1855) , they had interpolated the words "Such as may be 
necessary for them" after the words "agreeing to 
trade."*''^ I told them I should also ask them for an ex- 
planation of the sending away of Reed and Dougherty 
from Shimoda and refusing them permission to land at 
Hakodate in 1855.'" 

I inquired when I was to receive an answer on the 
"two points"? They could only repeat that they were 
anxiously looking for it to arrive here from Yedo. I 
found the matter of salutes, mentioned to Moriama on 
the 15th, is a perplexing matter to them, so I let it rest 
where it is for the present. I requested the Governors to 
order the Goyoshi officers to answer certain questions 
which I had received from my Government concerning 
cotton, its production in Japan, etc., etc., which they 
promised should be done. I called their attention to the 
breakwater of the jetty now erecting at Kakizaki ; that 
it is so short, that at low water of spring tides it will not 
give anv protection to boats.^" I left at two P. M. After 



<2iTownsend Harris is quoting Art. VII of the Perry Treaty loosely. The 
only place where the quoted words could be interpolated is after the words 
"for other articles of goods." (See also Journal, Mar. 7, 1857.) 

*22For the story of the unsuccessful venture of Messrs. Reed and Dougherty, 
see notes 325 and 400. 

*23it will be remembered that the hurricane which swept over Shimoda on 
Monday, Sept. 22, 1856, had totally destroyed the landing-jetty and breakwater 
at Kakizaki. Townsend Harris had appealed to the Additional Regulations 
concluded by Commodore Perry, and had, on Dec. 2, 1856, insisted' with the 



my return home wrote the letter to the Governors as 
referred to in the beginning of this entry, and settled the 
wording of the Articles. 

Wednesday, April 22, iS^J. The seeds I brought 
from the United States will, as I fear, prove to be a total 
failure. I put eighteen sorts in the ground on the 3rd 
inst., but only some few peas have as yet come up. It 
will be a sad drawback to my comforts if they should 
fail. To-day put in the ground a few grains of corn, 
watermelons, cucumbers and eggplant seeds procured 
from the Japanese. Twenty grains of corn and seven 
watermelon seeds were all I could procure! They said 
all their seeds were planted. 

My canary has hatched a new brood of young. 

Friday, April 24, iS^y. My canary has again 
abandoned her nest. I cannot account for her unnatural 
conduct. I separated her and the male the moment she 
commenced to incubate, and have not only kept him 
out of sight but out of hearing. I can only suppose I have 
fed her too high. She had yolk of egg every day. 

Saturday, April 2^, l8^J. I have given some lessons 
in English to the Imperial Surgeon, who attends the 
Governors here. I did this at their request. I found him 
very apt. He has been absent for some weeks to visit his 
sick father at Yedo, and to-day came to renew his les- 
sons. I did not give him anything but a letter to the Gov- 
ernors, in which I told them that I should be very happy 
to give instruction in English, after I had been per- 

Third Governor, or Governor of Kakizaki, that this boat-landing be re- 
paired, receiving from him the promise that it would be immediately attended 
to. (See notes 300, 347, 349.) 

349 



mitted the full exercise of my rights as Consul, but, so 
long as I was denied any of those rights, I must decline 
the lessons.*" I cannot see what it is that keeps away 
Commodore Armstrong. If I had a vessel of war here, 
I should have speedy answers to my demands on the 
two points, but I feel sure they will not be settled so 
long as no ship-of-war comes here. 

The Commodore promised to be here in March, yet 
April has nearly passed away and no ship has come.*" 

My last letters from the Department of State were 
dated in October, 1855,*^* more than eighteen months 
ago. It is too long a period to leave me here alone, and 
some order should be given to ensure more frequent 
communication with me. 

Monday, April 2] , iSSJ. The rhododendron, althea, 
is now in beautiful flower, colors chiefly pink. I have 
planted some of them in the cemetery where the four 
Americans are buried. 

Flowers of the peony, — China poppy, flowered peony 
and "Tree Peony," — brought me to-day. Very splendid. 



42*L. B., vol. 2, p. 17. 

*25Aside from the natural desire to see his countrymen — a desire rendered 
more acute by his isolation— Townsend Harris must have felt real diplomatic 
concern at the long delay in the arrival of the San Jacinto. He had held the 
threat of its arrival over the heads of the Japanese in two recent letters — 
both written on Mar. 28, 1857: one, to the Governors of Shimoda, in connection 
with the "two points"; the other, to the Council of State at Yedo (see notes 
409 and 410). 

If, after he had thus brought pressure to bear, no American man-of-war 
should appear to give added weight to his words, Townsend Harris would 
soon have "lost face" with the Japanese negotiators. It was not until Tuesday, 
Sept. 8, 1857, that a vessel of the United States Navy finally appeared at 
Shimoda — the sloop-of-war Portsmouth, Captain Andrew Hull Foote. 

*28This was the Letter of Special Instructions, dated at the Department of 
State, Oct. 4, i85S> which enclosed the necessary documents referring to the 
Reed and Dougherty case. (See note 399.) 



Moriama calls for verbal explanations about the 
wording of the Articles already agreed on. Fihd it is a 
cunning attempt to interpolate words of different mean- 
ing. Moriama says very coolly that "it is a very different 
thing to say a thing or to write it." In other words, they 
are always at liberty to deny anything they have said or 
promised, so long as it is not in writing. 

Tuesday, April 28, l8S7- Plant some more po- 
tatoes of the seed procured from Hakodate. Those 
planted on the 8th inst. are coming up. The Japanese say 
the season is unusually backward and the weather colder 
than they ever knew in April. The thermometer aver- 
ages much lower than I expected for this month in the 
latitude of 35° north. All the winds from the northward 
are quite chilly. The Seville orange trees in front of 
my house do not show a single leaf as yet. 

Busy to-day in making indexes of the correspondence 
and documents of the Consulate. Flave now got all my 
papers in perfect order, and only await the arrival of a 
ship to dispatch a large amount of correspondence. I 
feel sure that what I have accomplished will give satis- 
faction. I have settled the currency so that one dollar 
goes as far almost as three did when Commodore Perry 
left the question. I have opened the Port of Nagasaki 
to American ships wanting supplies. 

Americans are only to be amenable to American 
authority for offences committed in Japan. 

American ships in distress and who have no money can 
pay for all necessary supplies by barter. 

The great point of residence of Americans is still 

351 



pending; and, although it may not now be admitted, yet 
I have placed it on a footing which must ultimately 
secure it. The consular rights and franchises stand on the 
same ground as the rights of residence. 

I have fought the battles; and, although / may not re- 
ceive the victory, yet victory will come and will be owing 
to my labors.*"^ 

Wednesday, April 2Q, iS^J. Moriama visits me and 
brings the Dutch version of the Articles agreed on. I find 
it correct at last. One would think the translation of a 
paper to be a simple process, but it is not so with the 
Japanese ; for, besides their duplicity and constant efforts 
to vary the substance, they are so absurd as to wish to 
have every word placed in the Dutch version exactly in 
the order it stands in the Japanese. It is very difficult to 
explain to them the idioms of language, or the gram- 
matical structure of it, or to get them to see that, although 
the placing of the words does not correspond with theirs, 
yet the meaning is the same. Their knowledge of Dutch 
is imperfect. They have learned the language as spoken 
by traders and sailors, and the Dutch they use is not 
only that of two hundred and fifty years ago, but it is 
limited to the subjects above referred to; hence we have 
great difficulty in conveying an abstract idea to them, 
and it is almost impossible to speak figuratively to 
them. 

The Japanese have fixed days for their change of 
clothing. The law settles the matter beforehand, and 



*27in this entry, Townsend Harris outlines the Convention signed two months 
later at Shtmoda — on June 17, 1857. 



no inclemency of weather can postpone the change. 

The following are the periods and changes of their 
dress for our year 1 857 : 

On the first day of the fourth month, April 24th, they 
threw ofif their wadded clothes and put on unwadded 
ones, but of thick materials. 

On the fifth day of the fifth month, May 23rd, they 
will put on their summer clothing. 

On the first day of the ninth month, October i8th, 
they will resume the same clothing as that put on on the 
24th of April. 

On the ninth day of the ninth month, October 26th, 
they will put on their winter clothing. This is made 
of the same material as the previous change, only it is 
thickly wadded with cotton or silk wadding. 

As a specimen of the cool mendacity of the Japanese, 
even about things that are tangible to the sight, I note 
the following: the Island of Oho Sima is in plain sight 
of Shimoda and some twelve or fifteen miles distant 
from us, so that it comes within the limits of seven ri, or 
sixteen and five-eighths miles as settled for the Ameri- 
cans. Yet the Governors coolly tell me that Oho Sima is 
twenty-five ri, or fifty-nine and three-eighths miles 
distant from Shimoda II 

Kaempfer speaks of a superior fish, said to be taken 
in Yesso, which the Japanese call sukee, but he could 
not find out what kind of fish it was. I have discovered 
that it is salmon. 

Thursday, April 30, iS^J. The thermometer this 
morning at daylight was as low as it has been at any 

353 



time this month, — about 43°. The temperature has been 
very low for such a latitude. 

My health is very unsatisfactory. I am unable to cure 
my acid stomach arising from indigestion. I have re- 
duced my food to bread, rice and the flesh meat we get 
here, having left off butter, oil, fruit, and all vegetables 
except potatoes. Still my indisposition continues and I 
am constantly growing thinner and thinner. I walk every 
day from six to eight miles. Perhaps the machine is wear- 
ing out, and these are premonitions of the approaching 
end. I have slept comparatively well for the last ten 
days. 

The thermometer has stood as follows : mean for the 
month, 57 2/10° ; highest, 67° ; lowest, 43° ; rain on four 
days, showers two days, cloudy three days, and fine 
twenty-one days. Light earthquake on the fourteenth of 
April. 

Friday, May I, iS^J- May Day! A fine day indeed. 
Thermometer, 69°. Mr. Heusken brought me a bunch 
of violets which gave out a fine fragrance. Generally the 
flowers here have but little perfume. Moriama brings a 
letter from the Governors in answer to mine of [the] 
22nd of April.*^® It is anything but what I expected, and 
quite different from what they said to me at our con- 

428Xhere is no mention of such a letter in Journal, Wednesday, Apr. 22, 1857. 
The entry, however, for Tuesday, Apr. 21st, does speak of such a letter. 
Townsend Harris had wrongly dated the latter entry "Tuesday, April 22nd," 
correcting it later to "April 21st." In other words, the reference in the entry 
for May i, 1857, was made back to the earlier date before Townsend Harris 
corrected the earlier date from the 22nd to the 21st. 

The text of this letter to the Governors is not found; but its contents are 
pretty well indicated in Journal, Apr. 21, 1857. The answer of the Governors 
(undated) was received May i, 1857 (^Z- ^'so Townsend Harris's letter to 
Shinano-no-Kami, dated June 3, 1857: L. B., vol. 2, p. 18). 

354 



versations on the subject in February last. It is all of a 
piece with their falsehood and duplicity. I do not think 
that any Japanese ever tells the truth, if it can possibly 
be avoided. He prefers using falsehood when the simple 
truth would answer just as well. 

The Japanese cycle consists of twelve years which are 
named as follows : 



I St 


Year 


Ne 


or 


the 


Rat 


2nd 




Oo-s 






Bullock 


3rd 




Tora 






Tiger 


4th 




Uhl 






Hare 


5th 




Tat's 






Dragon 


6th 




Mi 






Serpent (1857) 


7th 




Um-ma 






Horse 


8th 




He-'tsu-zi 






Sheep 


9th 




Sarru 






Monkey 


loth 




Tory 






Cock 


nth 




E-noo 






Dog 


1 2th 




E 






Boar 



The Japanese divide the day into two parts, each six 
hours long, — the day is six hours and the night six 
hours, — but, as the length of the day and night is con- 
stantly changing, so the Japanese hours vary in the num- 
ber of our minutes which they contain. Thus, at the 
Equinoxes, the hour in Japan both night and day is 
120 minutes ; but, on the twentieth of June, the day hour 
at Shimoda is 143 minutes long, and the night hour is 
97 minutes. On the twentieth of December, the length 
of the hours is reversed from what it was in June, as 
the day hour is 97 minutes and the night hour becomes 

355 



143 minutes. They have a mode of equalizing this 
monstrous difference between the Equinoxes and the 
longest and shortest days, but it is very inexact. The hours 
begin to count from the meridian, or twelve o'clock 
noon, or midnight, so that six o'clock of our time be- 
comes the sixth hour with them. The following is the 
name they give to divisions of time, corresponding with 
our hours : 

12 o'clock with us is the Japanese 9th hour 



I 








8>^ " 


2 








8 " 


3 








7/ " 










it 


4 








7 


5 








6y2 " 


6 








6 " 


7 








5/ " 


8 








5 " 


9 








4/ " 


10 








4 " 


II 








s'A " 



And from 2^2 hours it rises at once to 9 hours, so that 
there is no i, 2, or 3 o'clock with them. The Japanese 
have no names for the signs of the zodiac, nor do they 
designate or distinguish days by any particular name; 
nor do any number of days receive any distinctive 
terms, — e. g., "a week," etc. 

They say the "fifth day of the loth month of the year 
of the Dragon." Our "Friday, May i, 1857," would read 
in Japanese "the seventh day of the fourth month of the 
year of the Serpent." 

356 



Saturday, May 2, iS^^. I have made another trial 
of some of my garden seeds by putting them in a most 
favorable position for sprouting, and afterwards they 
can be transplanted if they germinate. 

A most lovely day. Thermometer, 70''. 

Tuesday, May 5, 185] . It is now eight months and 
three days since the San Jacinto left here.*"^ Commo- 
dore Armstrong promised me he would be here again 
in six months. I am a prey to unceasing anxiety. I have 
not heard a word from Washington since I left the 
United States, say October, 1855.*"' 

What can be the cause of this prolonged absence of an 
American man-of-war? Where are the English? Where 
the French? And, above all, where is the Russian Con- 
sul? He should have been here before this. I am only 
nine days distant from Hongkong, yet I am more isolated 
than any American official in any part of the world. 

I have important intelligence to send to my Govern- 
ment — intelligence that will give an immediate spur 
to our trade with Japan; yet here it remains, month 
after month, without my being able to communicate it to 
my Government, or enabling my countrymen to benefit 
by it. The absence of a man-of-war also tends to weaken 
my influence with the Japanese. They have yielded noth- 
ing except from fear, and any future ameliorations of 



42SThe San Jacinto had left Shimoda for China on Thursday, Sept. 4, 1856 
(c/. Journal), and had arrived at Shanghai one week later — Sept. nth. (See 
letter by Commissioner Peter Parker to Consul Caleb Jones, Shanghai, Sept. 
13, 1856, in 35-2, S. Ex. Doc., no. 22, part 2 — in Serial no. 983 — p. 963; cf. 
p. I2o6.) 

4S0See note 425. 

357 



our intercourse will only take place after a demonstra- 
tion of force on our part. 

I will not suppose this apparent neglect arises from 
indifiference or idleness on the part of our naval com- 
manders out here. I, therefore, am left a prey to all sorts 
of imaginations as to the detaining causes.*" 

Wednesday, May J [^]^ 1^57- My young fowls 
have commenced laying eggs at the age of eighteen 
weeks. I do not know how soon they usually begin the 
great business of their lives "to increase and multiply," 
but it appears to me that this is a tender age to take up 
the "cares of maternity." 

I have the greatest difficulty in breeding fowls, pig- 
eons and birds. For enemies I have the cats, the rats, 
the foxes, the weasels, the itats (a ferocious brute of the 
weasel tribe) , hawks, owls and crows. 

Out of three nests my pigeons have only raised one, — 
/. €., one pair. I had a fine nest of thirteen eggs, which 
would have been hatched in three days, when the brood 
hen was almost murdered by a rascally tomcat; so the 
poor thing refused to go back to the "post of danger," 
and gave me another lesson on the folly of "counting 
our chickens before the eggs are hatched." 

I have recorded the shortcomings of my canary, and 
how she cruelly abandoned two nests of her callow 
young. She is now incubating a third nest of eggs, and 
I have put her on a low diet, and separated her from her 
mate, hoping by these measures to keep the "devil of 

*8iNot only the American men-of-war, but also those of the allies, were wag- 
ing the so-called Second Opium War in China. For a few details of the Ameri- 
can participation in these hostilities, see note 311. 



concupiscence" out of her little body, until her young 
can feed themselves. The cat in Japan is from the Indian 
Archipelago, as is proved by its having the preposterous 
screw tail that peculiarly marks the cats of that part of 
the world. They are capital mousers and are afraid of 
nothing in the shape of a quadruped. 

Saturday, May Q, l8S7- We have had six days of 
the most unpleasant weather I have experienced since 
I arrived here. It has either rained or been cloudy for 
a week. 

Moriama brought me to-day $283.50, American gold, 
which was paid to the Japanese by the purser of the 
San Jacinto. I redeemed it (as he promised to do) by 
giving them silver for it; but, instead of paying them 
a silver dollar for each gold dollar, I give them a silver 
ichibu for each dollar of gold. 

I have called on the Governors of Shimoda to redeem 
the promise they made me before I landed, — that "all 
my supplies should be furnished at the same rates as 
were charged to the Japanese." I am satisfied that I have 
been constantly and systematically overcharged, and I 
sent to the Governor a list of prices at which I am 
charged, and against these I placed the prices that I 
have obtained from time to time from Japanese who 
are not connected with the Government. 

The difference is very great.*^^ 

For the last few weeks I have seen the only attempt 



*82Xhere is extant a memorandum in Townsend Harris's hand (a Dutch 
translation of which was sent to the Governors) of his objections to the prices 
he had been charged. The memorandum is dated May 2, 1857, and was sent 
the same day (L. & P., vol. i, no. 65). 

359 



of Japanese boys at amusement of any kind. They have 
no games, no plays, do not congregate together, have 
no hoops, no skip ropes, no marbles, no tops, and, I 
fear, nothing else; but I have been relieved by the 
sight and sound of kites lately. I say sound of kites; they 
affix some thin slips of bamboo on the back of the kite, 
which give out a sound like the iEolian harp ; and, the 
kite being made to plunge violently, gives out the sound 
constantly. 

Monday, May II, iS^y. Went over to the Goyoshi 
to select some articles for Mrs. S. N. Spooner,*^^ who 
gave me seventy-five dollars in August last to invest for 
her. I was not pleased with the articles offered to me. 
I think we have overrated the habit of the Japanese in 
making elaborately fine articles of any kind. The genius 
of their government seems to forbid any exercise of in- 
genuity in producing articles for the gratification of 
wealth and luxury. 

Sumptuary laws rigidly enforce the form, color, 
material and time of changing the dress of all; so, as 
to luxury of furniture, the thing is unknown in Japan. 
I do not hesitate to say that the house of a Prince of the 
Empire does not contain half the value of furniture that 
you will find in the house of a sober, steady mechanic in 
America. 

Simplicity and frugality is the great maxim of this 
country, and it is enforced in a most surprising manner. 
It would be an endless task to attempt to put down all 

*33See note 240. 

360 



the acts of a Japanese that are regulated by authority. 
This is no country for modistes, tailors, jewelers and the 
whole army that batten on the imaginary wants of the 
West. 

I have said nothing about my health lately. I have 
left off the use of tobacco, and have come down to plain 
boiled rice, fish and chicken, — but all is of no avail. I 
use a great deal of exercise, but it cannot reach my liver, 
and that is the source of my trouble. Oh, for a foreign 
ship to come here with a good doctor!!"* 

Saw the first land crab to-day since last October. I 
suppose I may put this down as a proof that the summer 
has now actually commenced. 

The large Camellia Japonica in my compound, which 
first showed its blossoms on the 5th of January, is now 
going out of bloom. It has been a splendid sight and has, 
I have no doubt, produced some thousands of roses! 

Wednesday, May I^, l8SJ. For the purpose of as- 
certaining whether gold is really as cheap in Japan as 
the Japanese pretend, I ordered two mustard spoons to 
be made of pure, unalloyed gold. They wished me to 
give them coin to make the spoons from. This I de- 
clined, as it would defeat the object I have in view. 

After some days, a formal message was sent to me 
by the Governors, stating that, by the laws of Japan, 
gold could only be used to ornament their swords, and 
that its use by the people in any other form was ab- 



***This worry concerning his personal health was a very weighty reason 
to be added to the diplomatic concern that he felt over the long delay of the 
San Jacinto (see note 425). 

361 



solutely prohibited.*^" A greater falsehood was never 
uttered. It is true that the Japanese use but few orna- 
ments, or indeed articles of luxury of any kind ; but gold 
is used in weaving brocades, in decorating saddles, in 
making a small chain which secures a small basket which 
contains a cloth with which they wipe perspiration from 
their faces, and for women's ornaments. 

I told the messenger to say to the Governors that I 
knew that gold was used for many purposes besides 
swords ; but, even if that was not the case, it was nothing 
to me, as I was not a Japanese, nor bound by Japanese 
law. 

Moriama comes to say that Bingo-no-Kami has re- 
ceived orders to go to Yedo and that he is to leave early 
to-morrow morning; that he is unable to call in person 
to take leave of me, and begs me to excuse his apparent 
neglect. I send him messages wishing him a pleasant 
journey to Yedo and a favorable reception on his 
arrival. 

Thursday, May 14, iS^J- I have received a circular 
from the United States Patent Office asking for a great 
variety of information about cotton, the whole being 
put in the form of twenty-seven questions. These I had 
translated and gave them to the Japanese, requesting 
them to give me the desired information. To-day I have 
their return. It is a beautiful specimen of Japanese craft, 
cunning and falsehood. Their great object appears to be 
to permit as little to be learned about their country as 

43BW. E. GrifEs quotes the following extract from a Japanese source: "The 
use of gold or silver in making utensils of all kinds was prohibited" — in 1855. 
{Tovinsend Harris, p. 155, note.) 

362 



possible ; and, to that end, all fraud, aeceit, falsehood and 
even violence, is justifiable in their eyes. It is true that 
this is the most difficult country in the world to get in- 
formation; no statistics exist; no publications are made 
on any subject connected with industry. No man makes 
experiments to improve his implements, or to increase 
the product of his lands by new modes of culture. As 
his father sowed and reaped, so does he; and if the crop 
is large, it is his good fortune; if it be poor, it is his 
misfortune. As in everything else in Japan, the motto 
is Quieta non movere; the cultivator never measures 
his produce to see how it compares with that of his 
neighbor, or with his own on previous years. He is en- 
tirely ignorant of the mode of culture or crops produced 
at places not twenty miles distant from him. The great 
mass of the people are literally tied to the spot on which 
they were born. Of course, government officials, priests, 
pilgrims, etc., are exceptions. It may be that some few 
of the traders may go from place to place in pursuit of 
their calling, but such men, in Japan, have no eyes for 
anything but their traffic. 

Saturday, May l6, iSsy. I ordered a small bel- 
vedere to be erected on the top of a hill near the Con- 
sulate, so that I might enjoy the cool air during the hot 
season, and also have a view over the whole of the 
harbor. To-day they brought me some plans and ele- 
vations very neatly done, with estimates of the cost of 
the work. It seems to be a most important matter to 
them, as they have been a number of days about it and 
many persons were engaged on it. I was satisfied with 

363 



their plans and accepted them. The price is fifteen 
dollars. 

I am collecting specimens of natural history,*" but 
they are but meagre, as the Japanese will not bring me 
one, on the national principle of concealing everything. 

Tuesday, May I'), iS^J. To-day I paid the Japa- 
nese for the gold I received from them on the 9th inst., 
as well as for a draft on me from Purser Bradford of the 
San Jacinto. In this case I paid them one ichibu for each 
dollar of the account, and my dollars were weight 
against silver ichibus, deducting five per cent, for re- 
coining. This made my ichibus cost me thirty-three and 
eighty-three one-hundredth cents each. The allowance 
of five per cent, is not a fixed one. I offer them five per 
cent., they ask six. When the Messenger Bird settled her 
bills, she paid at the rate of six per cent.*" I am to settle 
all my bills since my arrival here at five per cent. The 
next settlement is to be at six, and so on, five and six at 
each alternate payment, until the matter is finally closed. 
The amount of the accounts settled to-day was $452.50, 
but I paid it with $153.50, thus saving $299!! The 
wheat in the vicinity begins to assume a golden hue, and 
will soon be ready for harvesting. I find that the Jap- 
anese do use a few incense sticks in their temples. They 



*3oin collecting these specimens, Townsend Harris must have had in mind 
his best friend, Mr. Sandwith Drinker, then in China, who was a member 
of The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. In fact, in a letter dated 
Hongkong, Apr. 3 and 4, 1857 (but which was received only on Oct. 20, 
1857), Mr. Drinker asks Townsend Harris for some specimens of Japanese 
ferns, etc., that he may send to the Academy (L. 6f P., vol. 1, no. 62). 

*'^The Messenger Bird left on Sunday, Mar. 29, 1857 (?.v.). For the terms 
of the settlement, see Journal, Mar. 9, 1857. 

364 



are made of some fragrant material, but are far inferior 
to those of China; and, as to number, what a contrast 
with China 1 There one may say truly that hundreds of 
thousands are burned every day in a city like Canton. 

They are kept up night and day, and the perfume is 
as obvious as possible the moment you approach a Chi- 
nese town. 

Thursday, May 21, iSSJ. Nine months to-day since 
I arrived in Japan, and I am still without any communi- 
cation with home. Where is Commodore Armstrong?"® 

The Japanese brought a horse for Mr. Heusken to- 
day. It is dearer than mine, although not so good looking, 
but this is Japanese custom, always advance the price, 
but never lower it. 

Saturday, May 23, iS^J. The weather is very bad 
indeed, almost constant rain and a raw unpleasant wind 
from the northeast. 

The Japanese say that "the oldest inhabitant" does not 
recollect such a miserable May as this is. We have, how- 
ever, enjoyed eight months of as fine weather as anyone 
could wish for, so we may put up with the present with- 
out grumbling. 

Tuesday, May 26, 1857. To-day I have a reply from 
the Governors about the prices charged to me by the 
Goyoshi people.*'® 



438See above, May 5, 1857, and note 429. 

*^®See above, May 9, 1857, and note 432. The letter of the Governors, written 
in Dutch, is L. Sf P., vol. 2, no. 68. In his reply to the Governors, dated Monday, 
June I, 1857, Townsend Harris takes note of their refusal to alter the prices 
to conform to those paid by the Japanese (as promised) ; and he gives notice 
that he will demand from the supreme Government of Japan repayment of 
all overcharges ( L. B.. vol. a, pp. 17-18). 



It is plainly and unequivocally a full support of the 
Goyoshi rascality in all of its ramifications. 

They do not regard the promise they gave me last 
August as worth the breath it cost them to utter it. How- 
ever, to lie is, for a Japanese, simply to speak. 

Wednesday, May 27, iSSJ. To-day being the fifth 
day of the fifth month is a great festival among the 
Japanese, and is attended to by abstaining from labor, 
putting on their best clothes, and by flying their musical 
kites, which sometimes remind you of a distant organ. 

I do not see any special religious attendance. I must 
say that I never was in a country so abounding with 
priests, temples, mias, statues, etc., etc., where there was 
so great indifference on religious subjects as there is in 
Japan. I believe all the higher classes are in reality 
atheists. 

These festivals are kept on the first day of the first 
month, the third day of the third month, and on the fifth 
dayof the fifth month. These (I think) are the principal 
festivals of the Japanese except those of the new and full 
moons, neither of which is observed by abstaining from 
labor. 

My canary left her nest, leaving her eggs unhatched, 
although she had set for twenty days. On breaking the 
eggs I could not discover any sign of young in them; 
apparently the eggs were not impregnated by the cock 
bird. 

Friday, May 2Q, 185J. The wheat harvest is now 
being actively carried on. On counting the grains I find 
from five to sixty grains in one head. 

366 



Moriama informs me that Bingo-no-Kami is not to 
return to Shimoda, having been appointed "Superin- 
tendent of Repairs" at Yedo. His successor is not a Kami, 
but will be made one before he comes here. He is said 
to be a mild and amiable man. If so, I am glad to change 
Bingo-no-Kami for him, as the former is anything but 
a friend to foreigners, and besides he is the most in- 
veterate liar I ever met with. 

At a temple on one of the hills near the Consulate, 
the Japanese mariners make an ex voto offering of the 
tuft of hair which completes their headdress. This is in 
consequence of some vow made in a moment of peril, 
and when he arrives safely he cuts off the hair and hangs 
it up, although it is a great sacrifice to a Japanese to 
cut it off. 

Sunday, May 31, iS^y. I have walked this month, 
for exercise, over three hundred and fifty miles. I have 
entirely quit the use of tobacco in all its forms. I have 
brought down my diet to plain boiled rice and a little 
fowl. I tried fish for some days, but that was worse than 
the fowls. I cannot eat bread, either fresh or of the 
American biscuit. I have taken any quantity of blue 
pill, but all is of no avail. I suffer horribly from acid 
stomach and am getting leaner day by day. What is very 
singular is that my appetite is uncommonly good ; but, 
my digestion being so much out of order, my food does 
not do me much good. The weather this month has not 
been as pleasant as on the previous ones. The mean tem- 
perature was 64"; highest, 73°; lowest, 55°. Had rain 
eleven days, showers two days, cloudy six days, fair 

367 



twelve. We had an earthquake at 8 130 A. M. on the 2nd 
of May. 

Where, oh, where is Commodore Armstrong? I am 
sick and weary of looking out for him. 

Monday, June I, iSSJ. The Japanese have said that 
strawberries grew around here, and that, as soon as they 
were ripe, I should have a good supply of them. At last 
they brought me some itsigo, or strawberries. They prove 
to be a kind of raspberry, of a pale straw color and of an 
insipid taste, quite without aroma or flavor; and these 
are their promised strawberries. 

I have found in the woods a fruit of the size, shape, 
color, leaf, etc., etc., of the real strawberry, but the fruit 
is not edible, having a decidedly unpleasant flavor. I 
saw the same fruit in the north of China, during my 
wanderings there in 1853. The varieties of the laurel 
family here are almost innumerable. I am sure a botanist 
would find many new things here to repay his trouble. 
How often do I regret my ignorance of botany. Gener- 
ally speaking, however, wild flowers are not abundant 
here, and scarcely none are cultivated, and but few have 
any scent. 

How much I miss that Queen of Flowers, the Rose 
that is now in full bloom in New York; I should not be 
sorry to have a few sprigs of champacka from Penang, 
the tuberose from Macao, or the jessamine from Cal- 
cutta, to please my sense of smell. 

Tuesday, June 2, 1 8 57. Moriama brings me Mr. 
Portman's Dutch version of the Treaty of Kanagawa, 
as well as their Dutch version made from the Japa- 

368 



nese.**° I wish to have a copy to save the trouble of con- 
stant reference by means of letters asking for copies 
of parts of Articles. Moriama says that in reality Bingo- 
no-Kami is in disgrace, as his new appointment is two 
grades lower than the post of Governor; that his salary 
is a mere trifle compared with what he enjoyed here, 
and that he is now excluded from all knowledge of for- 
eign affairs, nor can he even have interviews with the 
members of the High Council. The causes of this dis- 
grace are said to be various ; but the chief one was that 
he did not agree better with me, the Government ap- 
parently holding him responsible for all my complaints, 
and for my recalcitrations against their various attempts 
to restrain me and deprive me of my just rights. Bingo- 
no- Kami did not carry his honors meekly. He was (to 
the Japanese) haughty and overbearing, and did not 
practice the usual Japanese suaviter in modo — hence 
he had made many small enemies, who no doubt did all 
in their power to prejudice him with the Government 
at Yedo. 

The only real outcasts in Japan are tanners, who also 
make all work that has any leather about it. They live 
in villages by themselves ; they cannot intermarry with 
any other class, nor can they enter the house, eat or 
drink, even with the poorest Japanese. Voluntary 
beggars are outcasts while they continue beggars, but 



""Mr. A. L. C. Portman, a native of Holland, had been Dutch interpreter 
for the Perry Expedition. Later, he was of great service on the occasion of 
the visit of the first Japanese Embassy to Washington, in May, i860; and, 
after Mr. Heusken had been slain by the Japanese (Jan. 15, 1861), he became 
the Dutch interpreter for Townsend Harris at Yedo. 

369 



they can restore themselves to society whenever they 
please. Of course religious mendicants are not outcasts. 
Public executioners are not outcasts. They are of the 
body of the soldiery, and associate with their equals in 
rank, without reference to their calling. 

Malformations and distortions of the spine, etc., etc., 
are known in Japan. Infants malformed are not put to 
death; on the contrary, the poor rickety child appears 
to receive a double portion of affection from its mother. 

As a general principle a Japanese may follow any 
calling he likes, as he is not compelled to follow the 
trade of his father, although he generally does so. Jap- 
anese cannot remove from their district to another, ex- 
cept on special permission from the Government, and 
those permissions are rarely granted. A man wishing 
to perform a pilgrimage must procure a passport for 
that purpose, which runs from one to eight months, ac- 
cording to distance. 

Merchants trading from city to city must also obtain 
passports. There are no internal octroi, or transit duties 
in Japan. 

Oasaca, Oaxaka or Oasaka is, according to Moriama, 
a fine town of from five hundred thousand to eight hun- 
dred thousand inhabitants. It has a large and secure 
harbor and enjoys a large commerce. It communicates 
with Miako by means of a river which is navigable with 
boats 60 (sixty) feet long. 

The thin porcelain so much admired by foreigners 
is only made in Fizen. There are three places in this 
island celebrated for this fabric, the most noted of which 

370 



are Imari and Firando. The first named is the best. 
Mikado is the only title of the Spiritual Sovereign. 
Dai-ri means "Spiritual residence," — i. e., residence of 
the Mikado, who is "brother to the sun and father of 
the moon." 

Ziogoon is the only title of the political ruler of Japan. 
It means "General of the Kingdom, Lieutenant General, 
or Generalissimo of the whole Empire." 

Tuesday, June 2, 1857 (continued) . Took a walk 
to the southwest of Shimoda towards Cape Idzu. It is 
of the same character as the other parts seen. Every pos- 
sible spot is cultivated, and as many inhabitants as can 
be, supported. I find that what I considered as jungle on 
the steep hillsides, is actually all planted. Trees, bam- 
boos, rushes, etc., etc. All are renewed as they are cut 
off for use. No spot is neglected. I have never seen a 
person that had the appearance of want marked on his 
countenance. The children all have faces like "full 
moons," and the men and women are quite fleshy 
enough. No one can for a moment suppose (after see- 
ing the people) that they are not well fed. 

Every day increases my regret that I have no know- 
ledge of botany. I am sure there are many curious 
plants here, and have no doubt that many are quite 
new. 

I saw to-day a peach tree nine inches high which had 
some full grown fruit on it. The peaches are not ripe, 
therefore I cannot speak as to their quality; but the ap- 
pearance of them is not in their favor. The Japanese, 
like the Chinese, pluck and eat the fruit before it ripens. 

371 



Wednesday, June ^, iS^J. Walked up the valley of 
Shimoda towards Matsusaki.*" Visited a new hot 
spring. It is arranged as a bath house like those before 
described, but the water is much warmer and more 
strongly impregnated with sulphur. I found a woman in 
the bath with her child. She was not in the least dis- 
composed, but gave me the usual "Ohio" (good-morn- 
ing) with a smiling face. Her skin was very fair, nearly 
as white as a Circassian. On my return homewards I 
called on the Prince of Shinano and passed a very agree' 
able hour with him. He presented me with some superior 
tobacco from Yedo, but, happily, I do not now use it. 
On my walk home I picked up (on the beach) some 
pure white fuci. I find nothing in my books analogous 
to this. It was not an isolated specimen, as abundance of 
it was found. It is quite as white as the best quality of the 
celebrated "Edible Bird's Nests." 

The quantity of edible seaweed (fuci) that is col- 
lected at Shimoda is quite large, and it appears to form 
one of their articles of export to Yedo. 

The trees about Shimoda are chiefly laurels, arbutus, 
and the varieties of the pine family. 

Saturday, June 6, 185J. To-day I paid the Jap- 
anese my account for my household expenses, including 
some articles of furniture, a horse, saddle, etc., etc., a 
norimon, together with the Government bill for my 
flagstafif material,*" the accounts of my Chinese ser- 



*^iMatsuzaki. 

442For the "First Consular Flag" ever raised in Japan, see Journal, Sept 
4, 1856. 



vants, and also for seventy-five dollars of lacquer articles 
purchased for Mrs. S. N. Spooner. The accounts begin 
about the 30th August, 1856, and end May 22, 1857. 
The total presents the alarming amount of 3,476,594. 
But these are Japanese seni, and I settled the whole for 
$699. 

Had I paid the accounts on the basis admitted by Com- 
modore Perry, the amount would have been $2,173, 
so that $1,474 was saved by my arrangement of the 
currency with the Japanese. 

Monday, June 8, 1851. I omitted to enter the ar- 
rival here of the new Governor, who comes in place of 
Shinano-no-Kami. His name is Nakamora Dewa-no- 
Kami, or Nakamora, Prince of Dewa. I have at last 
carried every point triumphantly with the Japanese, and 
have got everything conceded that I have been negotiat- 
ing for since last September. Among my papers will be 
found a copy of the Convention*" which contains the 
following provisions : 

1st Opens the Port of Nagasaki to American ships; 
2nd Gives the right of permanent residence to Americans 

at Shimoda and Hakodate, and the right to appoint 

a Vice-Consul at the latter port ; 
3rd Settles the currency, so that where we paid $100 we 

now pay only $34.50; 
4th Americans to be exclusively under the control of their 

Consuls and to b.e tried by American law ; 
5 th Concedes the right of the Consul General to go where 

he pleases in Japan, and to be furnished with Japanese 

money to enable him in person, or by his servants, to 

make his purchases without the intervention of any 

443The text of this Convention of Shimoda will be found in Appendix IV. 

373 



Japanese official. This is even more than I was in- 
structed to ask for by my special instructions dated 
October 4, 1855.*** No class of Americans is named 
in the second Article, so that missionaries may actually 
come and reside in Japan. 

Am I elated by this success? Not a whit. I know my 
dear countrymen but too well to expect any praise for 
what I have done, and I shall esteem myself lucky if 
I am not removed from office, not for what I have done, 
but because I have not made a commercial treaty that 
would open Japan as freely as England is open to us. 

Besides, it is so easy to criticize, and so agreeable to 
condemn. It is much more pleasant to write imbecile, 
ass or fool, than to say able, discreet and competent. 

Wednesday, June 10, iS^J- The rice is now being 
rapidly transplanted, and, as the crop begins to be har- 
vested in October, it gives about four months for the 
growth of the rice crop from the time of transplanting, 
or five months from the time the paddy is placed in the 
sprouting grounds. 

Wednesday, June IJ, 185J. To-day we signed the 
Convention,**^ having been some nine days in settling 

^**See notes 399 and 426. 

4450nly two days before this, on June 15, 1857, the ratifications of Town- 
send Harris's Treaty with Siam had been exchanged at Bangkok, by Charles 
Wm. Bradley, Sr., who bore credentials signed by President James Buchanan. 
For this, and for the letter written (in English) by the First King of Siam 
•:o accompany the ratified Treaty, see Wood, Fankiuei, pp. 236-40; for former 
Consul Charles W. Bradley, Sr., see notes 55 and 210. 

Returning to the Convention of Shimoda, it should be noted at once that when 
the Shogun later informed the Emperor at Kyoto of what he had done, the 
latter was pleased to accord his consent, and it is so stated in the Shogun's 
addresi to the Emperor delivered in Nov., 1865 (Francis O. Adams, The His- 
tory of Japan, vol. 2, p. 25), even though the Choshiu clan rightly complained 
that the Shogunate had not received the sanction of the Emperor beforehand 
(Gubbins, The Progress of Japan, p. 169). 

374 







^t//'^//'^.. 



^;, X.... 









^u.. 



i, ,A 



Ar. 



""/ 



/'r 1 t u t-., /i-r 11/ y- 1 



//.,, 



/ / 



r^xt^l 4 /yfti. 






/ 



TOWNSEND HARRIS S MANUSCRIPT JOURiNAL, VOL. 4, P. 52 

This illustration shows his comment on having concluded the Convention of 
Shimoda: June 17, 1857. 



the wording of the Articles, which by the way is a work 
of much difficulty, as the Dutch of the Japanese inter- 
preters is that of the ship captains and traders used some 
two hundred and fifty years ago. They have not been 
taught a single new word in the interim, so they are quite 
ignorant of all the terms used in treaties, conventions, 
etc., etc. This, joined to their excessive jealousy and fear 
of being cheated, makes it excessively difficult to manage 
such a matter as the present one. They even wanted the 
words in the Dutch version to stand in the exact order 
they stood in the Japanese!! Owing to the difference of 
grammatical structure this would have rendered it per- 
fect gibberish. 

Monday, June 22, iS^J- I have been in correspond- 
ence with the "Council of State" since October 25, 1856, 
concerning a letter from the President of which I am 
the bearer,**^ and I have had a great many interviews 
with the Governors of Shimoda of late, concerning the 
manner in which that letter should be delivered, as well 
as certain communications which I wrote them I was 
charged with should be made. They wished the letter to 
be delivered here in Shimoda and the communications 
made to the Governors, while I demanded to go to Yedo, 
have an audience of the Ziogoon, and there deliver the 
letter, and afterwards make the communications to the 



**«Townsend Harris's letters to the Minister for Foreign Affairs, up to this 
point, were dated Oct. 25, 1856; Jan. 8, 1857; and Mar. 28, 1857; for the first 
two, see those entries in the Journal and notes 313, 369; for the letter of Mar. 
28, 1857, however, see entry for Apr. 1, 1857, and note 410. 

On June 18, 1857, Townsend Harris wrote Dispatch No. 7 to the Secretary 
of State, by which he forwarded copy of the Convention of Shimoda, with 
a lengthy discussion of its various Articles: L. B., vol. 2, pp. 29-35. 

375 



proper Minister. I have not heretofore, nor shall I now 
enter these matters at large in my Journal, but my private 
letter book contains copies of all my official letters ; and 
there, and in my files of papers, full details of these 
matters will be found. 

The Governors now produce an imperial mandate 
under the "Seal and Signature Royal," commanding 
them to receive the President's letter and bring it to 
Yedo, and they are quite dumbfounded that I refuse to 
yield to the mandate. 

Tuesday, June 2^, iSSJ. To-day I received an 
official and also a private letter from Mr. "E. E. Rice, 
U. S, Commercial Agent at Hakodate," announcing his 
arrival at that place, and that he had "hoisted his flag." 
His private letter to me is a curiosity in composition and 
orthography. It will be found in my files under date of 
May 17, i?)<,7.^" He writes me that two ships under the 
American Flag are there from Hongkong, and that the 
supercargo Mr. Liihdorf"® has some things for me. 



**^This letter of Mr. Rice is not to be found among the Letters anS Papers of 
Townsend Harris. The earliest extant letter by Mr. Elisha E. Rice is one 
written in Aug., 1857 (^' ^ P-' vol. i, no. 68), in answer to the two letters 
written to him by Townsend Harris on July 6, 1857. 

Mr. Harris is very charitable when he styles Mr. Rice's letter "a curiosity 
in composition and orthography." The bare and unpleasant fact is that all 
of Mr. Rice's letters have a sentence and paragraph structure, a grammar, 
capitalization, punctuation, and spelling that are absolutely impossible and 
appalling, and that are as difficult to decipher as a text in palaeography. 

448^e have already spoken of Mr. Luhdorf as supercargo of the Greta (see 
note 325). Since that time, when he had been an actor in the famous cases 
of the shipwrecked Russian Frigate Diana and of the rebuffed Americans, 
Messrs. Reed and Dougherty, he had been appointed supercargo of the Ameri- 
can ship Esperanza, which had brought papers, letters, and stores from 
Hongkong to Hakodate, where she stopped on her way to the Amur 
River. It was the Esperanza that brought to Hakodate all the letters which 
Townsend Harris finally received on Oct. 20, 1857. Mr. Luhdorf left Hakodate 
June 10, 1857. (L. & P., vol. i, nos. 62, 68, and 70.) 



which Mr. Rice promises to forward to me, if they are 
landed at Hakodate, but he does not say one word about 
letters. 

This is most tantalizing. I am now more than ten 
months in Japan, and have not as yet received a single 
letter from the United States. As no direct communica- 
tion is allowed by sea between Shimoda and Hakodate 
by Japanese junks, my supplies might as well be at 
Hongkong as there. I have been out of flour, bread, 
butter, lard, bacon, hams, sweet oil, and in fact out of 
every kind of foreign supply for more than two months. 
I am living on rice, fish and very poor poultry, as no 
game of any kind has been brought to me for the last 
three months. 

My health is miserable, my appetite is gone, and 
I am so shrunk away that I look as though a "Vice- 
Consul had been cut out of me." Where, oh! where is 
Commodore Armstrong?*" 



<*9In his Dispatch No. 7 to the Secretary of State {L. B., vol. 2, pp. 29-35, 
dated June 18, 1857), Townsend Harris again gives vent to his feeling of 
isolation {ib., p. 35) : 

". . . In this connection I beg to remark that I have not received any 
dispatches from the Department since I left the United States (October, 
1855). 

"When at the Department of State in September, 1855, I was informed 
that a man-of-war would visit Shimoda every three months. Commodore 
Armstrong informed me that he had not received any orders directing him 
to revisit Japan, but that he would either come here, or send a ship in March, 
1857. What the causes are that have prevented the dispatch of a ship I do 
not know. 

"I need not point out the importance of my having the means of communi- 
cating with you as often as three times a year. The voyage from Hongkong 
to this port is only ten days, and from Shanghai seven days. 

"The occasional presence of a man-of-war here would be of benefit to our 
interests, even if she only remained a week." 

When Lord Elgin and Mr. Laurence Oliphant visited Townsend Harris- 
on Tuesday, Aug. 10, 1858 — the latter speaks thus of Townsend Harris's iso- 

377 



Tuesday, June SO, iSSJ. Only one earthquake this 
month and that was on the tenth. 

The report of the weather is as follows : thermometer, 
highest, 80°; lowest, 59°; mean, 70.8°; extreme daily 
range, 10°. Rain seven days, showers six days, cloudy 
three days, fine fourteen days. 

Saturday, July 4, iS^J. I never felt more miserable 
and wretched than on this day. Ill in health and in want 
of everything but low spirits, of which I have an abun- 
dant supply. I had a national salute of twenty-one guns 
fired in honor of the day by the Japanese, — I paying 
the expense, which was less than two dollars. Dear New 
York! How I wish I could pass the day there among 
my friends. 

Monday, July 6, l8S7- I have now abandoned all 



lation {Narratwe of the Earl of Elgin's Mission to China and Japan, New 
York, i860, p. 345) : 

"For disciples of Zimmerman, notwithstanding, or lovers in a Petrarchian 
state, Japan offers greater attractions, probably, than any other country 
in the globe, but neither Mr. Harris nor Mr. Heusken seemed altogether 
to appreciate them. A well-stored library, and a few rooms comfortafely 
fitted up, gave an agreeable air of civilization to the establishment; but 
what can compensate for two years of almost entire isolation and banish- 
ment from communion with one's fellow-men? Except upon the rare occa- 
sions of Shimoda being visited by some foreign vessel, these two gentlemen 
had not seen a creature with whom they could exchange an idea. They had 
been for eighteen months without receiving a letter or a newspaper, and 
two years without tasting mutton — sheep being an animal unknown in Japan. 
Still, this exile had not the effect of disgusting them with the country of 
their banishment. Mr. Harris spoke in terms even more eulogistic than those 
universally employed by the Dutch of the Japanese people. His residence 
among them, under circumstances which compelled him to form intimate 
relations with them — for they were his only companions — only served to 
increase his high opinion of their amiable qualities and charming natural 
dispositions. He told us numerous anecdotes illustrative of this. . . ." 

On June 27, 1857, Townsend Harris received a copy of a letter of the 
Shogun addressed to Inouye, Shinano-no-Kami and Nakamura, Dewa-no- 
fCami, investing them with full powers to negotiate with Townsend Harris 
at Shimoda: L. Sf P., vol. 2, no. 69, dated "sth year of Ansei, Mi, 5th month." 



hopes of seeing Commodore Armstrong, and I accord- 
ingly have made an effort to send some letters through 
the Japanese to Hakodate, hoping Mr. Rice may be able 
to forward them. I wrote to the Secretary of State, N. 
Dougherty, and to Commodore Armstrong, S. Drinker, 
and Armstrong & Lawrence. My letters were very short 
and very guarded, as I do not doubt the Japanese will 
open them. Although the distance from here to 
Hakodate is under six hundred miles by land, yet the 
Japanese consume thirty-five days in conveying a letter 
there. My letters to Mr. Dougherty, General Wetmore, 
and to my private friends in New York are not copied, 
nor are those to S. Drinker at Hongkong, or any other 
purely private letters.*^" 



*"°Among the Letters and Papers of Townsend Harris, the following letters 
referring to this general period have been found: 

To Shinano-no-Kami: June 3, 1857, protesting against the opinion of 
the Governors of Shimoda that the expulsion of Messrs. Reed and 
Dougherty was justified (L. B., vol. 2, pp. 18-19). 
To the Governors of Shimoda: June 29, 1857, pointing out that the 
"full powers" which they had received from Yedo were not sufficiently 
comprehensive to warrant his entering upon negotiations for a treaty 
{ib., p. 20). 

To Secretary of Treasury, Dispatch No. 8: June 30, 1857, sending mail 
via Hakodate and complaining of his isolation {ib., p. 36). 
4, 5) To the Secretary of State, Dispatches Nos. 6 and 7: July i, 1857, being 
routine reports on shipping and fees received for previous quarter (ii., 

p. 38)- 

To Baring Bros., of London: July i, 1857, advising them of his draft 
for salary {ib., p. 21). 
7,8) To the Secretary of State, Dispatches Nos. 9 and 10: July i, 1857, 
being routine reports on the funds in his charge {ib., pp. 37-38). 
To Commodore Armstrong: July 6, 1857, praying for the arrival of 
a ship (ib., pp. 25-26). 
10, 11) To E. E. Rice: July 6, 1857, giving him general information and in- 
structions {ib., pp. 21-25). 

To Mr. Liihdorf : July 6, 1857, at Hakodate, urging him to touch at 
Shimoda on his way back from the Amur River to Hongkong {ib., 
p. 27). 
13) To Armstrong & Lawrence: July 6, 1857, asking them to send things 
hereafter direct to Shimoda, etc. {ib., pp. 27-28). 

379 



Wednesday, July 8, iS^J. Shinano-no-Kami started 
to-day for Yedo for the purpose of reporting my refusal 
to deliver the letter of the President anywhere but at 
Yedo, or to anyone but the Emperor. They assure me 
that it is quite preposterous to even think of an audience 
of His Majesty, as the laws of Japan forbid it. As it 
happens, they also told me that the Council of State 
could not write to any foreigners (the laws forbidding 
it) ; and, as the Council has written to me, I am shrewdly 
inclined to think that they will be found equally pliable 
in the matter of an audience. 

Tuesday, July 14, iS^J- This has really been a 
shocking day — to make a poor pun. We had twelve 
shocks of earthquake — the first and sharpest one oc- 
curred at two A. M. and lasted about two minutes. It 
shook my bed so violently that it made it creak. Happily 
but little damage was done. Eleven shocks followed at 
intervals during the day, the last occurring at seven and 
a half P. M. 

I could not perceive any sensible effect on the barom- 
eter or thermometer, nor did an ordinary pocket com- 
pass show any particular perturbation, beyond what 
would be produced by a jar of similar force produced 

14) To Charles Huffnagle, U. S. Consul General for British India, resid- 
ing at Calcutta: July 6, 1857, sending him a copy of the Convention 
of Shimoda, and explaining his adjustment of the currency question 
(»*-iP. 39)- 
IS, 16, 17, i8) To Charles C. Currier, U. S. Consul at Penang; 

To Charles W. Bradley, " " " Singapore; 

To John Black " " " Point-de-Galle, Cey- 

lon; 
To U. S. Consul at Hongkong: these four are exact copies of 
the letter to Mr. Huffnagle {ib., p. 39). 
19) To Hon. Peter Parker, U.S. Commissioner for China: July 6, 18571 
same as above {ib., p. 40). 

380 



by any other means. I do not make any entries of my 
walks and wanderings. In fact, I am too miserable to go 
out. I have a horse, but I do not use him, as it is im- 
possible for any but a Japanese to use their saddles, and 
mine is snugly lying at Hakodate, thanks to Commodore 
Armstrong. 

Thursday, July 2^, 1857- The cannon from the look- 
out hill was fired at noon to-day, and it caused such joy 
as only can be felt by those who have been living isolated, 
as I have been, for the last eleven months. Mr. Heusken 
ran like a deer to the top of the signal hill, and came 
back breathless and streaming with sweat, to say that 
there was a ship in sight, about ten miles south of the 
harbor ; that as the wind was not very fresh she would 
not come in for some time. He started again for Van- 
dalia Point (the most southern point) to watch her ap- 
proach. At four P. M. he returned quite down-hearted. 
The ship had disappeared in the blue haze at a little after 
one o'clock and had not reappeared ; she appeared to be 
standing about northeast. We are now in doubt what 
it can mean, but think she must be bound here, else why 
approach so near? 

Friday, July 24, 1857. Up at daylight and ofif to the 
east hills that command a view of the Bay of Yedo and 
the South Pacific. 

Alas ! No ship could be seen ; whoever she was, it was 
clear she was not bound to Shimoda. I never had any- 
thing to try my philosophy so hardly as this. 

I am inclined to think she was not the Flying Dutch- 
man (as suggested nationally by Mr. Heusken) but 

381 



simply a whaler, fishing along the coast. I wish the 
"blubber hunter" had kept a few miles further from 
land and spared us the excitement of hope and the bitter 
disappointment that followed. 

Monday, July ZJ, iSSJ. Made a present of my third 
and last revolver*" to Dewa-no-Kami. I am sorry to hear 
of the death of Abe Ise-no-Kami at Yedo. He was the 
second member of the Council of State and very 
influential. 

He was always represented to me as a man of great 
intelligence, and one that fully understood the power 
of the United States and other Western nations, and 
above all was convinced that the time had arrived when 
Japan must abandon her exclusive policy, or be plunged 
into the miseries of war. He is a great loss to the liberal 
party of Japan.*^^ 

Friday, July 31, l8SJ. Weather report this month : 

Thermometer, highest, 84° ; lowest, 66° ; mean, 76.1°. 
Extreme daily range, 7°. 

*^iThe first revolver had been number 9 of the presents made to the First 
King of Siam ; and the second had been number 5 of those to the Second King 
of Siam: See Appendices II and III. 

^''^Abe, Ise-no-Kami, was succeeded as Prime Minister (or Head of the 
Council of State) by Hotta, Bitchiu-no-Kami. This succession was a very for- 
tunate one for Townsend Harris, because Lord Hotta was in favor of opening 
the country. One of his first acts was to address a letter to the Daimyo, in 
which he stated (Shunkichi Akimoto, Lord It Naosuke and New Japan, 1909, 
pp. 142-43): 

"I presume the opening [of] the country for foreign trade is ore .scheme 
very eminently fitted to increasing wealth and armaments on the profits of 
foreign trade in the prevailing circumstances." 

Indeed, he faced the issue even more squarely when he put this question to 
the clan lords: 

"Whether our intercourse with foreign nations should be conducted with 
neighborly feeling of good will or with that of enmity, regarding them as 
our enemies?" 

3*82 



Rain five days, showers five days, cloudy three days, 
fine eighteen days 

Earthquakes on the 3rd, 14th, 26th and 30th, — to- 
gether, sixteen shocks. 

Saturday, August 1 5, l8S7- Mr. Heusken, having 
extemporized a saddle and bridle, has been riding for 
some time past. As he is somewhat inexperienced in 
riding, he has laid his horse up with a sore back and I 
lent him mine until he should recover. The second time 
he rode out with him a difference of opinion arose be- 
tween Mr. Heusken and the horse, — the latter wishing 
to return and Mr. Heusken to go on. Then ensued a 
trial of force vs. obstinacy, which ended in the horse 
slipping his shoulder and thus disqualifying himself 
from ever being mounted again. I ordered the poor 
brute killed, but no one would perform the butcher's 
part. As I had parted with my last revolver, I could not 
shoot him, and I could not bring myself to cut his throat 
like a butcher. At last by great good luck I succeeded in 
giving him away I ! 

Think of that ! Ye Knackers of London and Masters of 
the Abbatoir at Montmartre and manufacturers of "real 
bologna" sausages in Germany I What a country it is for 
you, where it is considered a favor to accept a horse as a 
gift with full privilege to "look in his mouth." 

Friday, August 21, iS^J. Happy day! I get a pack- 
age with a dozen newspapers and some China letters 
from Mr. Rice. He writes me that he will forward my 
packages about October next by a Japanese schooner 
(American model) , which will leave about that time. 

383 



What a relief to have this slight glimpse of the outer 
world, although I do not get any American letters. This 
day is the anniversary of my arrival in Japan. One year 
here, and not a single letter from America. My last 
letters were dated February, 1856. Eighteen months 
ago ! How much may have happened in the meantime, 
whom among my old friends has death removed? 

I suppose my letters must be packed up in a box which 
was not known to Mr. Rice, or he would have sent 
letters in place of newspapers. What has become of the 
American men-of-war of the East India Squadron?*" 

Thursday, August 2], 185]. The Japanese inform 
me that all the American ships left Hakodate in June, 
so my letters sent there cannot go by them. I have made 
duplicates of all those letters and sent them to Nagasaki, 
writing to Mr. H. Donker Curtius, requesting him to 
forward them by one of his ships.*" I placed them under 
cover addressed to the U. S. Consuls at Batavia, Shang- 



*s3For the answer to this question, see Journal for Sept. 8, 1857. 
4^*The letter to Mr. Curtius is L. B., vol. 2, pp. 41-43. Townsend Harris 
begged him to send the enclosed letters to Mr. Alfred A. Reed, U.S. Commer- 
cial Agent at Batavia, if a Dutch ship were going there ; otherwise, to any 
port in China by the first opportunity. Townsend Harris enclosed for Mr. 
Curtius also a copy of the Convention of Shimoda. 

Some of the letters written by Townsend Harris on this day and sent to 
Mr. Curtius to be forwarded are: 

i) L. B., vol. 2, p. 41 : to the Secretary of State, Dispatch No. 11, to the effect 
that he is sending the present dispatch (enclosing copy of Dispatch 
No. 8) by way of Nagasaki and Batavia; and complains that he has 
received no letters from the Department. 

2) L. B., vol. 2, pp. 43-44: to Commodore Armstrong at Hongkong, en- 
closing copy of letter of July 6, 1857; and again lamenting the fact 
that he has received no letters from either the United States or China 
since the San Jacinto left. 

3) L. B., vol. 2, pp. 44-45: to Mr. Alfred A. Reed, begging him to for- 
ward the enclosed five letters (of which the above were two) via 
Singapore. 

384 



hai, or Hongkong, requesting Mr. Curtius to send them 
to China if any one of his ships was bound there. 

The Prince of Shinano returned from Yedo on the 
14th, and I have had many interviews with the Gov- 
ernors on the subject of the President's letter. 

See my letter book for full details of these inter- 
views."' 

Monday, August 31, 185J. Health wretched. I 
weigh about 130 pounds. Weather report : thermometer, 
highest, 87°; lowest, 67°; mean, 77.7°. Extreme daily 
range, 10°. 

Rain four days, showers four days, cloudy none, fine 
twenty-three days. 

Warmest day was the 7th. Mean temperature, 

83.25°."^ 

Monday, September J, 1857. At noon to-day the 
signal cannon again gave us the joyful news that a for- 



*'5'Shinano-no-Kaini had left for Yedo on July 8, 1857, to confer on the 
matter of the delivery of the President's letter (L. B., vol. 2, p. 78). On the 
very day of Shinano's return to Shimoda, Aug. 14th, Townsend Harris had 
an interview with the two Governors, at which Shinano suggested that Town- 
send Harris should at once, and at Shimoda, make the communications he 
had previously referred to, and that he should then proceed to Yedo, be re- 
ceived by the Council of State, and deliver the President's letter to Hotta, 
Bitchiu-no-Kami. These proposals were rejected by Townsend Harris {ib., 
pp. 79-80). 

Of the "many interviews" mentioned in the text, there is reference to one 
on Aug. 27th, in the course of which Townsend Harris referred to Father 
Valignani, etc. (Wagener, Aus dem Tagebuche, etc., p. 378. An outline of these 
negotiations, beginning with Jan., 1857, is to be found in Townsend Harris's 
long Dispatch No. 13 to Secretary Lewis Cass, dated SepL n, 1857: L. B., 
vol. 2, pp. 73-85). At the conference of Aug. 28th, Townsend Harris submitted 
to Shinano-no-Kami a list of the Dutch Superintendents of the Factory at 
Deshima that had been received in audience by the Shogun in ancient times. 
Other conferences were held on Aug. 31st, and on Sept. ist, 2nd, and 4th. 
(Wagener, op. cit., pp. 378-79; and L. B., vol. 2, pp. 45-46.) 

486^ weather table for the period from January i to Aug. 31, 1857, is given 
in L. B., vol 3, p. 148. 



eign ship was in sight. Mr. Heusken went over his old 
ground, and on his return informed me that a heavy 
ship was standing in for the harbor; that, as the wind 
blew the colors end on, he could not make them out. It 
was a comfort to think that she was coming here, al- 
though we did not know what flag she wore, — at all 
events she was from a civilized land. 

It was now one year and four days since I was left 
here by the San Jacinto,^^'' and full six months had run 
beyond the time that Commodore Armstrong had prom- 
ised to visit me. That it was not the Commodore was 
clear, as it was a sailing ship. The wind fell provok- 
ingly light, and at seven P. M. the boom of a heavy gun 
came from the ship. Mr. Heusken volunteered to go 
to her, although she was some ten miles off. He accord- 
ingly started and did not get back until 

457See Journal, Sept. 4, 1856. 

What a really "joyful" week this must have been for Townsend Harris! 
The arrival of the Portsmouth and the following days of poignant excitement 
made him forget to enter in his Journal quite the most important step won thus 
far in his long drawn out negotiations with the Japanese. We quote from the 
long Dispatch No. 13 to Secretary Cass (L. B., vol. 2, p. 82) : 

"On the 7th of the present month, the Governors requested me to meet 
them, and at this interview, to my agreeable surprise, they yielded every 
point they had so strongly contested for eight months. They said they were 
ordered to inform me that I was to proceed to Yedo with every honor ; that 
on my arrival I was to have an immediate interview with the Prime Min- 
ister ; and, on the first ensuing fortunate day, I should have a public 
audience of the Ziogoon, and, at that audience, I should deliver the Presi- 
dent's letter." 

This complete success was won on Monday, the 7th ; on Tuesday, Sept. 8th, 
the Portsmouth anchored in the Harbor of Shimoda, and Townsend Harris, 
for the first time since Sept. 4, 1856, beheld the countenances of his fellow 
countrymen and heard news of his own land. The lonely exile who, for "one 
year and four days," had truly been a man without a country, at last enjoyed 
the communion of his people. His state of mind must almost have been a refu- 
tation of the Horatian 

". . . nihil est ab omni 
Parte beatum." 

386 



Tuesday, September 8, iS^I, at one A. M. The ship 
proves to be the United States Sloop.-of-war Ports- 
mouth, Captain A. H. Foote,"^ eighteen days from 
Shanghai, where he left Commodore Armstrong in the 
San Jacinto, and where he has been nearly three months, 
at the distance of seven days steaming from me. The 
Portsmouth did not expect to visit Japan when she left 
Hongkong, so that all my letters from home that have 
been received since April last*" are still at Hongkong. 
She brought me letters from Captain Bell and the 
officers of the San Jacinto only.*®" I was up all night 
eagerly reading the newspapers and the few letters she 
brought to me. The ship came up at noon and at two 
P. M. the Captain came to see me.*®^ He was much pleased 
when I showed him the Convention of June 17th, and 
said that all would be surprised at my success. He told 
me that he had great difficulty in getting the Commo- 
dore's consent to come here, and I believe it was only 
obtained by some medical ruse, by which the ship was 



*68This was Captain (later Rear-Admiral) Andrew Hull Foote. He had 
brought Charles William Bradley, Sr., to Bangkok to exchange the ratifica- 
tions of Townsend Harris's Treaty with Siam (Paullin, Proceedings of the 
United States Naval Institute, vol. 37, p. 417 ; see above, note 4J.5 ; and Journal, 
Sept. 10, 1857) ; and in Oct. and Nov., 1856, he had taken a very prominent 
part in the storming of the Barrier Forts at Canton (see above, note 311). 

459it vvas in Apr. 1857, that the Esperanza, one qi Pustan's ships, had sailed 
from Hongkong for Hakodate, having on board letters, papers, and supplies 
for Townsend Harris (£. & P., vol. i, no. 70). These were the letters and 
newspapers which were so long detained at Hakodate by Mr. Rice, and a few 
of which Townsend Harris so joyfully received on Friday, Aug. 21, 1857. 
(See Journal, Aug. ai, 1857; and June 23, 1857, and note 448.) 

460The letter from Captain Bell was, very likely, L. & P., vol. i, no. 71, dated 
Shanghai, Aug. 21, 1857. 

*®iWriting in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. i, p. 130, Captain 
Foote says: " Mr. Harris, our Consul General, welcomed us with that emotion, 
which the seclusion, for a year, from one's countrymen naturally inspires." 



cdered here for the health of the crew. Captain Foote 
told me he had the most stringent orders not to enter 
the harbor of Shimoda; that he was to stay the shortest 
possible time here, and an ungracious addendum was 
made, — that he would probably have to bring me away. 

It appears that Commodore Armstrong has been oc- 
cupied from December to June in protecting the British 
Colony of Hongkong, thus enabling Admiral Seymour 
to employ more of his force in active hostilities against 
the Chinese. He found himself able to send a ship to 
Manila to inquire about some Americans who are im- 
prisoned there under a charge of murder, and he was 
also able to send another to Singapore to inquire into, — 
what? A case of salvage! 1! However, let him pass with 
this addition. I informed Captain Foote that all my 
dispatches from the Government were at Hakodate, 
where they had remained since last May,*^^ and that, as 
he was going there, I asked him to touch here on his 
return and give me my letters. It would seem as though 
the Commodore had foreseen this request, for he posi- 
tively ordered Captain Foote on leaving Hakodate to 
stretch out one hundred and fifty miles from land, while 
his direct route would have carried him about twenty- 
five miles south of Shimoda. 

Captain Foote invited me to visit his ship to-morrow 
to receive a salute and to dine with him. He then went 
over to the Goyoshi to look at the lacquer ware, Mr. 
Heusken attending him as his interpreter. Employed 



462Again Townsend Harris refers to the mail brought to Hakodate by the 
Esperanza (see i otes 448 and 459). 

388 



until a late hour of the night on my correspondence. 

Wednesday, September q, iSSJ. The Purser of the 
Portsmouth has brought me $i,ooo from Purser Brad- 
ford, which I lent to the ship September i, 1856, and 
which I have sadly wanted since.*®^ Captain Foote 
kindly offers to advance me as much money as I may 
want, taking my draft on my agents at Hongkong, which 
is a great favor to me, and I gladly accepted $500., giv- 
ing my draft on Russell & Co., Hongkong, to whom I 
have sent my money in lieu of Armstrong & Lawrence, 
with whose conduct I am much displeased.^^* The Pursei 
will also exchange the gold I took from the Japanese, 
which had been paid to them by the Purser of the San 
Jacinto.^^^ 

I told Captain Foote and his officers that I was deeply 
mortified that I could not invite them to dine with me, 
as in reality all I had to offer them was rice, fish and 
tough chickens. They begged me not to mention it, as 
they had been fully prepared to find me suffering from 
privations, owing to the manner in which I had been 
neglected. Went on board at two P. M., and had my salute 
of thirteen guns from the heavy sixty-eight pounders, 
which were loaded with full charges and not with the 

463Xhere is no mention of this loan in the Journal entry for that date. 

*8*Some of the details of these financial matters may be learned from the 
letters which Townsend Harris wrote (on Sept. lo, 1857) to Messrs. Russell 
& Co., of Hongkong (L. B., vol. 2, pp. 55-56), and to Messrs. Davis & Law- 
rence, likewise of Hongkong {ib., p. 57) ; and on Sept. 11, 1857, to Messrs. 
I. Hunt & Co. {ib., p. 112). 

*86This transaction consisted in redeeming from the Japanese the sum of 
$283.50 in gold which Purser Bradford of the San Jacinto had given them 
(L. B., vol. 2, pp. 49-51, Townsend Harris to Mr. Bradford, dated Sept. 11, 
1857, and written in answer to one from him that had been brought to Shimoda 
by the Portsmouth). 



usual reduced charge which is used for saluting. A 
pleasant dinner in the cabin, with Captain Foote and his 
First Lieutenant Mr. Macomb, son of Major General 
Macomb, of Plattsburg memory. 

I am to go with Captain Foote and his officers to visit 
the Governor to-morrow, and afterwards dine in the 
ward room. Returned home at five P. M., and went to 
work and wrote to a very late hour. 

Thursday, September 10, iS^J- To the Goyoshi at 
eleven A. M. and had a pleasant visit, which lasted about 
an hour.*^® Captain Foote and his officers are very busy 
in making purchases, and they are delighted at only 
paying thirty-four and a half cents for what cost the 
San Jacinto officers one dollar. Mr. Heusken is con- 
stantly occupied with them, which retards my writing 
sadly. Went on board ship at one P. M. and remained un- 
til five, having dined in the ward room. The Portsmouth 
appears to be a very happy ship. I learn from Captain 
Foote that he took Mr. C. W. Bradley with the Siamese 
Treaty to Bangkok, and that the ratifications were ex- 
changed. The Senate struck out the fifth Article,*®"' 

466^e have a description of this visit by the pen of Captain Foote himself 
(Paullin, Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute, vol. 37, pp. 
396-97) •• 

"We were received with great courtesy and apparent cordiality. They 
enquired with a good deal of interest how the President and Government 
of the United States regarded Japan; about the war in China, its cause 
and probable result; and expressed the hope that, at some future period, 
the Japanese would visit America for the purpose of education and obtain- 
ing a knowledge of many things in which they acknowledged their deficiency. 
I stated to the governors that our men-of-war in future would no doubt 
visit Japan more frequently, as the occupation of the squadron in looking 
out for our interests in China had prevented a vessel being in Shimoda 
and Hakodate during the past year." 

*^^At the meeting of the Senate of Wednesday, Dec. 17, 1856, Mr. James M. 
Mason, of Virginia, moved that the Siam Treaty be referred to the Committee 



which nearly lost the Treaty; but the Consul, Mr. Mat- 
toon, accepted all the provisions of the Article (which 
related to passports) as a police regulation. I am pleased 
to learn that the Treaty is working admirably. Ships 
have already loaded for New York and San Francisco, 
and a large quantity of American tonnage is employed 
in the trade between Siam and China. Many of the finest 
American clippers have loaded in this manner at the 
Menam. Captain Foote has kindly permitted the Purser 
to supply me with flour, butter and pork from the ship's 
stores, I paying for them, and a great favor it is, in two 
senses : first, to be able to get them at all ; and second, the 
price is only about half what they would have been at 
Hongkong. I cannot find words to express my thanks to 
Captain Foote and the officers of the Portsmouth for 
the generous manner in which they have divided their 
own private stores to help me in my distressed situation. 
Captain Foote supplied me with a quarter box of 
superior tea, two jars of lard, and a bag of prepared 
hominy. From the ward room I received half a dozen 
fine Virginia hams and five smoked tongues. I had 
nothing to give them in return but barren thanks.***^ 

on Foreign Relations, and printed (34-3, Sen. Ex. J'l, vol. 10, p. 163). On 
Jan. 16, 1857, Mr. John Slidell, of Louisiana, reported it without amendment 
{ib., p. 175). On Mar. 9, 1857, the Treaty was again referred to the Committee 
on Foreign Relations (35, Special Session, Sen. Ex. J'l, vol. 10, p. 227). On 
the nth, Mr. Mason reported it with an amendment {ib. p. 237), and finally, 
on Mar. 13, 1857, Mr. Mason moved that the Senate advise and consent to 
the ratification of the Treaty after striking out the original ^^rt. V (quoted in 
full, ib., p. 256). On Mar. 16, 1857, the Treaty was ratified by the President. 

4e8'Pownsend Harris expressed his sincere thanks to Captain Foote in a 
letter written on the day of the Portsmouth's departure, Sept 12, 1857. This 
letter is in the Ford Collection of manuscript letters in the New York Public 
Library. 

In this letter Townsend Harris also gives Captain Foote important infor- 



Mr. Heusken will be employed until noon to-morro>v 
with them at the Goyoshi, in settling their accounts ; and, 
as the ship must leave at daylight on Saturday morning, 
I have but very little time to get my letters ready. I re- 
turned home at five P. M. and worked until a very late 
hour writing. 

Friday, September JI, iS^J. Captain Foote visits 
me this morning. I gave him my pet dog Yedo, as he 
could not get one of the kind here.**' I sent a fine Japa- 
nese sword to Captain Bell and some crepes to Commo- 
dore Armstrong. Captain Foote had several orders for 
Captain Bell, which I was anxious to pay for, but Cap- 
tain Foote would not permit it. I have some Japanese 
blades that are now being mounted, and I promised to 
send one to Captain Foote. I also gave him some trifling 
articles, and I much regret that I had nothing for him 
or his oflicers that was worthy of their acceptance. 

Mr. Heusken returned at noon and we went to work 
on our correspondence, and continued so occupied until 
midnight.''" 



mation on the coal available at both Shimoda and Hakodate, and begs him to 
take on board the Portsmouth the letters and packages for Townsend Harris 
which had so long remained at Hakodate (see notes 448, 459, and 462). 

469por Townsend Harris's two dogs, Yedo and Miako, see note 330. 

^^^On this day Townsend Harris wrote two dispatches to Secretary Cass 
and a private letter to Mr. Rice: 

i) L. B., vol. 2, p. 64: Dispatch No. 12, enclosing duplicate of former Dis- 
patch No. II that had been sent by the doubtful and uncertain route 
of Nagasaki-Batavia (see Journal, Aug. 27, 1857, and note 454). 

2) L. B., vol. 2, pp. 73-85: Dispatch No. 13, in which Townsend Harris, 
taking advantage of the certainty of the delivery of the letter by the 
Portsmouth, not merely tells of the various avenues by which he had 
tried to communicate with Washington, but gives a careful outline of 
his negotiations with the Japanese, beginning with Jan., 1857. 

3) L. B., vol. 2, pp. 57-61: to Mr. E. E. Rice, at Hakodate. 



Saturday, September 12, l8SJ. Mr. Heusken fin- 
ished his copying at four A. M. and, having made up our 
mail,*" he went on board the Portsmouth at five A. M. 

The wind being light, the ship did not get clear of 
the south point until three P. M. 

The visit of the ship has thrown me into a state of 
intense excitement, as may v/ell be imagined. I have not 
had three hours of consecutive sleep since the signal 
was fired announcing her approach. 

Before the Portsmouth sailed I sent on board a coop 
of twenty fowls for the ward room and two pigs, one for 
the cabin and one for the ward room. I put on board the 
Portsmouth a fine lacquered tea tray, and a coop of six 
fine pet fowls for Lieutenant H. H. Lewis of the San 
Jacinto.*''^ 

Thursday, September IJ, iS^J- I have been wretch- 
edly ill ever since the departure of the Portsmouth, but 
am now a little better. I received to-day, through the 
Japanese, some newspapers from Mr. H. Donker Cur- 
tius, the Dutch Superintendent at Nagasaki. The en- 
velope was marked August 28, 1857, or one day after 
I wrote to him. These papers were, therefore, only 
twenty days en route from Nagasaki, while thirty-five 
days is the usual time employed. 

Monday, September 21, 1857. Wrote to Mr. Cur- 



*^iThe copious correspondence that went by the Portsmouth has been noted 
above, passim. There remains only to refer to L. B., vol. 2, pp. 53-54,. to 
Messrs. Russell & Co., of Shanghai, thanking them for their kind offer to ad- 
vance him funds. 

^^^Lieutenant Henry H. Lewis: Midshipman, May i, 1828; Passed Mid- 
shipman, June 23, 1838; Lieutenant, Oct. 28, 1842; dismissed, Apr. 20, 1861. 
(Callahan, List; Hamersly, General Register.) 

393 



tius, thanking him for his papers.*^^ I am much better 
in health. The Governors request me to meet them to- 
morrow at the Goyoshi. 

Tuesday, September 22, iS^J. At the Goyoshi this 
morning at eleven o'clock. The Governors informed me 
that they had received letters from Yedo relating to the 
President's letter; that after many anxious consultations 
it was finally settled that I am to go to Yedo, in the most 
honorable manner ; and, after my arrival, I am to have 
an audience of the Ziogoon, and then present the letter 
of the President I"* I expected that something would 
follow this, some objectionable proposition that I could 
not accept, which would throw the responsibility of the 

*^3Xhis letter is L. B., vol. 2, pp. 68-71. The Singapore newspapers thus 
received from Mr. Curtius for the first time informed Townsend Harris of 
the great Sepoy Rebellion in India. In return, Townsend Harris informs 
Curtius that a steamship company has been formed to ply between San Fran- 
cisco and China, stopping at Nagasaki; congratulates him on the Dutch Treaty 
concluded with the Japanese on Jan. 30, 1856; tells him that he (Townsend 
Harris) has written to Yedo for a copy, and hopes that Curtius will send him a 
copy too. He concludes by saying that he will keep Curtius informed of all 
that transpires. 

In his letter to the Council of State (also dated Sept. 21, 1857: L. B., vol 2, 
pp. 65-67), Townsend Harris frankly tells them that he has learned from 
the European papers brought him by the Portsmouth, that the Japanese had 
concluded a second Treaty with the Dutch, and asks for a copy. He adds that 
the communications from Yedo do not close with the customary expressions 
of friendliness and respect; and concludes with the statement that, if they 
do not see fit to employ such phrases, he too will be obliged to omit them 
in the future. 

This was still another of the many instances of well-nigh endless patience 
on the part of Townsend Harris, coupled with a goodly portion of firmness 
and dignity. 

474Xhere is an irreconcilable contradiction in this entry. The Journal here 
distinctly says Aat this information was given to Townsend Harris on Sept 
22, 1857; whereas the subject-matter of this entry is already fully discussed 
in Dispatch No. 13 to Secretary Cass, dated Sept 11, 1857, where the historic 
interview is clearly assigned to Sept 7, 1857. (See Journal under this date, and 
note 457. Heusken's Diary assigns the event to Sept 23rd: Wagener, op. cit., 
p. 38a) Unfortunately, this very historic letter — the first ever sent for such 
a purpose by the Shogunate — is not to be found among the extant Letters and 
Papers of Townsend Harris. 

394 



non-delivery of the letter on me, but nothing of the kind 
occurred. They wished me to agree to start and stop at 
certain hours and at certain places, saying that accom- 
modations suitable for me could only be found at such 
places, etc., etc. I informed them that I should be willing 
to agree to such hours as might prove best, and to stop 
where I could be best accommodated, but I could not 
bind myself beforehand to any hour or march; that I 
must not only be free in my action, but that the escort 
attending me must be under my command, exclusively; 
that they would find me, as a reasonable man, quite 
ready to adopt any proper suggestions on those points 
on the road, but I could not be bound up to comply with 
their regulations before I knew what might occur, etc., 
etc. To which they at once assented. The manner in 
which I am to salute the Ziogoon is to be the same as in 
the courts of Europe, — /. e., three bows. They made a 
faint request that I would prostrate myself and "knock- 
head," but I told them the mentioning such a thing was 
offensive to me. The Governors informed me that 
Shinano-no-Kami was ordered to Yedo for the purpose 
of assisting in the arrangements to be made for my visit. 
They said that a great deal was to be done in the way 
of preparations, and that it would probably require 
some two months to complete the arrangements. In the 
meantime, they will consult with me in preparing my 
retinue, etc., etc. 

Monday, September 28, 1857. Shinano-no-Kami, 
with Moriama Yenosky, started yesterday for Yedo. The 
Commissary of Shimoda came to-day to take orders for 

395 



procuring the men I shall want, and preparing their 
dresses. 

I shall not take any of my Chinese with me, as the 
Japanese have a great dislike to the Chinese, and I do 
not wish to be associated in their minds with the Chinese 
or any other people. I shall, therefore, only be accom- 
panied by Mr. Heusken and my two Japanese house 
servants from my family. My own train will consist of 
some forty porters bearing my luggage, cooking utensils, 
bedding, etc., etc., and by the following, who will all 
have the arms of the United States on their dresses, as 
the coat-of-arms is worn by the Japanese, — viz., 

20 norimon bearers i sword 

12 guardsmen 2 swords 

2 standard bearers 2 swords 

2 shoe and fan bearers 2 swords 
2 grooms I sword 

2 quinine,*" or commanders of the foregoing. 

All except the grooms and norimon bearers are to have 
silk dresses. 

I am to be attended by the Vice-Governor of Shimoda, 
the Mayor of Kakizaki, the Commissary of Shimoda, 
and by the private secretary of Dewa-no-Kami. They 
will have, together, a tail of some one hundred and 
fifty or more men, so that the whole train will form a 
body of not far from two hundred and fifty. 

Wednesday, September 30,1857. My health is much 
improved. I attribute this to my improved diet, as I am 



*75That is: Gokenin. 



now well supplied with delicate China pork, my sow 
having littered thirteen pigs on the fifth of August last. 
I have no doubt that the agreeable termination of the 
vexed question of the reception of the President's letter 
has also been of great service to me, as it has removed an 
immense pressure from my mind. I cannot help hoping 
that I shall be able to do something satisfactory in the 
way of a commercial treaty before I leave Yedo. 

The weather report for the month is as follows :*^° 

Thermometer : highest, 85*" ; lowest, 62° ; mean, 75.4°. 
Extreme daily range, 12°. Rain four days, showers three 
days, cloudy two days, fair twenty-one days. 

The report for the twelve months beginning October 
I, 1856, and ending September 30, 1857, is as follows : 

Thermometer: highest, 87° ; lowest, 32"* ; mean, 61.2°. 
Hottest month, August; mean, 77.7°. Coldest month, 
January; mean, 45.1°. Coldest day, February 2nd; 
mean, 36.25°. Hottest day, August 7th; mean, 83.25°. 

Rain fifty-one days, showers forty-one days, cloudy 
thirty-three days, fine 240 days. 

Wind, Northerly and Easterly 107 Showing wind with a Northerly board 184 times 

" " Westerly 77 " " " " Southerly " 142 " 

Southerly " Easterly 19 Easterly " 126 " 

" Westerly 123 " " " " Westerly " 200 " 

Calm 39 

365 



«T8The Wind Table for the period Jan. i to Sept. 30, 1857, is given in L. B., 
vol. 3, p. 149. This table Townsend Harris sent to the Rev. E. W. Syle (L. B., 
vol. 4, p. 172), a missionary at Shanghai of the Presbyterian Episcopal Church, 
and the first person later to be invited by the Japanese to go to Japan as a 
teacher of the "American" language {L. & P., vol. i, nO. 102, dated Nagasaki, 
Oct, 6, 1858). 

On Oct. ist, Townsend Harris wrote the usual routine reports: Dispatches 
Nos. 14 and 15 to Secretary Cass (L. B., vol. 2, pp. 72 and 98) ; Dispatch No. 
10 to Hon. Howell Cobb, of the Treasury {ib., p. 72) ; and the customary 
draft notification to Baring Bros., of London {ib., p. 64). 

397 



Sunday, October 4, 1857. My birthday."" I am 
fifty-three years old. My lease is rapidly running to its 
close. God grant that the short remainder of it may be 
usefully and honorably employed. My health is better 
than it was a month ago, but far, very far from being as 
good as it was this time last year. Shall I ever see New 
Yoric and my dear American friends again? Doubtful, 
but God's will be done, I can say truly and heartily. 

Monday, October §, 1857- I have got a new horse, 
and to-day got on horseback for the first time in Japan, 
having extemporized a saddle, bridle, etc., etc. I was 
pleased with the exercise but, alas I Shimoda is no place 
for equestrian exercises. It is all up and down; no roads, 
but mere footpaths ; and, in a great many places, these are 
so steep that a regular staircase is made of stone steps, 
and at a giddy angle, particularly when you look down. 

When the Portsmouth was here, Mr. Heusken got 
his horse shod by a smith that was on board. This pro- 
ceeding produced a great sensation among the Japanese. 
They never saw anything of the kind before. They put 
a straw sandal on the hoof; and, as this seldom lasts 
an hour, the groom that follows on foot always carries a 
quantity of new ones to replace those that give out."*^* 
The Japanese are no horsemen; both hands are em- 
ployed in holding the reins; they have no martingale, 
the horse therefore carries his head very high with his 
nose stuck out straight. They therefore have no com- 
mand over him. Usually the groom leads the horse by a 

*^^See note 304. 

*''8For an interesting anecdote regarding the "great sensation" caused by 
horses so properly shod, see Journal, Dec. ao, 1856, and note 362. 



third rein put on for that purpose. The Governors were 
very fearful for my safety; they assured me that the 
Japanese horses were so vicious, that my life would be in 
danger if I attempted to ride in any different manner 
from their mode. They said their horses all would bite 
and kick. No wonder, when one knows the manner in 
which they use the poor brutes. Every month the horse 
is burned in his belly in a quincunx, — i. e., as the spots 
are placed to mark five on dice ; then he is burned in the 
roof of his mouth in the same manner. Can we wonder 
that this monthly application of red hot iron should spoil 
the temper of a horse? 

Mr. Heusken's performances on horseback, and my 
riding, have raised us to a pinnacle of glory among the 
Japanese. In 1848 Lieutenant-Colonel May, of the 
U. S. Horse Artillery, rode his horse up the stone steps 
and into the hall of Barnum's Hotel [at] Baltimore, and 
then rode him down again. The feat was considered so 
wonderful that it was glorified in the newspapers from 
the Rio Grande to the St. Croix. If Colonel May could 
see the staircase I ride up and down, he would decline 
hearing his exploit mentioned again.*^^ 

Saturday, October 10, iS^J- I am every day called 
on to see something the Japanese are preparing for my 
journey, or to give some new directions. 

Saturday, October I J, 1857. I have selected a 
variety of such things as I have that will probably be 
acceptable as presents to the Ziogoon and the Ministers 

*^80n this day, Townsend Harris wrote to Curtius, at Nagasaki, expressing 
his gratification that Curtius would open a correspondence with him (L. B., 
vol. 2, pp. 92-93)- 

399 



at Yedo. They consist of champagne and sherry, wines, 
cordials and cherry brandy; books of natural history, 
richly illustrated; telescope; barometer; rich astral 
lamp; richly cut decanters; preserved fruits, etc., etc. 
I am having these carefully packed up, and the Japanese 
prove to be very handy at such work. I have been almost 
daily occupied in seeing to clothing, etc., etc., preparing 
for my people. The coat-of-arms is very neatly done, 
and the motto E pluribus unum, the eagle, arrows, and 
olive branch quite perfect. I am informed that the news 
of my visit has spread like wildfire over the country and, 
as they express it, "millions will go to Yedo to see the 
grand entry of the American Ambassador." They will 
call me that name instead of Plenipotentiary, as the 
former has the grandest sound to their ears. They tell me 
that printed accounts of me, illustrated by drawings, are 
circulated by thousands."^" These are not in the form 
of newspapers, but are analogous to the "broad sheets 
and little books" that preceded that mighty engine,— 
the newspaper. 

Tuesday, October 20, l8SJ. At last, and fourteen 
months after my arrival in Japan, I have received my 
letters and supplies from Hakodate, from which place 
they were conveyed in a schooner to Yedo, and from 
thence were sent to me in a Japanese junk. Thank God 
for them. I find letters from my kind and sincere friend 
N. Dougherty of the following dates : July 22nd, August 



48°Griffis, Toivnsend Harris, p. 176, note: "These were the nishiki-yS or 
'brocade pictures,' drawn on and printed from wooden blocks, and gaily 
colored, being xylographs. These pictures are usually made in three parts, 
which are pasted together, making one piece." 

400 



't H h 


i'i;i 


•,S|I 'X' 


.i ^% iii> -11 \ 1 


V I ^ rj- 


■;,■ ^'i 


' \t;;.' ' 


;i' \);K!nr 


\. 




KXOW YE. 


rii • 11 


i...-,.._ „.,ii.,. 






„ ,„.,. 


''^. „ 


,,. . . i-^,,., . 


, . -., ' 




1 li.-u.. a tulol JIM. In . 


..,(1 nlli 


"" '■■'• '"''■" 






t 'I'.M 1, 1 


.1 Nf-.i;\i „i 1 


. v'-ll ^"Tli r )'!El 







atj.i .,«th..ii':i-s, I., lilt 
mji.iii il 1 .pl.iiii^. Ill* 



AND 1 DO HKRKB\ l'H\l AMI i!),l.JI l>l , -r. ' .. ■ , r> . - , , ^ . . /, ^ '. „ ,. /,./'. 



-i'', (..uimvm^ 111,1 ,. 111., r. 1.1 ,»-u„ii iJ„ 






II) ti'sllHHU llbl-tl-iif. / ;,„, ,, 



f |«si('PaUy 10 



■A • ■ ^ - . 

rowNSEND Harris's second commission as consul general for japan 

Dated, Washington, D. C, July 31, 1856. 



1 6th, September 22nd, October 15th, November 12th, 
November 26th, all 1856, and March 18, 1857. From 
my other dear and valued friend, General Wetmore, I 
have letters dated June 9th, July 21st, and November 
loth, 1856. 

I received in all twenty-eight letters,*^^ but not one 
word from the Department of State*^^ about my Treaty 
with Siam,^^^ or one word in answer to some of mine 
that it was important to me to receive answers. 

All the letters from the Department were printed 
circulars,^^* except one dated August, 1856, and relating 



48iNot one of these seven letters from Mr. Nathaniel Dougherty and of the 
three from General Prosper M. Wetmore has been found. It will be remem- 
bered that Townsend Harris himself Informed us that his letters to Mr. 
Dougherty, General Wetmore, and other private friends in New York and 
elsewhere were not copied Into his Letter Books {Journal, July 6, 1857). 
Similarly, not all the letters received from his friends are to be found In 
his Letters and Papers. There are extant, however, a great many of the let- 
ters Included In this total of twenty-eight. 

*82From the Department of State, Townsend Harris received Secretary 
Cass's dispatch dated Mar. 6, 1857, which informed him of the appointment 
of Mr. Cass to the office of Secretary of State. In acknowledging receipt of 
this communication, Townsend Harris concludes with the familiar cry: "Your 
letter is the first that I have received since I arrived in Japan" (L. B., vol. 2, 
pp. 98-99, dated Oct. 20, 1857). 

On the same day, and together with the communication from Secretary 
Cass, Townsend Harris received also the second copy of his Commission as 
Consul General for Japan, signed by President Franklin Pierce and Secretary 
William L. Marcy, and dated July 31, 1856. 

This second copy of his Commission has the title "Consul General" printed 
in full in the body of the text, and the wording dIflFers here and there from 
that In the first copy of the Commission, dated Aug. 4, 1855, and signed by 
President Pierce and by W. Hunter, the Acting Secretary of State. The second 
copy was issued to Townsend Harris because his appointment as Consul Gen- 
eral was confirmed by the Senate on July 31, 1856 (S. Ex. J'l, vol. 10, p. 131). 
Both originals of these Commissions are now In the possession of The College 
cf the City of New York. 

*8SSee note 467. 

*8*In his Dispatch No. 19 to Secretary Cass, dated Oct. 20, 1857 (L. B., vol. 
2, p. loo), Townsend Harris acknowledges receipt that day of the following 
circulars from the Department: 

i) Statutes at Large for 1855-56. 

401 



to a debt contracted by two Americans, Reed and 
Dougherty, with the Japanese.**" Nor am I more for- 
tunate in receiving answers to my letters [which] I 
wrote to Henry Grinnell and Joseph Evans."^ 

Saturday, October 24, iS^J. I find that the President 
was strongly inclined to reward my services in making 
a commercial treaty with Siam, by removing me from 
my office of Consul General art. Japan. It appears that 
the Treaty reached Washington on the 17th of Sep- 
tember, 1856, and on the same day the New York Times 
published what it said was the actual Treaty. The Pres- 
ident held that it was I and I alone that communicated 
it to the Times, and was for my instant removal. This 
was only prevented by the friendship of Governor 
Marcy and the untiring labors of my kind friend Gen- 
eral Wetmore. 

The President appeared to think the best mode of 
proceeding would be to punish me first, and then call 

2) Act to regulate the Diplomatic and Consular Departments, Aug. i8, 
1856. 

3) Regulations for Consular Officers, 1856. 

4) List of fees chargeable by American Consuls. 

^s^This letter from the State Department was dated Aug. 19, 1856; it was 
numbered 34; was signed by Secretary William L. Marcy; and authorized 
a special credit on bankers for $3,000 to cover the debt incurred by Messrs. 
Reed and Dougherty. (For a copy of this letter, see L. & P., vol. 2, no. 65; cf., 
L. B., vol. 4, p. 38; for the Reed and Dougherty aflFair, see above, notes 325 
and 400; and Mar. 7, 1857, and notes.) 

4860n this day Townsend Harris wrote to Secretary Cass acknowledging 
receipt of Circular No. 16, dated Nov. 8, 1856; and stating that he had duly 
filled in the enclosed bond for $10,000, which he was therewith sending to his 
agent in New York, Mr. Nathaniel Dougherty (Dispatch No. i8: L. B., vol. 2, 
p. 99). In his letter to Mr. Dougherty, of even date, Townsend Harris requests 
him to attend to all the details as soon as possible {L. B., vol. 2, p. 106). 

On Oct. 21, 1857, he wrote Dispatch No. 20 to Secretary Cass (L. B., vol. 2, 
pp. 100-01) ; and on the 22nd Dispatch No. 21 {ib., pp. 101-02). For Joseph 
Evans, see note 52; to Henry Grinnell, Townsend Harris had written on 
June 8, 1856: see Journal, July 23, 1856. 

402 



on me for my defence. This mode of procedure is quite 
common among Oriental despots, but I am inclined to 
think that the Western rule is to hold every man innocent 
until he is proved to be guilty. Had the President, in 
his ardent desire to punish the guilty, given orders to 
compare the publication in the Times with the official 
copy in the State Department, he would at once have 
seen that the Times' s version could not have emanated 
from me, nor from anyone who had an opportunity of 
copying the Treaty ! 1 1 

The Times uses the words "American subjects^^ in 
twenty places; the Treaty reads, "American citizens/' 

The Preamble is entirely omitted. 

Article i. The last clause is not in the Treaty, and 
omits a very important provision. 

Article 2. Omits a reference to the Treaty made by 
Mr. Roberts in 1833. 

Article 3. The closing paragraph is not in the Treaty. 

Article 8. Omits an important provision regarding the 
prohibition of the export of rice, besides also 
omitting a reference to the Treaty of 1833. 

Article 9. The closing paragraph not in the Treaty. 

Article 12. Alters the sense of the original entirely, 
as the Treaty went into operation the moment it 
was signed. The Regulations of Trade, which form 
an integral part of the Treaty and consist of six 
articles, are omitted. 

Various verbal alterations run through the whole 
Treaty as published in the Times. I wonder the Times 
correspondent was so inexact, as he could easily have 
procured an accurate copy. 

403 



After I had engrossed the English version of the 
Treaty, the Siamese asked to have it for the purpose of 
comparing it with their version ; and, as they were bound 
to accept the English version (see Regulations, Article 
6) as the original, their request was reasonable and 
could not be refused. It was some days in their posses- 
sion, and their chief interpreter showed it freely to all 
who desired to see it, and I was told it was seen by 
Americans, English, French and Portuguese residents, 
and a single tical would have purchased the right to 
copy it. Everyone who has had anything to do with 
Oriental Courts knows that the idea of secrecy as at- 
tached to negotiations is absurd. The thing is unknown 
and is impracticable. Monsieur Montigny,*" the 
French Plenipotentiary, succeeded me at Bangkok 
about two months after my departure. He set out with 
a full determination to keep his negotiations and the 
results a profound secret, and how did he succeed? 

Mr. Mattoon, U. S»> Consul at Bangkok, wrote to me 
under date September 15, 1856, as follows: 

"There was an attempt made on the part of the French to 
have everything secret, utterly refusing to discuss any ques- 
tion in the presence of others than French and Siamese. The 
attempt was perfectly futile in such a place [as] this, even 
had there been any reasonable motive for secrecy. The 
Treaty was on its way to Washington and London nearly, 
or quite, as soon as to Paris." 

•is^He concluded a Treaty with Siam on July 8, 1856. It was on his nomi- 
nation that Townsend Harris, on Sept. 23, 1859, was elected a member of 
the SociHe Imperiale Zoologique d'Acclimatation of Paris (L. & P., vol. i, 
no. 233). Mr. Mattoon's letter, from which Townsend Harris quotes in this 
entry and which he had received only four days before (Oct. 20, 1857), is 
L. & P., vol I, no. 99 

404 



Wednesday, October 28, iS^y. Moriama appeared 
at my house this morning, having just returned from 
Yedo. He brought a message from Dewa-no-Kami, re- 
questing to meet me at the Goyoshi at noon to-day. 
Moriama brought me a box containing files of the Singa- 
pore Free Press, Illustrated London News, and Java 
Bode, which were forwarded to me from Nagasaki on 
the 14th of August by Mr. H. Donker Curtius by sea, 
and had (of course) passed by Shimoda and been taken 
to Yedo. Moriama informed [me] that it was true that 
publications had been made concerning my visit, and 
added that the Government had suppressed them, as 
they contained so many mis-statements. On going to the 
Goyoshi, Dewa-no-Kami showed me various ground 
plans of the buildings where my audience was to take 
place, and explained their views of the ceremonies to 
be had, etc., etc. I accepted the whole program with 
one exception. They proposed that, after my audience 
was over and I had retired, I should return to the 
Audience Chamber, not as the representative of the 
President, but in my private capacity; that, instead of 
proceeding to the place I formerly occupied, I should 
stop at the place where I made my first bow; that the 
Ziogoon would then address me, to which I was not to 
reply, but simply bow and retire. 

It struck me that there was some petty scheme of glori- 
fying themselves at my expense in this proposition, and I 
avoided it by saying that I could not divest myself of 
my character of Plenipotentiary which had been con- 
ferred on me by the President, and that, so long as the 

405 



President pleased, I must maintain that character. They 
were evidently chagrined at this and tried to persuade 
me to alter my decision, assuring me that it was meant 
as a personal honor to me, etc., etc. I replied that I was 
gratified for the intention; and that, if the Ziogoon 
wished to see me at a private audience, I would cheer- 
fully attend him, but that it must always be in my official 
character. 

To-day I am told that Ziogoon is not the proper ap- 
pellation of their ruler, but that it is Tykoon. Ziogoon is 
literally "Generalissimo," while Tykoon means "Great 
Ruler." The genius of the people shines out in this. For 
more than a year I have spoken and written Ziogoon 
when referring to their ruler, and they never gave me 
any explanation; but now, when I am on the eve of 
starting for Yedo, they give me the real word. 

My departure is fixed for Monday, November 23rd. 
They proposed Friday, November 20th, but as that 
would cause me to pass Sunday among the hills, I de- 
clined it and fixed on Monday, which will cause me to 
pass my Sunday at Kawasaki, a town about fifteen miles 
from Yedo, on the banks of the river that brought up 
Mr. Bittinger, Chaplain of the Susquehanna, when he 
made his dash at Yedo in 1854."* 



488it vvas on Mar. 14, 1854, that Mr. Bittinger had been prompted by his 
curiosity to see more of Japan and to walk beyond the usual four or five 
miles permitted by the Japanese authorities to the men of Perry's squadron. 
He had pushed on from Yokohama to Kanagawa, and then to Kamasaki (or, 
Kawasaki), where he was overtaken by a messenger from Commodore Perry 
ordering him back to his ship immediately. (Perry, Narrative, in 33-2, H. Ex. 
Doc, no. 97, vol. I, pp. 359-60.) On Oct. 28, 1857, Townsend Harris wrote 
Dispatch No. 24 to Secretary Cass: L. B., vol. 3, pp. 5-6. 

406 



Friday, October 30, 185J. To-day is the anniversary 
of the first visit paid to me by the Governors of Shimoda ; 
and, according to appointment, Dewa-no-Kami, or the 
Prince of Dewa, visited me attended by one of the Vice- 
Governors, the Mayor or Prefect of Kakizaki, the Com- 
missary of Shimoda and his private secretary, besides 
a large train of officers, guards, etc., etc., but the above 
were all that were admitted into my private rooms. 
After an hour of pleasant chat we sat down to a very 
good dinner provided in our style, and they did full 
honor to my cheer, both solids and fluids. 

As soon as this was done, the dishes were removed and 
I gave them a second one in Japanese style. Still they ate, 
but nature has its limits; they did what they could, but 
fell far short of their first performance. They left me at 
five P. M., full of fun and good cheer. Their conduct at 
table would have passed in any society of New York, 
Paris or London. 

An enormous umbrella has been added to the para- 
phernalia of my tail for Yedo. 

Saturday, October ^I, iSSJ. I am truly grateful for 
improved health. I begin to recover a little of my lost 
flesh. 

Weather report for the month : 

Thermometer : highest, 79° ; lowest, 54* ; mean, 65.8". 
Extreme daily range, 14°. Rain one day, showers six 
days, cloudy two days, fine twenty-two days. Last year 
October was : thermometer, highest, J7° ; lowest, 51"; 
mean, 64.3". Extreme daily range, 15°. Rain three days, 
showers five, cloudy five days. Fine eighteen days. 

407 



Monday, November 2, iSSJ- Moriama gave me the 
following as the prices at which copper and camphor 
are sold to the Dutch at Nagasaki, with the mode of cal- 
culating the money. The seni and ichibu are real coins, 
the others are mere imaginary Chinese coins and are 
only used in the accounts of the Dutch. 

10 seni make i candereen; lo candereen make i mas; 
lo mas make i tael; i6 mas i ichibu, but in account 
with the Dutch, the tael is reckoned ii mas, and the 
ichibu at i tael 5 mas. 

Copper per picul in a/c , 8 ichibus & 50 seni 
" " " silver, 4 " " 25 " 

Camphor " " " a/c ,0 " " 600 " 
" " " silver, o " " 300 " 

It strikes me that there must be some misunderstand- 
ing in the above. Either the picul is short weight, or the 
price is erroneous. 

Moriama says the copper costs the Government ten 
kobangs per picul, — that is Macoto, day-nigh, or a 
great [?J 

Tuesday, November ^, 185J. The poor despised 
porgy of New York here becomes a capital boiling fish, 
weighing frequently seven to ten pounds. The same char- 
acter attends him in the South Pacific, in Australia, New 
Zealand and other parts. He is called a "snapper," in 
Australia. 

Wednesday, November 4, iSSJ- A beautiful day. 
Thermometer, 70°. Rode down towards Cape Idsu as 
far as was possible on horseback, and over roads that 
would startle any English steeplechaser. The country 

408 



looks far more beautiful than it did at this time last 
year, as the typhoon of September 22, 1856, destroyed 
nearly all [the] vegetation. Rice crop is about one-third 
harvested and looks very well. Buckwheat in full bloom. 

Saturday, November J, 1 8 57- I paid my bills to the 
Goyoshi for my bills with them for four months, amount- 
ing to 754 ichibus, or $260; but this covers a good deal 
of carpenter's work and other extras. My bills with the 
Japanese for supplies will be about $700 per annum. To 
this add supplies from Hongkong, say $500, servants 
$650, gives a total of $1,850 per annum, less $365 per 
annum paid by Mr. Heusken as his share of household 
expenses, — leaving my outlay about $1,500 per annum. 
But, at the rate of exchange against the United States, 
which varies from thirty to forty-five per cent., I can 
remit to New York some $6,000 per annum as my sav- 
ings out of a salary of $5,000! Besides, I have made a 
little sum of about $2,500 by taking from the Japanese 
foreign gold at the rate at which they took it, — i. e., 34^^ 
cents per dollar. This I send to Hongkong to be disposed 
of by remittance to New York or for sale, as may be 
most for my interest. 

Wednesday, November 18, 185J. I have got every- 
thing packed up and ready for my journey to Yedo,**" 



480Among other things, Townsend Harris had prepared two letters of 
Instructions which were to be used during his absence from Shimoda: one 
addressed to any United States Naval Commander that should visit Shimoda 
(L. B., vol. 2, pp. 86-89) ; the other to any merchant captain {ib., pp. 89-90). 
He had, furthermore, issued a warrant to the Japanese authorities for the ar- 
rest of any of his Chinese servants that might attempt to leave Shimoda while 
he was away at Yedo (Z,. B., vol. 3, pp. 6-7, dated Nov. 3, 1857), and had, 
in a covering letter to Dewa-no-Kami, provided for the comfort and security 
of the American Consulate {ib., p. 7). 

409 



which is to begin on Monday next, the 23rd. Visited 
the Prince of Dewa at Nakamura to take leave of him 
before my setting out, according to Japanese custom. 
The Governor gave me a copy of a Treaty made with the 
Dutch in January, 1856. It is only a recapitulation of 
the substance of the Dutch Convention of November, 
1855, except it withdraws the right of the Dutch to 
lease the grounds and buy the buildings at Deshima."° 
Friday, November 20, iS^J. Went to the Goyoshi 
at the special request of the Governor, who gave me 
copies of Additional Articles made with the Dutch, 
October 16, 1857, and with the Russians on the 24th of 
the same month.''®^ The only points of importance in 
these Articles are those contained in my Convention of 
June 17th. A curious Article is inserted in the Dutch 
papers, — viz., "The Dutch shall have the right to exer- 
cise their own, or the Christian religion, in the build- 
ings occupied by them at Deshima." It would appear 
from this Article that the "Dutch religion" is not the 
Christian religion/^^ 

'loosee notes 387-391, inclusive, and 393. 

*9iFor the Additional Articles to the Dutch Treaty, and for other material 
connected with the ratifications that were exchanged on Oct. 16, 1857, see 
Gubbins, The Progress of Japan, pp. 255-66. 

For the Supplementary Treaty with Russia signed at Nagasaki, see ib., 
pp. 239-45. The full text of this Supplementary Treaty, written in the Dutch 
language, is to be found in L. & P., vol. 2, no. 70. Admiral C. E. Poutiatine, 
who had negotiated the Russian Supplementary Treaty, sailed from Deshima 
for Shanghai on Tuesday, Oct. 27, 1857 (L. Sf P., vol. i, no. 74). On November 
20th, Townsend Harris wrote Dispatch No. 25 to Secretary Cass, forwarding 
copies of these Treaties and discussing their contents: L. B., vol. 3, pp. zz-z^. 

«2Additional Articles, Art. XXXIII (Gubbins, op. cit., p. 262): "The 
Netherlanders are at liberty to practise their own or the Christian religion 
within their buildings and at the burying-places appointed for them." 

It seems to us that the phrase "or the Christian religion," instead of being 
(as Townsend Harris says) an alternative to the phrase "their own [religion]," 

410 



Sunday, November 22, iS^J. This morning I re- 
ceived a package from Mr. J. H. Donker Curtius, Dutch 
Commissioner at Nagasaki, in answer to my letter of 
August 27th. He sends me copies of the Dutch and Rus- 
sian negotiations of October last, and a copy of the Over- 
land Mail of August loth. All of which are very ac- 
ceptable."' 

Monday, November 2^, iSSJ. At eight this morn- 
ing I start on my journey to Yedo. I went on horseback ; 
the morning was very fine, and the idea of the im- 
portance of my journey and the success that had 
crowned my efforts to reach Yedo, gave me a fine flow 
of spirits. The American Flag was borne before me, and 
I felt an honest pride in displaying it in this hitherto 
secluded country .^^* 

At Nakamura (about one mile from my house) I 
joined the main cavalcade, and we started in the follow- 
ing order. My avant courier was Keekoona,"° a mili- 



is in apposition to it and explains its meaning. We feel sure that the Dutch 
so meant it. Indeed, in the postscript to a letter dated Deshima, Nov. 6, 1857 
(L. Sf P., vol. I, no. 76), Curtius says to Townsend Harris: "The Japanese 
have agreed, too, to abolish the custom of trampling the cross of our Lord." 
Occurring as it does in a letter which speaks of the recently concluded Addi- 
tional Articles, this postscript sounds very much like a commentary on Art. 
XXXIII, and we think it fair so to consider it. Townsend Harris received 
Curtius's letter on Nov. 27, 1857, when he had reached Odawara on his jour- 
ney to Yedo; but, in spite of this postscript, he had not changed his mind on 
the meaning of the phrase in question by Jan. 25, 1858, q.v. 

Before passing on, it should be emphasized that the words of Curtius 
quoted above constitute the first authentic statement of the abolition of the 
odious custom of trampling on the Cross — the Fumi-yi; and, further, that 
this important statement appears in a brief postscript: Servus servorum Dei! 

*98See letter by Curtius to Townsend Harris, Nov. 6, 1857: L. & P., vol. i, 
no. 74. 

*84For the history and significance of this flag, see Appendix V. 
488The Japanese words in this entry should be written : Kikuna ; Shi-ta-ni- 
iro; Kago, Kabi-ya. (Griffis, Toiunsend Harris, ad loc.) 

411 



tary officer with a rank corresponding to captain. He 
had his horse and norimon and the usual bearers and 
attendants, but before him went three lads each bear- 
ing a wand of bamboo with strips of paper attached to 
the top; they cried out, alternately, Stanee-hiro, that 
is, "Sit down," "Sit down." They kept some four hun- 
dred yards in advance, and their cry sounded quite 
musical. 

Next to Keekoona came the American Flag guarded 
by two of my guards. Then I came on horseback with 
six guards, next my norimon with its twelve bearers and 
their headman; bearers of my shoes, etc., etc. Then Mr. 
Heusken on horseback with two guards, then his nori- 
mon, bearers, etc., etc. Next followed a long retinue 
bearing packages containing my bedding, chairs, food, 
trunks, and packages containing presents; my cook, and 
his following. The Vice-Governor of Shimoda fol- 
lowed, with his train, then the Mayor of Kakizaki, and 
y, lastly the private secretary of the Governor of Shimoda. 
A Dutch interpreter was carried in a cango in Mr. 
Heusken's rear. The whole train numbered some three 
hundred and fifty persons. 

All the bearers of luggage, etc., etc., were changed 
every two ri, or about five miles, and I was glad to see 
that these men were all paid for.their labor. 

My "standard bearer" was clothed in a long kabyya, 
or gown made of brown and white calico, of a particular 
pattern, and open at the sides like a herald's coat, from 
the hip downward. 

My guards were clothed in silk dresses, and had the 

412 




THE FIRST AMERICAN FLAG MADE IN JAPAN: NOVEMBER, 1857 

Fhis flag is now framed and is hanging on the wall of the Director's Office, in the Townsend Harris Hall 

High School. See Appendix V. 



arms of the United States on the right and left breast 
of their upper garment; each man wore two swords. 
The norimon of Japan appears to have been made after 
the model of the iron cages said to have been invented 
by Cardinal Balue, in the reign of Louis XI of France. 
They are so low that you cannot stand upright in them, 
and so short that you cannot lie down at full length. To 
one who has not been accustomed to sit with his legs 
folded under him, and the whole weight of his body 
pressing on his heels, the posture is more painful than 
can be easily imagined. I previously had a norimon 
made for me, which was six and a half feet long (like the 
palanquin of India) , which enabled me to avoid the tor- 
ture of the Japanese norimon. 

The packages containing my bedding, clothing, etc., 
were covered with black cotton cloth with the arms of 
the United States neatly put on them. The other pack- 
ages were neatly put up and had a little pennon with the 
United States arms flying from a short bamboo, which 
was placed upright on each package. 

My norimon bearers were dressed in dark blue, with 
the arms of the United States on the back. These were 
picked men (twelve for me and eight for Mr. Heusken) , 
and very tall for Japanese. My men wore a peculiar 
ornament, which is prohibited to any below the bearers 
of princes. It is made of cotton cloth, gummed very 
stiffly and folded back and forth in folds about three 
inches wide. It is about thirty inches long, and has One 
end stuck in the girdle at an angle below the right 
shoulder, with the upper end projecting a little beyond 

413 



the right side of the body. Across the upper end two 
white stripes run diagonally across all the folds. 

The motion of the body causes the folds to open and 
close, something like the action of a fan, and is con- 
sidered as being very beautiful by the Japanese. My 
route to-day was only fifteen miles ; it continued along 
the river of Shimoda, the ground gradually rising and 
the river diminishing to a mere thread of water, until we 
crossed a hill some four hundred feet high which sepa- 
rates the watershed of Shimoda from the Valley of 
Nasimoto.*'' Our midday halt was at Mitskoesi.*" The 
last part of the ride gave us the sight of some noble 
cypress and camphor trees, — one of the latter was of 
enormous bulk, and the Japanese said it was many hun- 
dred years old. Nasimoto is a small village of about one 
hundred houses, very prettily situated. My quarters for 
the night were in a temple which commanded a most 
beautiful view of the hills and valley, and of the village 
which lay some one hundred and fifty feet abruptly be- 
low us. 

I have remarked that throughout the Catholic and 
Pagan world, the most picturesque positions are always 
selected for churches and temples. I found that much 
attention had been paid to the path (for it cannot be 
called a road) over which I passed to-day. Bridges had 
been built over every stream, the pathway mended, and 
all the bushes cut away so as to leave the path clear. At 
the temple I found that a bathroom and water closet had 



4B8Nashimoto. 

''s^Mitsukuri (Griffis, Tovmsend Harris, p. 185). 

414 



been built for my special use, and every attention paid 
to my comfort. 

Tuesday, November 24, iS^J- Started at eight A. M. 
Our route to-day was over the mountain Amagi, which is 
some 3,500 feet above the level of the sea. The path was 
very difficult, — so much so that I was compelled to leave 
my horse and enter my norimon; and it was no easy mat- 
ter to carry that, even with eight men bearing it, as the 
road was sometimes at an angle of 35°, while the zigzags 
were some of them not so long as the pole or beam of 
my norimon, which is twenty-two feet long. Amagi is 
clothed with noble trees, consisting of cypress, pine, 
camphor and others of the laurel family, besides many 
of whose names I am ignorant. The orchidea were 
numerous, and offer a rich harvest to the experienced 
botanist. We halted on the top of Amagi, whence we 
had a fine view of Shimoda, Oho Sima and its volcano, 
with the Bay of Suruga, the Gulf of Yedo, etc., etc. The 
descent is not quite so abrupt as the ascent was, and 
about two-thirds of the way down I mounted my horse 
once more. As I descended, the valley opened and gave 
some beautiful views ; on the south side of Amagi I saw 
a very pretty cascade. 

Passing through a village, I saw some camellias which 
were already in full bloom, both white and red, but the 
flowers were all single. 

Passing through the village of Yugasima"' to go to 
my quarters at a temple, I turned to the right from the 

498Yugashima. 



road and in a few moments I had my first view of the 
Mountain Fusi Yama."° 

It is grand beyond description ; viewed from this place 
the mountain is entirely isolated and appears to shoot 
up in a perfect and glorious cone, some ten thousand feet 
high; while its actual height is exaggerated by the ab- 
sence of any neighboring hills by which to contrast its 
altitude. It was covered with snow, and in the bright 
sun (about four P. M.) it appeared like frosted silver. In 
its majestic solitude it appeared even more striking to me 
than the celebrated Dwhalgiri of the Himalayas, which 
I saw in January, 1855. ^ fouiid the temple at Yugasima 
prepared for me in the same manner as that at Nasimoto. 

Wednesday, November 25, iSSJ. Left Yugasima at 
eight A. M. and, as our road lay over a plain, I mounted 
on horseback. 

As I proceeded the plain widened, until in many 
places it was three miles across it. The scene was very 
pleasing. The plain was covered with a heavy crop of 
rice, of which the harvest had just commenced ; and it 
reminded me of the golden wheat fields of old Ontario. 
The houses of the people, the mode of cultivation, the 
dress of the people, and all minor particulars were ex- 
actly like Shimoda. We halted at noon at a hamlet called 
Ogiso;''"" and when I mounted my horse I pushed 
on in company with Keekoona and Mr. Heusken more 
rapidly than my attendants could do. This brought me to 



*99pujiyama. 
sooOhito. 



416 



the town of Missima''"^ at three P. M. This town is on the 
Tokido,^°^ or great road of Japan, and is the route trav- 
elled by the Dutch when they go to Yedo. I may here 
remark that the Dutch have not been to Yedo for the last 
ten years, their tribute having been delivered at Naga- 
saki to the Japanese. The Dutch thus avoided the great 
expense of the journey; but this has not relieved them 
from the presents they made on the occasion of those 
visits, as they are regularly demanded and given at 
Nagasaki. 

Missima contains about nine hundred houses, and the 
description of it by Kaempfer in 1696, after making due 
allowance for high coloring, will apply to it now. It had 
a fine temple situated in a fine square and surrounded 
by noble trees, but it was totally destroyed by the great 
earthquake of December, 1855. I went to see its ruins; 
and, in my walk, I was surprised at the numbers of the 
people, which were apparently far more numerous than 
the whole population of the place. On asking for an 
explanation, I was told that the time of my arrival was 
known many days ago, and that all those who could pro- 
cure permission had come to Missima to see me; that 
some had come more than one hundred miles. The people 
were perfectly well behaved, no crowding on me, no 
shouting or noise of any kind. As I passed, all knelt and 
cast their eyes down (as though they were not worthy 
even to look at me) . Only those of a certain rank were 



eoiMishima. 
«02Tokaido. 



417 



allowed to salute me, which was done by "knocking 
head" or bringing the forehead actually to the ground. 
In the temple grounds are some fine tanks swarming 
with fish. A small pagoda of three stories was so much 
shaken by the earthquake that it totters to its fall. Even 
the bridges leading over the small canals of the temple 
grounds, with the stone wall which surrounded the en- 
closure, have all been overturned. 

My rest place to-night was at a honjin, or rest house 
for persons of the highest rank, such as the princes, 
etc. Even the Vice-Governor of Shimoda could not 
stop here. There are two or three classes of houses of 
entertainment for persons of rank and government of- 
ficers, and these are distinct from the public hotels, which 
are also of various grades, but all are open to those who 
have moneyto pay the higher prices. I found myself very 
comfortable. In the rear was a garden, with dwarf trees, 
miniature mountains and other rock work; diminutive 
ponds with bridges over which nothing grosser than a 
fairy could walk, etc., etc. 

In criticizing Kaempfer's description I must bear in 
mind the difference there is in the standards of splendor, 
etc., as they existed in 1696 and in 1857. What was splen- 
dor when he left Holland about 1685 would not be en- 
titled to any adjective of praise in 1857. 

So, when he speaks of stately castles, noble palaces, 
and magnificent temples, we should remember what 
class of buildings elicited those terms of praise one hun- 
dred and seventy years ago. I have had Fusi Yama in 
view all day, but alas! like many other things in this 

418 



world, the nearer approach does not add to its beauty 
or grandeur. 

It is now connected with a range of hills, one of 
which, Hakone, is some forty-five hundred feet high, 
which takes away the air of solitary majesty which the 
view from Yugasima has. " 'Tis distance lends enchant- 
ment to the view." To-morrow I have to cross over the 
mountain Hakone,^"" and, as the road is very bad for 
horses, I shall proceed in my norimon. Dignity (even if 
health permitted) forbids my going on foot, which I 
should prefer to riding in my norimon. 

Thursday, November 26, iS^J. As our march to- 
day is a weary one, I start at half-past seven. I stop in 
the suburbs to visit a temple. It is approached by a 
noble flight of eighty-five stone steps. There was nothing 
to mark the difference between this and a Chinese Bud- 
dhist Temple except that the Japanese affair was less 
gaudy and much cleaner than its Chinese fellow. We were 
now on the great road of Japan ; it is from thirty to forty 
feet wide and is bordered by very noble cypress, pine, fir 
and camphor trees. Many of the cypresses are of extraor- 
dinary size. The typhoon of September 22, 1856 (see my 
Journal of that date)^°* made sad ravages among these 
fine trees. I found marks of its effects almost every hun- 
dred yards. We soon began to ascend the spurs of 
Hakone. The road up the mountain is paved with flat 
stones ; and, from the total absence of wheel carriages, or 



Bosjijot to be confused with Hikone. 

soixhe reference to this typhoon actually occurs in the entry for Sept 23, 
1856; cf. note 300. 

419 



of horses that are shod with iron, the stones are quite 
polished and so slippery that it is dangerous riding a 
horse over them. The ascent is bad, but not so vile as 
that over Mount Amagi. Near the top of the mountain I 
was taken to a temple built by Yeyas,^"" the founder of 
the present dynasty of Tykoons. From the top of Ha- 
kone we had a fine view of the City and Bay of Suruga. 
Fusiyama was quite near, and altogether a different 
affair from the glorious view at Yugasima. A short dis- 
tance on the north side of Hakone, and about one mile 
from the top, stands the village of that name. Here is the 
celebrated pass into the Yedo district, and a rigid search 
is made of every norimon, and each person is examined 
as to his passport. 

Here the Vice-Governor of Shimoda, after a vast 
deal of circumlocution, informed me that, when the 
great Princes of the Empire passed here, the door of the 
norimon was opened and an officer looked into it, with- 
out stopping the bearers; that it was a mere ceremony, 
but the ancient laws required it, etc., etc. 

I replied that, as I was not a Japanese subject, and 
being as I was the diplomatic representative of the 
United States, I was free from any such search; that 
they knew what was in my norimon, and could inform 
the officers at the pass that there was nothing forbidden 
in it. The Vice-Governor tried for some time to change 
my determination, and at last proposed that I should 
ride through on horseback, and then permit the search 
of the empty norimon. I decidedly declined this, telling 

soBjyeyagu Tokugawa. 

420 



him that it was the search under any form that I ob- 
jected to. He then said that we must stop until he could 
send to Yedo for instructions, which would only take 
five days. I told him I should not wait five days nor 
five hours; that if the search was insisted on I should 
at once return to Shimoda. The poor Vice-Governor 
was in great tribulation and finally went to the guard 
house, and after a delay of two hours returned with word 
that it was all settled and that I should pass unmolested. 
The honjin where I stopped was on the bank of a pretty 
lake about two miles long, but it is notorious for its 
insalubrity. The water here is very bad, and the cold 
winds that rush down the sides of Fusi Yama are well 
calculated to produce sickness. Directly north of the 
"Gate of the Pass" is a temple which contains in its 
court some noble and colossal copper figures of Buddh. 
About two thirds of the way down the mountain I 
stopped at a perfect little bijou of a "rest house.'* 
Everything was in miniature. The house was new and 
nothing could exceed its cleanliness. A miniature gar- 
den adorned the rear, and from a wall of rocks some 
tiny cascades tumbled down like threads of silver, with a 
pleasing murmur. The trees were dwarfed into the 
smallest of possible sizes and into the queerest of forms. 
Some tiny canals were filled with water of crystal clear- 
ness, and the bottoms were paved with white pebbles. In 
these canals some enormous gold and silver fish were 
swimming. One of them was more than two feet long. A 
carp of some thirty inches long was the patriarch of 
this finny family. A number of small tortoise (the Jap- 

421 



anese emblem of longevity) lazily crawled on some tiny 
rock work and over bridges of some eighteen inches' 
span. 

Among other refreshments served to me were living 
fish and tea leaves made up with sugar as bonbons. The 
sweetmeats were in great variety and of excellent 
quality. Owing to the loss of time I did not reach 
Odowara°°* until long after dark, but I was not sorry 
for the delay, as the effect of my train with an immense 
number of flambeaux made from bamboos presented 
a curious and novel appearance, as it wound and turned 
in the descents of the mountain, making a figure like 
the tail of an imaginary fiery dragon. Beyond the walls 
of the town I was met by the officials, with an army of 
lanterns of all imaginable sizes, shapes and colors, all 
decorated with the arms of the owner. For nearly a mile 
before reaching the place I heard occasionally a hearty 
booming sound, the cause of which I could not divine. 
After reaching my resting place, these sounds increased 
in frequency and were now attended with a sensible jar 
which caused the sliding doors and windows to rattle 
sharply. I was told it was the surf breaking on the beach, 
and such I found it to be afterwards. The Gulf of Yedo 
is bifurcated by Cape Sagami, and the Bay of Odowara 
extends westerly and northerly, while the Gulf con- 
tinues its course nearly north by east.The ground swell of 
the Pacific Ocean rolls in full majesty up the Bay of 
Odowara and breaks heavily on its beach. It was so late 
when I arrived that I could not see much of the town. I 



5060dawara. 

422 



was told it contains 700 houses, while Kaempfer gave it 
ijCKX) in 1696. If his account was correct, the town has 
lost three-tenths of its houses during the last 160 years. I 
should here remark that the principality of Idsu ends 
at Missima. Idsu, in which Shimoda is situated, is one of 
the poorest provinces of the Empire. It is so mountain- 
ous that only a very small portion of it can be culti- 
vated, and it has no resources to support any large 
population. It has no town of 10,000 inhabitants, and 
the mountain Amagi cuts off the rest of the world from 
it, except by a painful and troublesome journey over it. 
The Japancjse showed their astuteness in getting Com- 
modore Perry to accept Shimoda for the Americans, as 
they were completely isolated by land, and they could 
easily keep away any undue number of Japanese craft. 
In fact, since I have been at Shimoda, I have never seen 
1 50 vessels at one time in that harbor, while the Japanese 
assured me that a short time before my arrival it was 
not unusual to see 300 to 400 at a time, and that, during 
a gale of some days, 700 vessels had been there at one 
time. 

Friday, November 2J, 185J. Left Odowara at half- 
past eight, and at noon halted at Ohiso.^" We were fer- 
ried over the river Banyugawa,°°^ which is now some 200 
yards wide, but in the rains of May and June it is over 
one mile wide. The land on either side is a mere bed of 
sand, and the river is filled with quicksands. These sands 
[and] the great width of the river during the floods, 



so^Oiso. 

BosBanriugawa (Griffis, Toionsend Harris, p. 193). 



joined to the very low banks, render the bridging of the 
stream very difficult. This river with the broad sands 
and low banks reminded me of the River Sone"' in 
India. Reached Fusisawa"° at six P. M. From Odowara 
to Fusisawa it is almost one continuous village, as the 
hamlets are only separated a few hundred yards from 
each other. Kaempf er speaks of the crowds of travellers, 
priests, pilgrims, nuns and beggars which thronged the 
Tokido when he was in Japan. Nothing of the kind was 
seen by me. I have not as yet seen a dozen travellers on 
the road, nor met any of the great trains that attend the 
princes when they travel. In the towns and ^villages the 
shops are all closed except the cookshops. The people 
are collected in large numbers in front of their houses 
and are silent and motionless as I pass. The authorities 
of each village conduct me to the bounds of their village, 
where they are relieved by those of the next. They salute 
me on leaving by a prostration, which is also made by 
my new conductors. The road has not only been repaired 
and put in order for my reception, but it is actually 
swept only a few hours before I pass over it."^ The 



^^^Happily, we know to-day far more than Townsend Harris himself could 
know of the careful preparations made by the Japanese to do him honor on 
his journey to Yedo. The series of Japanese documents containing the necessary 
instructions was entitled: "Visit of the American Ambassador to the Castle of 
Yedo in the loth month of the 4th year of Ansei (1857)." 

The original Japanese version of these documents was obtained by the 
American Dr. David Murray (who was then serving Japan as educational 
adviser) from the successor of Hotta, Bitchiu-no-Kami. Lord Hotta, in 1857, 
had been Chief of the Great Council, or Gorogio. Dr. Murray presented the 
documents to Mr. D. W. Stevens, Secretary of the U. S. Legation, who caused 
them to be translated into English by Mr. Thompson, interpreter of the Lega- 

424 



crossroads and paths leading to the Tokido are closed 
by ropes stretched across them. At the entrance of each 
village small cones formed of earth are erected, each 
having a small green sprig in the top of it. This is in 
honor of me. It reminds me of the "Shiva Lingas" of 
India."=^ 

All the people I see are clad in their holiday costume, 
but, as noted at Missima, it is only those of rank that 
salute me. All below that rank kneel and avert their eyes 
from me. At each place where I halt, the front of the 
house is decorated with long cloths festooned over the 
gates and doors and with the Imperial colors, — i. e., 



tion. In the letter forwarding the translations to the Hon. William M. Evarts, 
Secretary of State, and dated Mar. 25, 1879, Mr. Stevens says: 

"It is understood that the literary executors of Mr. Harris are engaged 
in collecting material for his biography. I have no doubt that they would 
find facts worthy of notice in this account of his first visit to Yedo." 

The account referred to is given in 46-2, H. Ex. Doc, no. i, pt. 1, pp. 621—36, 
in Serial no. 1902. To give an idea of how thoroughly everything was antici- 
pated, we shall outline some of the documents reported: 

i) Notification to Honda, Mino-no-Kami, that the Shogun will grant an 
audience to Townsend Harris at an early date. 

2) Appointment of Commissioners to take charge of Townsend Harris's 
journey to Yedo, directing them to make all he necessary preparations. 

3) A special notification to the officials in charge, emphasizing the fact 
that, inasmuch as Townsend Harris's visit will be the first, it will 
necessarily serve as a precedent, and hence the need of special care! 

4) Notices to the Ometsukes regarding the care of the roads, houses, and 
people; and to the inspectors of roads. 

5) A careful plan of the route to be followed on arriving at Yedo; on en- 
tering the Shogun's Castle ; on going to the house of Lord Hotta. 

6) A notice to the overseer of the Buddhist and Shinto Temples in Yedo, 
to be ready to provide new quarters in case anything (presumably fire) 
should happen to Townsend Harris's abode. 

7) A notice to Inouye, Shinano-no-Kami, ordering him to Shimoda to con- 
sult with Governor Nakamura, Dewa-no-Kami, relative to the ap- 
proaching visit to Yedo. 

8) A notice from Lord Hotta to Lord Honda, asking him to notify Yedo 
when Townsend Harris was ready to leave Shimoda. 

^^^Linga, a Sanskrit word for the phallic symbol, which represents one of 
the aspects under which the god Siva is worshipped in India. 

425 



black and white stripes; and a stake is always found 
placed to which my flagstaff can be attached. As I 
mounted my horse after being ferried over the Banyu- 
gawa, my vicious brute of a horse both bit and kicked me. 
The little finger of my left hand was very painful and I 
ordered some leeches to be applied. The doctor ap- 
proached with great trepidation, while large drops of 
perspiration stood on his forehead. I asked what ailed 
him; he said that he had never approached any person 
of such exalted rank before, and he was terrified at the 
idea of drawing blood from me. He was told to forget all 
about rank, and to apply his remedy as quickly as pos- 
sible. The leeches are very small and of course not very 
efficient. Excellent leeches are found in every part of the 
tropical East. A tank like those of Pulo Penang would 
be a pretty fortune to a man if he had it in New York. 
I have known the bites of those leeches to bleed for 
twenty- four hours. The doctors of Japan are of two 
classes : the one following the European mode so far as 
they understand it; the other continues the old Chinese 
practice. Their medicines are generally of a simple 
kind. No violent chemicals are used, and calomel is un- 
known. Rhubarb and gentian are their chief internal 
remedies, while the moxa or cautery with scarification, 
is applied externally in local inflammations, rheuma- 
tism, etc. Tropical bleeding by leeching and cupping is 
also used. Vaccine matter was introduced by the Dutch 
a few years ago. I was informed that about one-tenth 
of the population have been vaccinated. They do not 
inoculate the smallpox. Still the ignorance of the Jap- 

426 



anese of the true mode of treating the diseases of chil- 
dren in particular is shown in the frightful statement 
made to me by the Prince of Shinano, that out of loo 
children born no more than 30 reach the age of twenty 
years. My surgeon, having finished his labor, retired a 
proud and happy man; happy that he had pleased me, 
and proud that he had been called on to attend a person 
occupying my position/" 

Saturday, November 28, iS^J. Left Fusisawa at 
seven A. M. The road is very pleasant, as the plain gradu- 
ally widens as we approach Yedo. The Tokido from 
Odowara runs quite near the shore, except where it 
crosses the Peninsula of Sagami. See many marks of the 
typhoon of September, 1856, along the road. Fusi Yama 
begins to improve in appearance as we recede from it. 
The villages are larger and more closely connected than 
on yesterday's route. The people, all in holiday costume, 
are kneeling on mats in front of their houses, as I pass. 

At noon stop at Kanagawa, at a pretty honjin placed 
at the water side. This is an injteresting spot to me as 
it was the scene of Commodore Perry's negotiations. 
From my house I look across the bay to Yokohama, the 
place where his fleet was anchored. I was much sur- 
prised by the sight of three ships of European build and 
rig, which with two schooners were lying about mid- 
way between Kanagawa and Yokohama. 



si^The Western, or Dutch, learning found its way gradually into Japan 
through the small Dutch window at Deshima. A splendid picture of this 
scientific infiltration in the fields of mathematics, geography, medicine, etc., 
is presented in Osada's Life of Takano Nagahide, translated and edited with 
an introduction by D. C. Greene, D.D., in Transactions of The Asiatic Society 
of Japan, vol. XLI, part III, Aug., 1913, pp. 379-492. 

427 



These ships have been purchased from the Dutch by 
the Japanese, as the beginning of a navy. To the north- 
east from Kanagawa I saw the steamer which the Dutch 
presented to the Japanese/"^ Kanagawa has the air of a 
flourishing town and has much increased since Kaempfer 
described it. It is the nearest harbor to Yedo, and must 
become a place of great importance whenever Yedo shall 
be opened to foreign commerce. I left Kanagawa with 
regret and pursued my road to Kawasaki, where I shall 
pass Sunday. Ever since I have been in this country I 
have refused to transact any business on that day or even 
to receive a message from the Japanese. 

They now fully understand my motives, and they re- 
spect me for them. The village authorities are now 
preceded by a body of policemen, each bearing an iron 
rod some half an inch thick and six feet long. Four or 
five iron rings are attached by eyes to the top of the rod, 
which make a loud jingling noise as the foot of the rod is 
struck on the ground by the policeman at each two or 
three steps. They alternate the time of striking the rod 
on the ground by a regular measure, and this, with the 
diflferent tones of the rings, makes a species of music. 
The number of people seen increases. They are all fat, 
well clad and happy looking, but there is an equal ab- 
sence of any appearance of wealth or of poverty, — a 
state of things that may perhaps constitute the real hap- 



sisaThis was the steam paddle-wheel corvette of six guns, the Soembing, 
presented to the Bakufu by the King of The Netherlands in 1855, and renamed 
the Kanko. She was possibly the first ship to hoist the Hinomaru — the Red Sun 
on a white ground — which was at this time adopted as the national flag 
(Murdoch, A History of Japan, vol. 3, p. 616 and note 1). 

428 



piness of a people. I sometimes doubt whether the open- 
ing of Japan to foreign influences will promote the gen- 
eral happiness of this people. It is more like the golden 
age of simplicity and honesty than I have ever seen in 
any other country. 

Security for person and property, universal frugality 
and contentment seem to be the apparent condition of 
Japan at present. Reached Kawasaki at half-past four 
P. M. The honjin prepared for my reception I found to 
be in a sadly dilapidated condition. Doors and windows 
would not close, the paper in many places broken, so 
that the wind played freely through the rooms, while an 
air of dirty slovenliness reigned over the whole. This 
was the first instance of a dirty house I had ever seen in 
Japan, and it struck me all the more forcibly as I was to 
pass Sunday here ; the condition of the house became a 
serious matter, and I soon determined to have better 
lodgings if they could be found in the place, as the idea 
of lodging in a honjin would not protect me from the 
actual discomfort of the place; so, after much grave 
remonstrance on the part of the Vice-Governor, Mr. 
Heusken sallied out to look at the hotels of the place. 
He soon returned with word that he had found a house 
pleasantly situated and that it was neat, clean and com- 
fortable. I decided at once to accept it. The Vice-Gov- 
ernor implored me not to think of going to a tavern, but, 
rather than I should do so, he would give up his quar- 
ters and go to the tavern himself. I told him I could not 
think of disturbing him; and, as to my dignity, that was 
my affair, and I would take good care of it. So to the 

429 



hotel Mannenya, or "the felicity of ten thousand years," 
I went, and a very good change it was, for I had a bright, 
clean and comfortable house in place of the dark, dirty 
and uncomfortable honjin. Among other reasons ad- 
vanced by the Governor why I ought not to go to the 
Mannenya was the very grave fact that at all the honjins 
the floor of the room occupied by me was raised some 
three inches higher than the other rooms ; that to place 
me on a floor of the same level as the others was to 
derogate from the respect due to me; that the most 
positive orders had been issued by the Tykoon that I 
should receive all the marks of honor in my journey that 
were bestowed on persons of the most exalted rank in 
Japan, and for that reason I had always been lodged in 
honjins on a raised floor which was covered with mats 
of the finest quality, and bordered with a binding of a 
particular pattern, etc., etc. I answered him that what 
he said was no doubt very true and very proper, but he 
had forgotten that I sat on chairs that raised me much 
higher than even the favored floor of the honjin, and 
that, as to the "mats and binding," my being a foreigner 
would allow me to dispense with those considerations 
while I was at Kawasaki, and so that matter ended after 
consuming nearly three hours. 

My cook served me up some very delicate teal and 
delicious quail for my dinner. I had this man (who 
is a Japanese cook) instructed in the Western manner of 
cooking for some five weeks before I left Shimoda. His 
cookery is inferior to Delmonico's, but much more to my 
taste than the Japanese cuisine. 

430 



I pay for my food and lodgings (and for the hire of 
my guards and bearers, grooms, etc., etc.) while on my 
journey. 

The Government furnishes all the coolies that are em- 
ployed to transport my luggage, etc., etc. 

I am informed that on my arrival at Yedo I am to be 
considered as the guest of the Tykoon, and that my lodg- 
ings and table will be furnished by him. This Kawasaki 
is the place that "brought up" Chaplain Bittinger, the 
Chaplain of the U. S. Steamer Susquehanna, when he 
made his dash to see Yedo, as the Japanese refused to 
ferry him over the River Logo, which runs on the north 
side of the town."" 

The Japanese say that the reverend gentleman made 
all sorts of efforts to cross the river, and finally drew his 
sword, which he was flourishing with considerable en- 
ergy, when Commodore Perry's positive order to him 
to rejoin his ship immediately reached him. The Jap- 
anese slyly added that they presumed he only flourished 
his sword "for amusement." It is rather a novel thing 
for an American clergyman to resort to his "carnal 
weapon" instead of relying on the "sword of the spirit." 

The policemen are dressed in a uniform; the back 
and breast of the jacket is frequently red, sometimes 
blue, but in all cases it is covered with characters which 
look vastly like the cabalistic signs which used to 
decorate the robe of the astrologer. The Fire Depart- 
ment is an important one in Japan, and each village has 
one or more stations for their engines. These might be 

=i*See note 488. 



better named a good sized squirt. They are made entirely 
of bamboo and wood, and by means of arms projecting 
beyond the ends of the machine, they are carried by two 
men on a brisk trot to the place of conflagration."" 

Sunday, November 2g, 185'J. The first Sunday in 
Advent. I read the whole service for this day with Mr. 
Heusken as my clerk and congregation. I experienced 
some peculiar feelings on this occasion. It was beyond 
doubt the first time that ever a Christian service on the 
Sabbath was read audibly in this place, which is only 
thirteen miles from Yedo, and this, too, while the law 
punishing such an act with death is still in force !"^ 

My rooms look out on a pretty garden filled with the 
usual miniature pieces of water, tiny bridges, and rock 
work with the invariable dwarfed trees. I occupy a 



Bisjt has several times been told to the writer that Townsend Harris in 
his younger days belonged to the New York City Fire Department, which, as 
everyone knows, was chiefly composed of volunteer organizations in the 
early 'forties. No proof of this fact has yet come to our notice. If it be true, 
then this and other entries of his Journal (e. g., Nov. 29, 1857) take on a more 
sympathetic coloring. 

"i^The earliest of these dreaded and oft-repeated edicts on the subject of 
Christianity in Japan was aimed against the Portuguese, Shogun lyemitsu 
saying in June, 1636: "The whole race of the Portuguese, with their mothers, 
nurses and whatever belongs to them, shall be banished to Macao" (Lewis and 
Murakami, Ranald MacDonald, p. 127, note 137; Hildreth, Japan, p. 192, 
citing Kaempfer). 

The decree of death instead of expulsion seems to have been issued in 1639. 
And when, in defiance thereof, a Portuguese ship from Macao arrived at 
Nagasaki in 1640, the entire crew (with the exception of thirteen) was killed. 
The survivors returned to Macao with the following written message: 

"So long as the sun warms the earth, any Christian bold enough to come 
to Japan, even if he be King Philip himself, or the God of the Christians, 
shall pay for it with his head." 

See Robert P. Porter, Japan, The Rise of a Modern Poiuer, The Clarendon 
Press, 1918, p. 77; compare Captain Sir Edward Belcher, Narrative of the 
Voyage of H.M.S. Samarang, etc., p. 42 ; and Kenneth Saunders, Foreign Mis- 
sions in Japan, in Japan for Aug., 1923, p. 22. 



pavilion detached from the main house, and it is only 
occupied by me and my immediate attendants. 

Kaempfer and all other writers on Japan state that 
their rooms were invariably in the rear of the house, 
and they all add their belief that this was done merely to 
prevent their seeing anything of the people, etc. Had 
these writers better understood Japanese customs they 
would have drawn very different conclusions from the 
same facts. 

The Japanese houses of the best class are all built 
entre cour et jardin, as the French say. The buildings 
fronting on the street are used as offices and for the 
servants. A large gateway opens in the center of these 
buildings, and discloses a court of greater or less ex- 
tent, according to the size of the house. 

It is some fifteen to forty yards from the gate to the 
door of the real residence of the occupant, and the most 
honorable rooms are in the rear, where they open into 
or overlook the garden. Now, in Japan the higher the 
rank the greater is the seclusion in which the individual 
lives. This is a great and fundamental principle with 
them, and it therefore follows that they would of course 
occupy the most secluded rooms of the house, for that 
follows as a necessity from the principle. 

I now learn, beyond doubt, that the solitude of the 
great road is caused by positive orders issued by the 
Government, prohibiting any travel over the road dur- 
ing my journey; and, as my route for each day was fixed 
some time before, they could make their arrangements, 
and by my punctuality the stoppage of traffic was only 

433 



for one day on each day's route/" In the afternoon I 
went out for a little exercise, and visited a very noble 
temple situated about one and one-quarter miles from 
the Tokido, towards the bay. The roof is of copper (the 
first I have seen in Japan). There is some little gild- 
ing on the ends of the rafters and beams which project 
some eight feet beyond the walls and form a pent house 
on every side. (This is also the manner of building the 
roof for all kinds of edifices.) 

In the temple were a multitude of lanterns, some 
of which were fully ten feet in diameter, and all were 
prettily decorated with Chinese and Japanese characters 
in various [colors].' I found some very good castings 
of copper, among the rest a shrine in the vestibule of the 
temple showed much merit. It was supported by figures 
of demons, the varied expression of whose faces was 
capital. On the outside of the shrine the zodiacal signs 
(Japanese) were well done in bas-relief. The altar shone 
resplendently with an infinite number of objects all 
in fine brass and as bright as gold. I was told they 
were a present from the late Tykoon."* The High Priest 
was clad in purple silk, with an embroidered alb about 
his neck. The attending priests were all in yellow. The 
temple and everything pertaining to it was exquisitely 
clean. The consoles and ends of the rafters and beams 



"^See note 511. 

siaiyeyoshi, the twelfth of the Tokugawa dynasty, who died Aug. 25, 1853— 
in other words, soon after Commodore Perry had sailed away from Yedo for 
the first time. The coincidence of the Shogun's death and of the visit of the 
American squadron was duly noted both by those who favored the opening 
up of Japan, and by those who fought against it might and main — not to 
speak of the significance which the Shogun's death bore for the superstitious. 

434 



were carved into grotesque masks and heads, which 
were executed in a spirited manner. 

In the courtyard in front, an enormous bronze bell was 
suspended. The tone of the Japanese bells is in gen- 
eral very fine ; they are struck with a wooden pole some 
ten feet long and from three to six inches in diameter. 
The pole is suspended in a horizontal position, and the 
bell is struck by simply pulling back the pole and then 
letting it fall by its own motion against the outside of the 
bell. 

In Commodore Perry's journal of the first night he 
passed in Japan, he speaks of the bells that were struck 
during the night, and he supposed them to be alarm or 
signal bells. They are still struck in the same manner, 
not only during the night, but the day also, and are simply 
to note the hour."^ 

On my return I saw a number of the largest storks I 
ever met with. The tameness of all kinds of wild animals 

''i^Townsend Harris was not in a position to know exactly what took place 
when Perry's Squadron entered the Bay of Yedo, about 5 p. m. of July 8, 
1853. In the pages of Inazo Nitobe (who undoubtedly used Japanese sources) 
we have a very vivid description of the terror that seized the inhabitants of 
Yedo (^The Intercourse betiveen the United States and Japan, The Johns 
Hopkins Press, 1891, p. 46) : 

"No sooner had 'the black ships of the evil mien' made their entry into 
the Bay, than the signal guns were fired, followed by the discharge of 
rockets; then were seen on the shore companies of soldiers moving from 
garrison to garrison. The popular commotion in Yedo at the news of 'a 
foreign invasion,' was beyond description. The whole city was in an uproar. 
In all directions were seen mothers flying with children in their arms, and 
men with mothers on their backs. P.umors of an immediate action, exagger- 
ated each time they were communicated from mouth to mouth, added horror 
to the horrorstricken. The tramp of war-horses, the clatter of armed war- 
riors, the noise of carts, the parade of firemen, the incessant tolling of bells, 
the shrieks of women, the cries of children, dinning all the streets of a city 
of more than a million souls, made confusion worse confounded." 

The italics in the above quotation are ours. We cannot help feeling that 
Nitobe's words are a description of what must have actually taken place. 

435 



(even including the cautious crow) in Japan is surpris- 
ing and proves that the Japanese boys are not so given to 
destructive habits as the Caucasian races. The stork re- 
mains here all the year round, and the wild goose 
takes up his winter quarters here, both of which facts 
establish the mildness of the climate. The weather has 
been very fine, for not a drop of rain has fallen or a 
cloud obscured the sun for the last twelve days. 

I passed by some gardens which had a good show of 
artemisias, and some curiously trained pear trees. About 
six feet from the ground the branches are tied down to a 
horizontal frame. The new wood that grows during the 
summer is of course upright, but the next winter so much 
as is required is tied down to the frames, and the re- 
mainder cut of¥. In a short time this makes a verdant 
room, quite impervious to the sun's rays, and forms a 
pleasant retreat in the hot weather. The Japanese pear 
is not a nice fruit, in fact I cannot eat it until it has been 
preserved. It is from two and one-half inches to four 
inches in diameter, and shaped and colored exactly 
[like] the russet apple. 

In the towns and villages I have passed through, 
wooden tubs filled with water are placed at short dis- 
tances from each other, to use in case of fire. Here these 
tubs are made of copper. The firemen wear helmets; 
these and their hooks and ladders quite put me in mind 
of dear old inflammable New York"" 

Monday, November ^0, 185J. To-day I am to enter 
Yedo. It will form an important epoch in my life, and a 

B20See note 515. 



still more important one in the history of Japan. I am 
the first diplomatic representative that has ever been re- 
ceived in this city; and, whether I succeed or fail in 
my intended negotiations, it is a great fact that w^ill 
always remain, showing that at last I have forced this 
singular people to acknowledge the rights of embassy. 
I feel no little pride, too, in carrying the American Flag 
through that part of Japan, between the extremity of 
Cape Idsu and into the very castle of the City of Yedo. 

I left Kawasaki a little before eight A. M., and was 
ferried over the River Logo,°^^ which even now is both 
broad and deep. I proceeded to-day, after much de- 
liberation, in my norimon. My wish was to go into Yedo 
on horseback, and the Vice-Governor eagerly en- 
couraged that idea. This excited my suspicions; and, 
after much difficulty, I discovered that none but the 
Daimyo, or Princes of the highest rank, can enter Yedo 
in their norimons; all below. that rank enter the city on 
horseback or on foot. This fact, coupled with the Jap- 
anese idea of seclusion and respectability being equiva- 
lent terms, determined me very reluctantly to proceed 
in my norimon. 

The distance from Kawasaki to Sinagawa^'^^ is seven 
and one-half English miles, and the houses form almost 
a continuous street the whole way. Just before entering 
Sinagawa I was shown the execution ground, which is 
at the water's edge. Kaempfer describes the sight as a 
very revolting one as seen by him, with human bodies 



02iRokugo (Griffis, Townsend Harris, p. aoo). 
'22Shinagawa. 

437 



lying about on the bloodstained ground, while dogs, kites 
and crows 

Held o'er the dead their carnival. 

Nothing of the kind was seen by me, and the only in- 
dication of the place was an unusual number of kites 
and crows, but those congregate in a similar manner 
about the places for burning the dead in India, Burmah 
and Siam. 

The honjtn of Sinagawa was not pleasantly placed. It 
was at the bottom of a deep court, and, as its garden was 
surrounded by the blank walls of buildings, we had 
no prospect whatever. I was much disappointed as I ex- 
pected to have found it on the water side. We remained 
at Sinagawa more than an hour, and at last started on 
the final stage of our journey. 

Sinagawa is defended by seven batteries, four on the 
land and three built up on shoals. The latter are placed 
at three hundred to eight hundred yards from the shore. 
I am led to think that the guns of those batteries are not 
of heavy calibers. From here I again saw the steamer. 
She was about five miles in an E. S. E. direction from 
Sinagawa. The channel after passing Kanagawa 
gradually trends to N. N. E. to N. E. and by N., so that 
a ship of large burden cannot approach either Kawasaki 
or Sinagawa nearer than about five miles, as the flats 
extend fully that distance from the shore. This renders 
the batteries of Sinagawa of no avail, as her guns can- 
not reach to the channel. When they were first erected, 
the channel was near Sinagawa, and Kawasaki was a 

438 



port of entry, but at present large ships cannot proceed 
with any advantage above Kanagawa, as that is the last 
harbor up the bay. Had the boats of Commodore Perry 
sounded the bay two miles further up they would have 
struck the flat that may be said to fill up the whole 
upper part of the bay, and thus prevents the approach 
of large vessels nearer than some six miles to Yedo. 

I did not discover the "noble palaces" or "stately 
castles" of Sinagawa mentioned by Kaempfer. The 
buildings form one continuous street from Sinagawa to 
Yedo, and no one can tell where the former ends and 
the latter begins unless it be specially pointed out to 
him. 

At Sinagawa our procession was reformed. The Vice- 
Governor now led the way, and all my coolies, etc., etc., 
were kept in line, and the whole cavalcade was nearly 
half a mile long. We proceeded with a slow and stately 
step along an unpaved street, some forty to fifty feet wide 
and bordered with wooden houses, none more than two 
stories high and mostly covered with tiles. Every Jap- 
anese town is divided into streets of one hundred and 
twenty yards long, and this district is responsible for the 
conduct of all in it. It has a captain called the Ottono,^^^ 
and he has policemen under him. From Sinagawa I 
found that these divisions were marked in an unmistak- 
able manner, a strong stockade is erected each one hun- 
dred and twenty yards across the street and has a pair of 
wide and strong gates. These gates are shut at a certain 
hour in the evening, and a wicket of some two feet square 

5230-tono. 

439 



is opened for the passage of those who have the right to 
pass after the closing of the main gates. At many places 
in Yedo this stockade is double; that is, a second one is 
erected some fifteen yards distant from the regular one. 
When both the stockades are closed it makes quite a 
strong defence against anything but artillery, and is 
admirably calculated to stop the advance of a mob, or 
secure the arrest of criminals. Again, Yedo has between 
eight thousand and nine thousand of these streets, so that 
after a certain hour it is cut up into that number of little 
forts. From Sinagaw^a the people no longer knelt, nor 
did they avert their eyes. 

The authorities made their prostrations as before, but 
the people remained standing. As the authorities w^ere 
changed every one hundred and twenty yards, there was 
a constant "knocking of heads." A large proportion of 
the assemblage wore two swords, showing they were of 
some rank, and almost all had on the camissimo or dress 
of ceremony. The number admitted into the streets 
through which I passed formed a rank of five deep on 
each side of the way. Every cross-street had its stockade 
closed to prevent too great a crowd ; and, as I looked up 
and down those streets, they seemed a solid mass of men 
and women. The most perfect order was maintained 
from Sinagawa to my lodgings, — a distance of over seven 
miles. Not a shout or a cry was heard. The silence of such 
a vast multitude had something appalling [in] it. Lord 
Byron called a silent woman sleeping thunder. 

I calculated the number of persons that lined the street 
from Sinagawa to my residence at one hundred and 

440 



eighty-five thousand. I called the distance seven miles ; 
that each person occupied two feet of front in his line, 
and that the lines were five feet deep on each side of the 
way. This calculation excludes all those who were in the 
cross-streets or on the tops of the houses. In front of the 
lines of the spectators stood men about ten feet apart and 
armed with a long white stave like the marshals' staff 
in the courts at New York. These men wore clothes of 
various colors, some green, some blue, black, gray, etc., 
while the coats-of-arms were so various that it easily ap- 
peared that they were the retainers of persons of rank, 
who "kept the ground" in the vicinity of his residence. 
The people all appeared clean, well clad and well fed ; 
indeed, I have never seen a case of squalid misery since 
I have been in Japan. 

A large number of officers of police attended the pro- 
cession. In addition to his two swords each one bore an 
iron truncheon about two feet long and one inch in 
diameter, — a savage and dangerous weapon in the hands 
of a passionate or violent man; but there was no use for 
them nor any apparent need of the constant cry of Satu, 
Satu, — "Keep back," "Keep back," which was constantly 
shouted forth by the street keepers. 

In this manner I went on passing over seven bridges, 
the fifth was the Nippon Bas, or Bridge of Japan."* It 
is from this bridge that all distances are reckoned in this 
country. After passing the bridge some few hundred 
yards, we went on in a nearly N. N. W. direction, and 
after a while we reached a broad moat on the opposite 

^24Nippon Basbi, sometimes found as Nihonbashi: Bridge of Japan. 

441 



[side] of which rose a stone wall varying from twenty to 
forty feet in height according to the make of the ground. 
The road followed this ditch for more than a mile, when 
my bearers started on a full run, rushed through a gate- 
way, across a court and ended by bearing me into the 
house."^ 

This was doing the matter in the most honorable Jap- 
anese manner. Mr. Heusken had to leave his norimon at 
the outer gate. As I got out of mine, I was warmly wel- 
comed by my old friend the Prince of Shinano, who 
conducted me to my rooms and pointed out the arrange- 
ments made for my comfort. It will sound queerly when 
I say that these consisted of a bedstead, some chairs and 
tables, but the Japanese never use one of these articles. 
Their rooms are destitute of a single article that we 
would call furniture. The universal mat serves as chair, 
couch, table and bed. Their food is served on stands or 
trays from three to ten inches high, and is contained 



525^e cannot refrain from quoting at this point some keen remarks by Tyler 
Dennett, Americans in Eastern Asia, pp. 355-56: 

"Notwithstanding the handicaps laid upon him and the obvious intentions 
of the authorities to thwart his purpose, we see him [Townsend Harris] 
enteriiig the capital city of Yedo (November 30, 1857) five and a half months 
after signing the Convention [of Shimoda], with the promise that he should 
be permitted to deliver in person the letter from President Pierce to the 
Shogun. It was an extraordinary achievement in which he had surrendered 
no particle of the official dignity of his position and had won his way by 
argument and by absolute candor. The contrast between Commissioner 
Ward's entry into Peking and Consul General Harris's entry into Yedo 
is striking. The honor accorded to Harris was, however, a mark of the 
greater political astuteness of the Japanese Government as well as of the 
finer diplomatic skill of the New York merchant. Yedo had read correctly 
the designs of Russia, while Peking, wholly deceived, had taken the Russian 
envoy to her bosom; the mere intimation [by Townsend Harris] of British 
intentions in Japan had been alarming, while the destruction of the Taku 
forts in 1858 by the allied British and French forces had been dismissed 
by the Manchu Government with fatuous indifference." 

442 



chiefly in wooden bowls lacquered. Porcelain is only 
used for drinking tea and saki from. The Prince even 
pointed out a water closet copied from mine at Shimoda. 
The bathroom was close to my sleeping apartments-. I 
had set apart for my special [use] a bedroom, sitting 
room and dining room."^ Mr. Heusken's rooms ad- 
joined mine and consisted of a bed and sitting room. In 
addition to this I was shown my reception rooms, which 
could be increased to any size by merely removing the 
sliding doors. In fact, every Japanese house may in a 
short time be converted into a single room by this simple 
and expeditious process. The building is very large. It 
is government property and was formerly used as a col- 
lege.^"^ It is situated within what is called "the castle"; 
that is, it is the outer one of four circles (rather irregu- 
lar ones) , the center one of which is the residence of the 
Tykoon. My house runs up to the road that runs along 
the ditch, and on the opposite side it fronts on a wide 
street. From my rooms I see the stone wall before men- 

526When, later, the British Mission under Lord Elgin arrived at Yedo, 
they too were surprised to see how carefully the Japanese had forestalled their 
wants. Mr. Laurence Oliphant gives the following as the reason for the 
Japanese knowledge of European wants {Narrative of the Earl of Elgin's 
Mission to China and Japan, New York, Harper & Bros., i860, pp. 374-75) : 

"They [the Japanese] had first been made acquainted with the require- 
ments of Europeans in the matter of furniture through Mr. Harris. Prior 
to that gentleman's visit [to Yedo], the government had sent privately 
to Shimoda to have exact copies made of his furniture, so that, on reaching 
Yedo, he found, to his astonishment, chairs, tables, and beds, in a city 
where all such articles had been previously unknown." 
^27Griffis, Toiunsend Harris, p. 205, note: "In this structure, originally the 
'Office for the Examination of Barbarian Books,' i. e., from Europe and Amer- 
ica, lay the germ of the present magnificent Imperial University of Tokio. . . . 
The edifice in which Mr. Harris lodged was on the west side of the old Kai- 
Sci-Jo inclosure near the Kudan, fronting the Castle moat, and not far from the 
Shimidzu gate. Significantly, coming from Shimoda (low field), the district 
in Yedo where he lived was named Kanda (high or divine field)." 

443 



tioned and the buildings occupied by two of the brothers 
of the Tykoon. It is a "court" part of the city, and none 
but persons of rank reside in it. This over, the Prince 
informed me that the Government had been in a fever 
of anxiety all day for fear of some accident; that the 
people were wild with curiosity to see my entry; and 
that, had the Government not used the most stringent 
measures, the people would have rushed to Yedo "by 
millions" (those are his numbers) to see me; and finally 
the whole of the inner gates of the city had been closed 
ever since the previous night to keep away the crowd 
and thus prevent accidents ; that they were all much re- 
joiced at my safe arrival, etc., etc. 

He then informed me that, as I came as the representa- 
tive of so great a nation, the Government had appointed 
eight persons of distinguished rank as "Commissioners 
of the Voyage of the American Ambassador to Yedo." I 
did not exactly understand what was meant by this move. 
I was assured that it was solely in honor of me, and that 
nothing connected with their duties could give me any 
umbrage, etc., etc. I told him that with this explana- 
tion I had no objection to make at present. The Prince 
then gave me a list of the Commissioners, which was as 
follows :"« 

No. I Toke Prince of Tamba 

" 2 Hayasi Prince of Daigak 



528The names of these eight Commissioners {osetsu-gakari) were: Toke, 
Tamba-no-Karai; Hayashi, Daigaku-no-Kami; Tsutsu, Hizen-no-Kami; 
Kawase, Saiyemo-no-Kami; Inouye, Shinano-no-Kami; Uyedono, Mim-bu 
Shoyu; Nagai, Gemba-no-Kami ; Tsukagoshi, Tosuke (Griffis, Towns end Har- 
ris, p. 206; cf, Murdoch, A History of Japan, vol. 3, p. 634). 

444 



No. 3 Tsoetsoe Prince of Hizen 

" 4 Kawasi Prince of Saiyemo 

" 5 Inawouye Prince of Shinano 

" 6 Woedono Mimbosioyu 

" 7 Nagai Prince of Gemba 

" 8 T'sukagosi Tooske 

Numbers 2 and 6 were Commissioners with Com- 
modore Perry at Kanagawa in 1854."^ 

I was then informed that the next morning an Am- 
bassador from the Tykoon would wait on me to con- 
gratulate me on my arrival, etc., etc. 

The Prince of Shinano, having been informed by me 
that my first official step after my arrival would be to 
write to Hotta, Prince of Bittsu, informing him of my 
arrival at Yedo, that I was the bearer of a letter from 
the President of the United States to His Majesty the 
Tykoon, and asking when I could have an audience of 
His Majesty for the purpose of delivering that letter, 
etc., etc., now asked if I could send that letter by him 
at once. 

As the letter had been previously prepared at Shi- 
moda and only required to be dated and sealed, that 
matter was soon dispatched. (See private letter book for 
copy.)"" 



529The Preamble to the Treaty concluded by Perry mentions as two of the 
Japanese Commissioners: Hayashi, Daigaku-no-Kami ; and Udono, Member 
of the Board of Revenue. 

ssoxhis letter is L. B., vol. 2, p. 93; it is followed by a Dutch translation, 
pp. 93-94. The original English version is dated "U.S. Legation, City of Yedo, 
November 30, 1857." This is, therefore, the first American communication 
dated from our Legation in the Capital of the Shoguns, and is, at the same 
time, the first of a distinguished series addressed by Townsend Harris to the 
different officers of the Shogunate. 

445 



A sumptuous repast (after the Japanese fashion) was 
now served to me and Mr. Heusken. Mr. Heusken's 
stands or trays were four inches high. The trays for my 
use were ten inches high. After the dinner was over, I 
told the Prince that it was my wish to pay all the ex- 
penses of my table, etc., etc., and that such was the 
fashion of all parts of the world ; that otherwise I should 
not feel at liberty to order such articles of food as best 
suited me ; that it would be a point of delicacy to eat 
whatever was sent without making any remarks, etc., 
etc. He replied that I could not be permitted to pay for 
anything sent to me, but he thought there would not be 
any objection to my people buying anything I might 
wish to have prepared by my cook that I had brought 
from Shimoda. This was just what I wished, and gave 
me full satisfaction. At last the Prince left me to repose 
after the fatigue and excitement of this (to me) import- 
ant and eventful day. The distances of my route from 
Shimoda here are as follows :'" 



s^iThe manuscript Journal (vol. 4, p. 113) does not indicate the distances 
in this table. We have, however, found a small scrap of very thin rice paper, 
on which Mr. Heusken kept note of the distances — the paper having the en- 
dorsement (in Townsend Harris's hand) : "Route from Shimoda to Yedo, 
November, 1857." 

The record is in Dutch, and reads thus (in part) : 



Mitsoekoeli 


Nasimoto 


6Ri 


Amagi 


Agasima 


6^ 


Oohito 


Misima 


8 


Hakone 


Odawara 


8 


Ooiso 


Hoezisawa 


ZV2 


Hodogaja 


Kawasaki 


8 


Sinagawa 


Yedo 


sy2 



446 



Shimoda to Nasimoto ri or English miles 

Nasimoto to Yugasima 

Yugasima to Missima 

Missima to Odowara 

Odowara to Fudsisawa 

Fudsisawa to Kawasaki 

Kawasaki to Sinagawa 3 

Sinagawa to the Nippon Bas 2 



li u 

(( n 

it (( 

u (( 

a u 

u it 



Totals 



Tuesday, December I, iS^J. The "Commissioners" 
of my voyage to Yedo paid me a visit of ceremony 
this morning. Their various retinues amounted (in the 
aggregate) to some hundreds. Each one had his pikes, 
or ensigns of his dignity, borne before him, and led 
horses followed his norimon. The caparisons of the 
horses bore the "coat-of-arms" of the noble owner. 
Among others, each "following" had fan bearers, slipper 
bearers, cane bearers, etc., etc. Each one had his 
camissimo or dress of ceremony brought with him in 
neat lacquered boxes, and his "portfolio" was neatly 
wrapped up in silk and slung over the back of a par- 
ticular bearer. After they arrived they went at once to 
rooms where they put on their camissimos, and then 
they proceeded to the Audience Chamber. 

As soon as they were ready I was informed, and I 
also went there attended by Mr. Heusken, the Prince 
of Shinano and a long following of Japanese. 

On my entry I found them drawn up in a line and 
standing. I took my place in front, and then we ex- 
changed profound bows. 

447 



Toke, Prince of Tamba, was their spokesman. He 
began by saying that, to do proper honor to me as the 
representative of a great nation, His Majesty the Tykoon 
had sent them to congratulate me on my arrival at Yedo, 
and to inquire after my health; to this he added the 
personal respects of himself and of his colleagues. I 
made a suitable reply, and then each of the Commis- 
sioners was separately presented to me. As Hayasi, 
Prince of Daigak, and Woedono Mimbosioyu were pre- 
sented, I was told that they were among the Commis- 
sioners who negotiated with Commodore Perry at 
Kanagawa. The Prince of Hizen assisted in making 
the Russian Treaty.''^" 

As soon as these particular presentations were over, 
I told them that I was happy to become acquainted with 
persons of their distinguished merit, and that I hoped 
our intercourse would prove mutually agreeable. They 
returned this compliment. Then followed more stately 
bows, and I retired attended as on my entry. The Com- 
missioners are rather intelligent looking men taken 
together, while some of them bear faces that are capital 
introductions to your respect. The Prince of Shinano in- 
formed me that the arrival of the ''Ambassador" of 
the Tykoon was delayed by the wish of His Majesty 
to examine personally the present, which, by the laws 
of etiquette of Japan, was to be presented to me by the 
Tykoon; and he then added that, after it had been ex- 



B32^j,g Russian Treaty referred to is the one signed at Shimoda, on Feb. 7, 
1855 (Russian style, Jan. 26th), by Admiral C. E. Poutiatine; Tsoutsoui- 
Khizenno-Kami (Tsutsui, Hizen-no-Kami) ; and Kavadzi-Saiemonno-Dzio 
(Kawaji, Sayemon-no-jo) : Gubbins, The Progress of Japan, pp. 237-39. 

448 



amined in the Palace, it had to be taken to the Great 
Council for their examination. In answer to my in- 
quiries, I was told that the Tykoon cannot make or re- 
ceive the smallest present until they have been exam- 
ined and approved by the Council of State!! I That 
single statement convinced me that the Tykoon was a 
mere "lay figure" of government, and that he did not 
possess a single particle of political power. He is even 
more restricted than was the Doge of Venice by the 
"Council of Ten." Before the Ambassador arrives I 
will explain a particular part of the Audience Chamber. 

In all Japanese houses the upper end of one or more 
of the best rooms has an alcove running across. The al- 
cove is about three feet deep and has a floor raised about 
four inches. It is divided into unequal parts — say in the 
proportions of four to five or four-ninths and five- 
ninths. The smaller portion contains two shelves — the 
upper one of which is closed with little sliding doors; 
the lower one is in two parts, one part being lower than 
the other by some six inches, thus-^= — The ends 
are fastened to the wall and partition, and the centers 
are fancifully connected by a hanging scroll. 

The larger alcove is called the toko, and in private 
houses contains the shrine of the lares or domestic deities. 
In a building like the one I occupy it is vacant. It is a 
place of honor, and seats in the room are more or less 
honorable as they are in close or distant proximity to it. 

A little after midday I was told of the arrival of the 
"Ambassador"; and, on entering the Room of Au- 
dience, I found him to be Toke, Prince of Tamba, who 

449 



is a person occupying a high position at Court, and, so 
far as I could understand the matter, somewhat 
analogous to the office of chamberlain at the Courts in 
the Western world. In the toko, and placed on a tray of 
white wood, stood a box some three feet high which 
was tied with a broad, green, silk braid."^^ I took my 
place near the toko, while Toke stood opposite. We then 
saluted each other, and the Prince said that His Maj- 
esty, knowing that I had come from a far distant land, 
had sent him to inquire after my health and whether 
I had made my long journey without accident. He then 
added that His Majesty had sent "a small present" for 
my acceptance. This ended, the Prince went three steps 
down the room and from that place paid his personal 
compliments to me and made inquiries after my health. 
This over, he returned to his first standing, and I made 
a proper reply to the kind message of His Majesty and 
returned my thanks for this mark of his kindness. As 
I spoke of the present I turned towards the box and 
bowed. 

When I began to thank the Prince for his personal 
civilities, he again retreated the three steps, so that he 
might occupy a lower position when hearing what I said 
in relation to himself than the one he stood in while hear- 
ing what I said in relation to the Tykoon. 

5S3We have already described the series of Japanese documents referring 
to Townsend Harris's visit to Yedo (see note 511). One of those documents 
was addressed to the Ometski, Toke, Prince of Tamba, and directed him to 
deliver this very cedar chest or box of bon-bons (46-2, H. Ex. Doc, no. i, 
pt. I, p. 624, in Serial no. 1902). The same story is related by Townsend Harris 
in a letter dated July 3, 1858, and addressed to "My dear [N. Dougherty]": 
reprinted from the Washington Union of Jan. 15, 1859, in Littell's Living Age, 
vol. 60, Feb. 26, 1859, PP' 567-71' 

450 



As soon as the interpretation of what I last said was 
finished, he again returned to his original place, and we 
exchanged bows and thus the ceremony ended. 

When I reached my private apartments the present 
was brought in. On opening it, it was found to contain 
four trays of Japanese bon-bons made of sugar, rice 
flour, fruit, nuts, etc. They were arranged in the trays 
in a beautiful manner, and the forms, colors and decora- 
tions were all very neat. The quantity was about seventy 
pounds of weight. I am very sorry I cannot send them 
to the United States, but they will not keep for so long 
a voyage. 

In my conversations with the Prince of Shinano to- 
day, he enlarged on the difficulties that he had over- 
come and the great labor he had performed to enable 
me to come to Yedo. He spoke of his anxious days and 
sleepless nights ; that care and anxiety had taken away 
his appetite, so that he had become lean in his person; 
and that his blood had frequently gushed from his nose 
from his great agitation; that he had done all this 
from his friendship for me, etc., etc. Something of this 
had been before hinted at, but never so fully expressed 
as now. I replied that I was duly grateful to him for his 
friendship for me; but, as he appeared to be under a 
great error as it regarded my visit to Yedo, I must now 
fully explain myself on that point. I told him that I 
came to Yedo as the representative of the United States 
and not in my private capacity; that the United States 
did not ask anything from the Government of Japan 
as a favor; that it only demanded its rights, and that 

451 



nothing would be accepted on the ground of favor ; that 
my mission had for its object the good of the Japanese 
Empire ; and that it was no favor to me or to my country 
that they should listen to my advice, but that it was the 
Japanese who should feel grateful to the President for 
the friendship he had shown to Japan by the messages 
with which I was entrusted. 

That for myself, individually, I had no wish to come 
to Yedo, and that I only came here because my official 
duty required it; that I hoped he now fully understood 
not only my object in visiting Yedo, but that he would 
clearly see that it was not any favor to me either in 
my private or in my official capacity to receive me at 
Yedo. 

The Prince was quite chapfallen at this, as it was 
the evident wish of the Japanese that I should look on 
my reception here as an unprecedented favor to me, both 
personally and officially, and thus they would establish 
a claim on my gratitude, which might be of great use 
to them in the negotiations that might be commenced 
here. 

However, the Prince confessed that my view of the 
matter was a just one, and that he had only looked at the 
question from one point of view, and that point was on 
the Japanese side. 

I omitted in my journal of November 30th to state 
that we halted to rest our bearers three miles from Ka- 
wasaki at a village called Oomoorie."* I was taken to a 

s340raori. 



very pretty tea house, situated in a fine garden of plum 
trees. These trees are grown, not for the fruit, but for 
the flowers, which are considered as very beautiful by 
the Japanese, and sometimes are immensely large. The 
petals of these flowers are preserved in various ways, 
with sugar, salt, etc., and are made up as conserves, or 
drunk as tea. 

The garden had the usual little ponds, canals, tiny 
bridges, rock work, etc. It also had a very pretty minia- 
ture temple. I was shown what to me was a very great 
vegetable curiosity, — that is, bamboos that were per- 
fectly square. I never saw anything of the kind before, 
and at first supposed it was the result of artificial means, 
but I was assured that it was simply a natural production 
and that art had nothing to do with it. I saw some 
mallards with very beautiful plumage, almost as fine as 
the "Mandarin Duck" of China. They were swimming 
about in one of the tiny ponds of the garden. 

The name of the place is Bay-reen-kiu-sabro, or 
"plum tree house," and is a favorite resort in the flower 
season for the Yedo people. 

After entering Yedo, I observed some high structures 
of framework, having a platform on the upper part and 
a large bell hung there, exactly like the fire "lookouts" 
of New York, and on inquiry I found they were erected 
for that very purpose. 

I have mentioned that, some time after passing the 
Nippon Bas, I struck one of the moats of the castle, 
and that, turning to the right, my road ran along the 
banks of this moat for more than one mile. 

453 



In this part of my route I passed a number of open 
spaces bordered with trees and quickset hedges. These 
are called ba-ba, or "horse course," and are for the 
purpose of military exercises of various kinds. 

Wednesday, December 2, iS^J. This morning at 
half-past ten A. M. I felt a smart shock of earthquake, 
not severe enough, however, to do any damage. In the 
afternoon I received a letter from Hotta, Prince of 
Bittsu, Minister for Foreign Affairs, informing me that 
he had received my letter and communicated its con- 
tents to his master the Tykoon, and that His Majesty 
had fixed on Monday next, the 7th inst., for my public 
audience."*' 

The Prince of Shinano is considered as my host (I do 
not know but keeper would be a more correct term), 
and he visits me daily. To-day he informs me that the 
Great Council of State has heretofore consisted of five 
members, but, since it had been determined to receive me 
at Yedo, the number had been increased to six, and that 
the Prince of Bittsu, in addition to his position of first 
member of the Council, is now created "Minister of For- 
eign Affairs," and that all correspondence with foreign 
envoys will be conducted in his name. It appears that 
there remain eighteen of the great landed Princes of the 
Empire, who date from before the establishment of the 
present dynasty, — say about 1605; that after Yeyas, the 



534aHotta'9 letter, dated the i6th day of the loth month (Dec. 2, 1857), 
was in answer to Townsend Harris's, dated the 14th day of the loth month 
(Nov. 30, 1857). The day fixed for the audience was the 21st day of the loth 
month. The text of Hotta's letter is given in 46-2, H. Ex. Doc, no. i, pt. i, 
p. 624, in Serial no. 1902. 

454 



founder of the dynasty, had suppressed the rebellion 
that broke out during his reign, he created over three 
hundred territorial princes, whose lands consisted, in 
part, of the forfeited estates of the revolted princes, and 
in part of the Imperial domains; that all the landed 
princes form that class of nobility w^hich are called 
Daimyo; and that from the class last created (i. e., the 
three hundred) the Council of State is chosen. None of 
the original eighteen Princes are eligible to that office, 
nor any of the Kami or titular Princes. The Kami form 
the next rank, and from them are selected the Governors 
of Imperial cities, provinces and all the high offices 
about the Court. These men do not possess either hered- 
itary rank or estates. Nominally the Tykoon appoints 
the Council of State, Governors, etc., but in reality (as 
far as I understand it) Japan is ruled by an oligarchy 
composed of the Daimyo or landed hereditary Princes. 
But these again are ruled by the rigid and hitherto un- 
alterable law of Japan. The families of all the Daimyo, 
all the Kami and of some ranks of officers, must reside 
in Yedo and form the hostages for the good conduct 
of those classes. The Daimyo only visit their domains at 
certain short periods; the remainder of their time is 
spent at Yedo. The Kami who are appointed to office 
out of Yedo pass from six to twelve months at the place 
of their appointment, and then return to pass a corre- 
sponding period of time at Yedo. None of the Daimyo, 
Kami or other officers are allowed to take any of their 
females with them, nor may they form any connection 
or have any intercourse with women while away from 

455 



Yedo. Hence the search and examination at Hakone."" 
Thursday, December 3, iS^'J. Wrote to the Min- 
ister of Foreign Affairs enclosing copy and translation 
of the President's letter to the Tykoon. I also wrote him 
that I would pay him a visit of ceremony whenever he 
should be ready to receive me."® In the evening I re- 
ceived an answer to my letter, and he wrote that [he] 
would be happy to receive my visit to-morrow. (See my 
private letter book.)"^ Had my usual visit from Shi- 
nano-no-Kami, and a good deal of conversation ensued. 
He was very anxious to have me make promises not to 
visit about the city, saying that Yedo contained a great 
many bad people who might insult and maltreat me, 
and thus the Government would be plunged into serious 
difficulties with that of the United States. 

I replied that I could not make any promises that 
would circumscribe my undoubted rights under the laws 



S350n the system of government here described, consult Gubbins, The 
feudal system in Japan under the Tokuffa<wa Shoguns, in Transactions of The 
Asiatic Society of Japan, vol. XV, pt. 2 (Sept., 1887), pp. 131-42; and cf. pp. 
VII-VIII at the end of pt. 2. 

636See L. B., vol. 3, pp. 9-10. 

^'^This parenthesis by Townsend Harris refers only to the letter which 
he wrote to Hotta (see preceding note). Hotta's reply is dated the 17th day 
of the loth month, and is found in 4.6-2, H. Ex. Doc, no. i, p. 624. It contains 
more than is reported in this entry of the Journal. He acknowledges receipt 
not only of the Japanese and the Dutch translations of the President's letter, 
but also of the address to the Tycoon which Townsend Harris intended to 
deliver at the audience; and it concludes with the appointment for the next 
day — the i8th day of the 10th month, or Dec. 4, 1857. It should be noted, in 
passing, that the President's letter was not addressed to the Tycoon, but to 
the Emperor of Japan, 

Two important dates were now fixed — Dec. 4th for the visit to Hotta, and 
Dec. 7th for the audience. Accordingly, we find in the collection of Japanese 
documents pertaining to this visit, the necessary memorandum to this effect; 
and also an order issued by Lord Hotta to the Ometskis that everything con- 
nected with the Audience should be ready by 9 a. m. (46-2, H. Ex. Doc., no. I, 
pt, I, p. 624, in Serial no. 1902). 



of nations; that I had no fears for my personal safety, 
as I had gone boldly and freely through many cities of 
the East where the population was of a much worse 
character than that of Yedo, and where I had no official 
character to protect me ; that th«y must and might rely on 
my age and discretion that I should not do anything 
to cause them any embarrassment, but I must be left 
free to act in all respects according to the dictates of 
that discretion; and that I could not give them any 
pledge or promise of any kind that might afterwards 
be used by them to limit me in my freedom of action, 
etc., etc. I also told him that exercise in the open air 
was the daily practice of all Western people, and was 
necessary to the preservation of health ; that I wished the 
Government to point out some place, either in the wide 
streets or in a ba-ba, where Mr. Heusken and I could 
take the requisite exercise. This appeared to cause much 
trouble, but it was so just and reasonable that he could 
not urge anything against my demand, except his fears 
of the populace. I told him he might remember that, 
when I demanded the removal of the guards from my 
residence at Shimoda, he had told me that the people 
of Shimoda were the worst in Japan and that the pres- 
ence of the Japanese officers at my house was absolutely 
indispensable to protect me from outrage by day and 
robbery at night; that, notwithstanding his remon- 
strances on that occasion, I had insisted, and the guards 
were removed fully eleven months ago, and that he well 
knew that nothing unpleasant had occurred since ; that 
I had no doubt his fears about the conduct of the good 

457 



people of Yedo were equally unfounded. Poor Shinano 
looked confused when I referred to the Shimoda affair; 
and in his reply said that what he then told me was by 
express orders of the Government, but that I might rely 
on the truth of what he bow stated about the people of 
Yedo. He concluded by saying he would report my 
wishes to the Government and hoped to have the matter 
arranged to my satisfaction."® 

Friday, December 4, 185J. I start on my visit to the 
Prime Minister at ten A. M., the Prince of Shinano act- 
ing as my escort. My retinue is composed in the same 
manner as it was on my entry into Yedo, excepting my 
luggage, cook, etc., etc. 

I went southwardly over the same road that I came 
on my entry for about one mile, when we crossed the 
moat on a new bridge about one hundred feet long and 
passed through a gate into a square of some fifty or sixty 
feet formed by stone walls about twenty-five feet high. 
A gate in the wall running at right angles with the gate 
of entrance gave us exit from the quadrangle, and we 
entered into the third enclosure of the castle by a broad 
street, having the outer wall on our left and a line of 
houses on our right. After a short time we turned to our 
right (or westward) still proceeding through fine 
streets lined with the houses of the Daimyo and Kami, 
etc. These houses were all built of wood, roofed with 
tiles, and correspond to the description of a Japanese 



sssxhe dangers which threatened the life of Townsend Harris during this, 
the first visit to Yedo of an accredited representative from a foreign country, 
were very real and very serious. They will be spoken of below, under the 
entry for Jan. 25, 1858. 

458 



house given under date November 29, 1857. The streets 
were unpaved and scrupulously clean. The streets' 
keepers were the retainers of the Princes and each wore 
the arms of his master ; the crowd was not so great as in 
passing through the city, — still, vast numbers were col- 
lected, especially when we came to the frequent open 
spaces or squares. The observers were the servants and 
retainers of the nobles and gave a lively idea of the mag- 
nitude of the households of those personages. The build- 
ings on the street have projecting windows, like the 
houses at Cairo and Alexandria. Through the grass 
screens to these openings we saw plenty of fair faces, 
and it would appear that Mother Eve's failing is fully 
inherited by her daughters in Yedo. Every possible part 
of the window, from its sill to the top, was plastered with 
a female face; as no part of their dresses could be seen, 
I am unable to describe them. After a while our road 
turned again to the westward, and then again to the 
south. We passed by a causeway and short bridge over 
a canal. Here the water had a fall of about six feet and 
appears to prove that the city is built on ground that 
rises gradually from the shore of the bay. At length we 
entered a street running westwardly which brought me 
to a second moat and stone wall ; this we crossed by a 
bridge about one hundred and fifty feet long, into a 
quadrangle exactly like the previous one, and through 
a gate placed at right angles to the first we entered into 
the second circle or enclosure of the Castle. Our route 
was now westward, now southward, again westward un- 
til we reached a third moat. Our route was southward 

459 



along the banks of this moat until we reached the house 
of Hotta, Bittsu-no-Kami, or Hotta, Prince of Bittsu. 
Measuring the distance by time, I made it more than one 
mile from the first bridge to the Minister's house, and 
less than one mile from the same bridge to my residence, 
— or in other words, it was about two English miles 
between my starting place and the residence of His Ex- 
cellency the Minister. All the norimons, except mine, 
were stopped at the outer gate. My bearers mended their 
pace at some hundred and fifty yards from the gate, and 
by the time they reached it they were at a full trot, dashed 
through the gate across the court, and plumped me 
down close to the edge of some clean mats that had been 
placed there for my reception. On getting out of my 
norimon, my "shoe bearer" gave me a new pair of un- 
soiled patent leather shoes which I put on. The Jap- 
anese of all ranks enter a house in their stockings alone, 
leaving their straw sandals outside. And there is a good 
reason for this ; for, as I have before noted, the mat serves 
as chair, couch, table and bed. In the vestibule some 
thirty persons, dressed in camissimos, were seated in 
Japanese fashion, and saluted me by bringing the fore- 
head down to the mat. I passed to the right and soon met 
the "Commissioners of my Voyage," who saluted me, 
and through Toke, Prince of Tamba, inquired after my 
health, etc., etc. I was now conducted into a room where 
I found chairs made after our pattern for Mr. Heusken 
and myself, with comfortable braziers filled with burn- 
ing charcoal. In a few moments two tables were 
brought in on which were placed pipes, tobacco and fire. 

460 



Soon afterwards the Japanese great tea luxury was 
served to me/^' It is made of very fine tea reduced to a 
powder, on which boiling water is poured and forms 
what may be called a tea gruel, — the taste was much 
better than the looks. 

As soon as I had drunk my tea I was asked if I would 
then see the Minister; and, on my replying in the 
affirmative, the sliding doors were opened, and here I 
met the Minister. We saluted each other in silence, and 
he then led the way into a fourth room where I found 
two chairs on one side and ten black lacquered stools on 
the other. We again saluted each other, when the Min- 
ister courteously motioned to me to be seated, and, wait- 
ing until I was seated, he sat down himself. The Com- 
missioners of my Voyage now entered the room and 
again saluted me, after which they also took their seats 
on the black stools. 

The Minister courteously inquired about my health; 
and, after my reply and the requisite counter inquiry, 
he expressed much admiration at the long voyage I had 
made through so many different countries (for he per- 
fectly understood what is called the overland route to 
India). I made the proper answer, adding that I con- 
sidered myself as a fortunate person, as I was the first 
foreigner who had ever visited the great city of Yedo 
in a diplomatic capacity. Tables were now brought in 
by servants who carried them elevated as high as pos- 
sible and marching with a stately step and with a meas- 

6S9Again the cha-no-yu: see Journal, Tuesday, Feb. 24, 1857 — the day when 
Townsend Harris first entered the private residence of the Governors of 
Shimoda; and note 376. 

461 



ured cadence. Then followed pipes and tobacco, tea 
and trays of refreshments. The trays of the Minister and 
myself were of the same height, both being some inches 
higher than those served to the others. The Minister 
courteously urged me to partake of his refreshments, 
and begged me to excuse his not smoking, as he never 
used tobacco. He afterwards said he did not offer me 
saki, as he understood I did not drink wine or saki when 
I could avoid it. 

After some little conversation I presented him with a 
copy of my intended address to the Tykoon on the day of 
my audience, adding that I had made it very short so 
that no unnecessary topics should be introduced.^" The 
Minister requested leave to withdraw for a short time in 
order to have the paper translated. He accordingly left 
me with Shinano-no-Kami, — the Commissioners of my 
Voyage going with the Minister. The interior of this 
house exactly corresponds with the one I occupy. The 
posts, plafond and crossbeams in which the sliding doors 
run are all of unpainted wood. The windows of white 
paper and the sliding doors or movable partitions are 
covered with paper hangings of the Greek scroll pattern 
in ultramarine blue and white patterns. 

The agitation of the Japanese interpreter is beyond 
anything I ever saw, — he trembled all over his body as 
though he had an ague fit, while large drops of perspira- 
tion stood like beads on his forehead. 



5«oin the letter to his friend Nathaniel Dougherty, Townsend Harris states 
(on p. 569) that Hotta on this occasion gave him a copy of the answering 
speech which the Shogun would deliver at the audience. (See note 533, and 
also the text below.) 

46? 



My seat was placed nearest the toko, and I was 
warmed by a lacquer and copper brazier. In place of 
ashes, the brazier contained pulverized spar of a snowy 
whiteness neatly formed into a representation of the 
celebrated Fusi Yama, the top being opened like the 
crater of a volcano to admit the coals. 

In about half an hour the Minister returned and told 
me that my address was quite satisfactory and at the 
same time he handed me the Tykoon's reply P" showing 
clearly that His Majesty would utter exactly what the 
Council should dictate. The Minister informed me that, 
as the interpreters could not be admitted into the Im- 
perial Presence, he had furnished me with a copy of the 
reply so that, by having it translated, the presence of 
the interpreter would not be required. My business be- 
ing ended I rose and we again bowed, the Minister fol- 
lowing me to the same spot where he first met [me], 
where we again bowed; beyond that I found my 
Commissioners, who again saluted me. The two who had 
made the Treaty with Commodore Perry inquired very 
kindly after him, and requested me to inform him of the 

64iThe Tycoon's reply (handed on this occasion to Townsend Harris) must 
have been written either in Japanese or in Dutch. When Townsend Harris 
returned home, he set Mr. Heusken to work upon its translation. The original 
half sheet of paper upon which Mr. Heusken wrote the English version is 
still extant {L. & P., vol. i, no. 78), and reads: 

"Pleased with a letter sent with the embassador [sic] of a far distant coun- 
try, and likewise so with his discourse. Intercourse shall be continued for 
ever. 

A true translation 
H. C. J. Heusken," 

This version differs in only very minor details from that given by Townsend 
Harris in Journal for Dec. 7, 1857. The original manuscript by Heusken is 
endorsed by Townsend Harris: "Speech of the Tycoon of Japan. Received 
November 4, 1857." The date is, of course, a slip for Dec. 4, 1857. 

463 



fact whenever I might write to him."^ In the vestibule 
I found the same persons seated who salaamed to me as 
on my entry, and from thence I once more entered my 
norimon. 

The Minister"^ is about thirty-five years old, short 
in stature, of a pleasant and intelligent countenance; his 
voice is low and rather musical. I returned by the same 
route, and have nothing to add except that there was 
not the least attempt at military display of any kind. 
At the gateway {i. e., in the quadrangle) was a small 
building in front of which some half dozen spears were 
placed, and from three to five persons were seated on the 
mats. The great gates have a strong look with their 
heavy hinges and the broad-headed bolts that half cover 
them; but a very slight examination shows that it is all 
show and no substance. The doors are made of pine or 
cypress. The hinges, instead of having their sockets in 
stone, are merely driven into pine posts, and the broad- 
headed studs are merely shams in form, having a little 
tack on the under side to hold them to the gate. A six- 
pound howitzer charged with powder alone would de- 
stroy any one of these gates. The bridges over the two 
great moats were both new. They are neatly built of 
wood, and the posts are crowned with copper caps. 
There is nothing about them worthy of remark. I was 
told at Shimoda that new bridges were being built on 
account of my visit, but I supposed it was only a Jap- 
anese ... to excuse delay. The exterior walls and 



"-See note 529. 

5*3Hotta Bitchiu-no-Kami. 



464 



fences of [the] Japanese are all blackened with sepia, 
of which fish enormous quantities are taken in Japan. 
The second story is made of wattles covered with clay, 
and this is whitened. 

The tiles on the roof have a number of white stripes 
which are regulated by the rank of the owner. I have 
not as yet learned the rule that regulates them. 

The enceinte or third wall of the Castle is nearly pear 
shaped, the length running north and south. My house is 
over against the northern and stem-end of the pear. 

Saturday, November [December~\ ^, iS^J. To-day 
we have rain and snow. The first stormy day since the 
20th of November. Yedo is about 5° colder than Shi- 
moda, but it has a most delightful climate. Nothing in 
Italy equals it. 

Sunday, December 6, 185J. This is the second Sun- 
day in Advent. Assisted by Mr. Heusken I read the full 
service in an audible voice, and with the paper doors 
of the houses here our voices could be heard in every 
part of the building.''* 

This was beyond doubt the first time that the Eng- 
lish version of the Bible was ever read, or the American 
Protestant Episcopal Service ever repeated in this city. 
What a host of thoughts rush upon me as I reflect on this 
event. Two hundred and thirty years ago a law was 
promulgated in Japan inflicting death on anyone who 
should use any of the rites of the Christian religion in 
Japan; that law is still unrepealed, and yet here have I 

5** According to Townsend Harris's own prayer-book, this service consisted 
of: for the morning, First Lesson, Isaiah, 5; Second Lesson, Luke, ? , V. 3v; 
for the afternoon, First Lesson, Isaiah, 24; Second Lesson, Rom., i2. 

465 



boldly and openly done the very acts that the Japanese 
law punishes so severely P*^ 

What is my protection? The American name alone, 
— that name so powerful and potent now cannot be said 
to have had an existence then, for in all the wide lands 
that now form the United States there were not at that 
time five thousand men of Anglo-Saxon origin. 

The first blow is now struck against the cruel per- 
secution of Christianity by the Japanese; and, by the 
blessing of God, if I succeed in establishing negotiations 
at this time with the Japanese, I mean to boldly demand 
for Americans the free exercise of their religion in 
Japan with the right to build churches, and I will also 
demand the abolition of the custom of trampling on the 
cross or crucifix, which the Dutch have basely witnessed 
for two hundred and thirty years without a word of 
remonstrance.^*® This custom has been confined to 

6*5See note 516. 

^*®GrifRs, Townsend Harris, p. 224, note: 

"This custom of trampling {fumi) on a yS (engraved copper plate with 
representation of the crucifix) was abolished by the Japanese government 
in 1853, the year before Perry's second arrival. As the Kindai Geppio states, 
'From this year, the practice of fumi-ye at Nagasaki was abolished.' Most 
of the American sailors shipwrecked on the Japan coasts, and cared for 
by the government until shipped away, seem to have had no compunctions 
about treading on the copper plate, thereby proving they were not Portu- 
• guese." 

This practice had continued for more than two centuries, and it was not 
abolished at one stroke. Towards the end of 1653, it was quietly allowed to 
lapse, no ofl5cial action being taken in regard to it. In April, 1856, however, 
"official orders were at last formally issued to discontinue the enforcing of 
the annual Fumi-ye. . . ." (Murdoch, A History of Japan, vol. 3, pp. 616-17). 

The clearest case of this Fumi-ye by Americans which occurs to the author 
is that of the mutinous sailors of the New Bedford whaler Lagoda. When 
finally released by the Japanese, they testified, on April 30, 1849, to Commander 
James Glynn, of the U.S.S. Preble, as follows: 

Robert McCoy: "They made me trample upon it, and they made all 
the others trample upon it — first putting the left foot on the cross, and then 

466 



Nagasaki ; had it been attempted at Shimoda, I would 
have remonstrated in a manner that would have com- 
pelled the Japanese to listen to me. 

I shall be both proud and happy if I can be the humble 

the right foot. We were afterwards told that, if we had refused to do this, 
we would have been put into a small iron house, from which we would 
never get away." 

Jacob Boyd: ". . . and told us that in going into the door of the town- 
house, he wanted us to step on something. We inquired what it was; and 
he said an image, or an iron plate. In going in, they pointed it out to me 
on the gravelled walk, and I perceived that it was a crucifix. Seeing I was 
not willing to step on it, two of the Japanese took hold of me and forced 
me to tread on it. First I merely trod on one edge, but they pulled me 
back, and made me trample on it with both feet." 

John Martin: "That at Nagasaki we were taken into the town-house, 
and on entering the door We found there had been placed on the floor a 
metal plate with the figure of our Saviour upon it. This they compelled us 
to step upon, both feet together. I saw John Bull, who was right before 
me, put one foot on it, and they hauled him back and made him put both 
feet on together." 

Melcher Biflrar: ". . . on going into the town-house at Nagasaki, there 
was a crucifix in the way, and we were told to step on it. We disliked to do 
it. They then told us that it was no harm; but if we did not do so, they 
would think we were Portuguese, and it would be told to the governor. 
We tried to avoid stepping on the crucifix, but a man having hold of each 
of our arms, forced us to trample on it." 

For this and other testimony, which surely reveals a goodly degree of com- 
punction, see 32-1, S. Ex. Doc, no. 59 — in Serial no. 620 — pp. 9, 20, 22, 24. 

We think it fair, after quoting these passages, to add one more clear state- 
ment on this subject, from the pen of the missionary Guido Fridolin Verbeck 
(Griffis, Verbeck of Japan, p. 129) : 

"Herewith inclosed you will please find a picture of a crucifix, and one of 
Christ with the crown of thorns. They are exact copies of the two pieces 
that for about two hundred years have been used in the annual 'Ceremony 
of trampling on the Cross' in the vicinity of this place. It will be something 
to show in addresses on missions, etc. The ceremony is mentioned in nearly 
every book on Japan, as you know; but I think writers on Japan have much 
mistaken the object of the shameful wicked act. It was not so much, if at 
all, to abuse and disgrace the Saviour, as to find out who were Christians 
and who not. It was known that no good Christian would trample on the 
image of Christ; therefore, at the annual census of the people, these images 
were produced to discover secret Christians." 

Considering, however, the penalty in store for those who refused, we are 
of the opinion that even some "good Christian" might have been forced to 
commit the act of Fumi-ye — unless, indeed, he were of the stuff that martyrs 
are made of. 

467 



means of once more opening Japan to the blessed rule 
of Christianity. 

My Bible and Prayer Book are priceless mementos 
of this event, and when (after many or few years) Japan 
shall be once more opened to Christianity, the events of 
this day at Yedo will ever be of interest. 

Monday, December J, iS^J. I started for my audi- 
ence about ten, with the same escort as on my visit to the 
Minister, but my guards all wore camissimos and 
breeches which only covered half the thigh, leaving all 
the rest of the leg bare. My dress was a coat embroidered 
with gold after the pattern furnished by the State De- 
partment: blue pantaloons with a broad gold band run- 
ning down each leg, cocked hat with gold tassels and a 
pearl handled dress-sword.^*' 

Mr. Heusken's dress was the undress navy uniform, 
regulation sword and cocked hat. Our route was by the 
same street that I have mentioned on my visit to the 
Minister, but we crossed the moat by a bridge that was 
about half a mile from my house. The gateway with the 
quadrangular building was precisely like those de- 
scribed in my Journal of the 4th inst. ; so also the appear- 
ance of the streets, buildings, people, etc., was exactly 
the same. On arriving at the second moat all were re- 
quired to leave their ncrtmons except the Prince of 
Shinano and myself. We crossed the bridge, passed the 
gate and quadrangle, and pursued our course, and every- 
thing was so exactly like what I then saw that nothing 

6*7£_ gf p^ yoi_ 2, no. 7, is a scrap of notepaper, written in Townsend 
Harris's own hand and having the "Regulations as to the Uniform to be 
Worn." 

468 





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TOWNSEND Harris's ''full powers,' 

OR LETTER OF CREDENCE (Page i) 
Dated, Washington, D. C, September 8, 1855. 




TowNSEND Harris's "full powers" (Page 2) 



but the assurances of Shinano could convince me that 
I was in a different quarter. When we arrived within 
about three hundred yards of the last bridge, Shinano 
also left his norimon; and our horses, his spears, etc., 
etc., with the ordinary attendants, all remained.I was car- 
ried up to the bridge itself (and, as they say, further than 
any Japanese was ever carried before), and here I dis- 
mounted, giving the President's letter, which I had 
brought in my norimon, to Mr. Heusken to carry. We 
crossed this bridge through the same quadrangle as be- 
fore ; and, at some one hundred and fifty to two hundred 
yards from the gate, I entered the Audience Hall. Before 
entering, however, I put on the new shoes I had worn on 
my visit to the Minister, and the Japanese did not even 
ask me to go in my stocking feet. As I entered the vesti- 
bule I was met by two officers of the household. We 
stopped, faced each other and then bowed. They then 
led me along a hall to a room where, on entering, I found 
the "two chairs" and a comfortable brazier. I should 
here note that tobacco is not served among the refresh- 
ments of the Palace. I again drank the "tea gruel." The 
room in which I was seated was different from any I had 
seen before. The ceiling or plafond was divided into 
square compartments of some thirty inches, the ribs or 
divisions being about two inches wide and the same in 
thickness. It was either painted or covered with paper, 
— I could not determine which. The ground was a fine 
ultramarine, on which arabesque figures were drawn of 
various colors ; the posts and beams were of unpainted 
wood ; the usual height of Japanese rooms is from eleven 

469 



to twelve feet. I thought these to be about thirteen to 
fourteen feet. I have already mentioned that a Japanese 
house is cut up into rooms by sliding doors or screens, 
and that in a short time a w^hole building may be con- 
verted into a single room by the removal of the screens ; 
by this process what was hall becomes part or parts of 
the rooms. The height of these doors varies from five 
feet six inches to six feet six inches. Transverse beams 
are placed in those positions which are to serve as the 
division wall or partition of a room; a series of grooves 
is deeply cut in the under side of the beam [and] corre- 
sponds with shallow grooves cut in a beam of the floor 
placed directly under it. 

When it is desired to remove a partition, the parts are 
lifted up until the foot is clear of the floor groove. It is 
then carried forward or back until the angle it forms 
will allow the upper part to be removed from the upper 
beam. 

To construct a room the above process is simply re- 
versed. The sliding doors are from four to four and a 
half feet wide, and they always slide past each other, so 
that of necessity there must be as many grooves as there 
are parts of the screen, — four is the usual number. The 
part between the upper beam and the plafond is variously 
filled. Sometimes it is with frames resembling our win- 
dow sashes on which paper is pasted, and it looks exactly 
like a sash that is glazed with rough ground glass. An- 
other, and the most usual mode, is to fill the space with 
light and neatly made lattice work. At the Palace I saw 
another mode of filling this space. It was (apparently) 

470 



carved openwork representing birds, fruits, flowers, and 
arabesque ornaments, all very highly colored and pro- 
ducing a tawdry effect, which was the more remark- 
able as the Japanese do not greatly affect violent con- 
trasts or gaudy colors. They apparently prefer the 
neutral tints and have a good eye for the harmony of 
colors. The partitions, doors or screens, were painted 
with passable drawings of their favorite fir tree. This 
description is exact for every part of the Palace which I 
saw, and which was equal to some seven or eight of 
their ordinary rooms, but on this occasion a number of 
rooms were thrown into one. I was now conducted to an- 
other part of the Palace. As I passed along I saw some 
three hundred to four hundred of the Daimyo and high 
nobles sitting in exact rows, all facing in one direction. 
They were all clad in Court dresses, of which more 
anon. 

The room to which I was conducted was a large one 
(but [the] screen [was] made of gilt paper; I have 
never seen a single expensive screen made of lacquered 
ormolu 'and mother-of-pearl since I have been in 
Japan; I think they were only made by the express 
orders of the Dutch) ; and here some of my Commis- 
sioners came to pay their respects to me in an informal 
manner, and some cheerful conversation passed between 
us. I should describe the Court dress, but to convey an 
intelligible idea of it is beyond the power of mere words. 
Drawings are indispensable to a clear understanding of 
it. The camissimo, or upper garment, differs from the 
ordinary one by coming down quite to the hips. The 

471 



breeches are the great feature of the dress. They are made 
of yellow silk, and the legs are some six to seven feet 
long ! Consequently, when the wearer walks, they stream 
out behind him and give him the appearance of walk- 
ing on his knees, an illusion which is helped out by the 
short stature of the Japanese and the great width over 
the shoulders of their camissimos. The cap is also a 
great curiosity and defies description. It is made of a 
black varnished material and looks like a Scotch Kil- 
marnock cap which has been opened only some three 
inches wide, and is fantastically perched on the very 
apex of the head. The front comes just to the top edge of 
the forehead, but the back projects some distance be- 
hind the head. This extraordinary affair is kept in place 
by a light colored silk cord which, passing over the top 
of the "Coronet," passes down over the temples and is 
tied under the chin; a lashing runs horizontally across 
the forehead, and, being attached to the perpendicular 
cord, passes behind the head, where it is tied. The camis- 
simo is without sleeves and is worn over the other gar- 
ments. It is made of some highly gummed material 
which makes it quite stiff. Imagine a Van Dyke [collar] 
of two half diamonds or lozenges. The acute points 
project over each shoulder; from thence the line of its 
shape runs so as to strike the waist or girdle. The front 
and back are composed of box pleats, and the whole is 
secured by the waist girdle. 

My description cannot be very intelligible, but it is 
the best I can give. 

My friend Shinano was very anxious to have me enter 

472 



the Audience Chamber and rehearse my part. This I de- 
clined as gently as I could, telling him that the general 
customs of all Courts were so similar that I had no fear 
of making any mistakes, particularly as he had kindly 
explained their part of the ceremony, while my part was 
to be done after our Western fashion. I really believe he 
was anxious that I should perform my part in such a 
manner as to make a favorable impression on those who 
would see me for the first time. I discovered, also, that I 
had purposely been brought to the Palace a good hour 
before the time, so that he might get through his re- 
hearsal before the time for my actual audience. Finding 
I declined the rehearsal, I was again taken to the room 
that I first entered, which was comfortably warm and 
had chairs to sit on. Tea was again served to me. The 
servants in the Palace wore black dresses, and their 
heads are entirely shaved. They are either priests, or 
wear the dress of priests. 

I here discovered that one of my Commissioners, 
Kawasi, Prince of Saiyemo,"^ is brother of the Prince of 
Shinano, my host or keeper. He is a lively, cheerful per- 
son and was vastly pleased when I told [him] he looked 
younger than Shinano, although he is four years his 
senior. 

He is the head of all the governors of cities and prov- 
inces, and all business from or to them passes through 
his office. At last I was informed that the time had 
arrived for my gudience, and I passed down by the 
poor Daimyo who were still seated like so many statues 

"*8See Journal, Nov. 30, 1857, and note 528. 

473 



in the same place ; but, when I had got as far as their 
front rank, I passed in front of their line and halted on 
their right flank, towards which I faced. Shinano here 
threw himself on his hands and knees. I stood behind 
him, and Mr. Heusken was just behind me. On look- 
ing out I saw a small courtyard surrounded with wooden 
buildings one story high and covered with tiles. The 
audience chamber faced in the same manner as the room 
in which the great audience was seated, but separated 
from it by the usual sliding doors, so that, although they 
could see me pass and hear all that was said at the audi- 
ence, they could not see into the chamber. At length, on a 
signal being made, the Prince of Shinano began to crawl 
along on his hands and knees ; and when I half turned to 
the right and entered the audience chamber, a chamber- 
lain called out in a loud voice, "Embassador Merrican !" 
I halted about six feet from the door and bowed, then 
proceeded nearly to the middle of the room, where I 
again halted and bowed ; again proceeding, I stopped 
about ten feet from the end of the room exactly opposite 
to the Prince of Bittsu on my right hand, where he and 
the other five members of the Great Council were pros- 
trate on their f aces.^*^ On my left hand were three broth- 
ers of the Tykoon, prostrated in the same manner, and all 
of them being nearly "end on" towards me. After a pause 
of a few seconds I addressed the Tykoon as follows : 



^*8Xhe American Dr. David Murray (who later was adviser to the Japanese 
Minister of Education) tells us that he saw the original of the Japanese 
memorandum, showing not only the arrangement of the rooms through which 
Townsend Harris was to pass, but also the spot where he was to stand during 
the delivery of his congratulatory remarks to the Shogun: The Story of Japan 
(in The Story of the Nations series), p. 327, note 2. 

474 




THE JAPANESE TEXT OF THE SHOGUN'S SPEECH 

This speech was deHvered at the First Audience granted to Townsend Harris, 
December 7, 1857. It is the earUest official and personal expression uttered by 
the Shoguns of friendly relations between the United States and Japan. See 
page 475. 



May it please Your Majesty: 

In presenting my letters of credence°°° from the President 
of the United States, I am directed to express to Your 
Majesty the sincere wishes of the President for your health 
and happiness and for the prosperity of your dominions. I 
consider it a great honor that I have been selected to fill the 
high and important place of Plenipotentiary of the United 
States at the Court of Your Majesty; and, as my earnest 
wishes are to unite the two countries more closely in the ties 
of enduring friendship, my constant exertions shall be directed 
to the attainment of that happy end/" 

Here I stopped and bowed. After a short silence the 
Tykoon began to jerk his head backward over his left 
shoulder, at the same time stamping with his right foot. 
This was repeated three or four times. After this he spoke 
audibly and in a pleasant and firm voice, what was inter- 
preted as follows : 

Pleased with the letter sent with the Ambassador from a 
far distant country, and likewise pleased with his discourse. 
Intercourse shall be continued forever."^ 

For continuation, see Journal No. 5, page 60."^ 



860For the text of Townsend Harris's Letter of Credence (or "Full Powers") 
signed by President Pierce and Secretary of State Marcy, see Appendix VI. 
The original document is the property of The College of the City of New 
York. The Dutch translation of it is given in L. B., vol. 2, pp. 94-95. 

''oiThe English and the Dutch texts of this address by Townsend Harris are 
given also in L. B., vol. 2, p. 97. The English version of both these speeches 
was transmitted to Secretary Cass in Dispatch No. 26, dated Yedo, Dec. 10, 
1857. (L. B., vol. 3, pp. 49-56, esp. p. 55.) 

6B2See Journal, Dec. 4, 1857, and note 541. For the Shogun's speech, as ren- 
dered into Dutch by the Japanese interpreter Moriyama, see Wagener, Aus 
dem Tagebuche, etc., p. 382. 

B^^Townsend Harris had, for some unexplained reason, broken off his 
entries in vol. i of the manuscript Journal, on page 60, with the entry for 
Monday, Apr. 14, 1856. There he had noted: ""For Continuation of Journal 
in the order of dates, see Journal No. 2." The present note, therefore, sends 
us back to vol. i, pp. 60-144, of which contain the rest of the extant Journal, 
beginning with the statement: "Monday, December 7, 1857 (continued from 
Journal No. 4)." 

475 



[Journal No. 5 

Commencing December 7, 1857 
Ending February 27, 1858] 

Monday, December J, l8S7 (continued from Jour- 
nal No. 4) . Mr. Heusken, who had been standing at the 
door of the Audience Chamber, now advanced with the 
President's letter, bowing three times. As he ap- 
proached, the Minister for Foreign Affairs rose to his 
feet and stood by me. I removed the silk cover over the 
box, opened it, also raised the cover of the letter so that 
the Minister could see the writing. I then closed the box, 
replaced the silk covering (made of red and white 
stripes, six and seven), and handed the same to the 
Minister, v/ho received it with both hands and placed it 
on a handsome lacquered stand which was placed a 
little above him.^" He then lay down again, and I turned 
towards the Tykoon, who gave me to understand my 
audience was at an end by making me a courteous bow. 
I bowed, retreated backward, halted, bowed, again re- 
treated, again halted, and bowed again and for the last 
time. So ended my audience, when I was reconducted to 
my original room and served with more tea gruel. In 

5'*For the text of President Pierce's Letter to the Emperor of Japan, dated 
Washington, Sept. 12, 1855, see Appendix VII. The text there given is taken 
from a copy of the letter found among Townsend Harris's papers (L. & P., 
vol. 2, no. 15). The Dutch translation of it is given in L. B., vol. 2, pp. 95-96. 

477 



order to see as much as I could, I asked to be shown to 
a water closet. On leaving the room I found myself in a 
small court surrounded by wooden buildings exactly like 
those described on the opposite side of the house. A good 
deal of negotiation had been used by the Japanese to get 
me to eat a dinner at the Palace, alone or with Mr. Heus- 
ken only. This I declined doing. I offered to partake of 
it provided one of the Royal Family or the Prime Min- 
ister would eat with me. I was told that their customs for- 
bade either from doing so. I replied that the customs 
of my country forbade anyone to eat in a house where 
the host or his representative did not sit down to table 
with him. At last the matter was arranged by ordering 
the dinner to be sent to my lodgings. I had not been long 
in the room last mentioned before I was requested to 
meet the Council of State. I found them in the place 
where the Daimyo had been seated, but who had now left 
the room. Hotta, Prince of Bittsu, spoke and in the name 
of the Council congratulated me on my arrival and audi- 
ence, and then said His Majesty had ordered a present 
to be offered to me, which was then in the room, at the 
same time pointing to three large trays each holding five 
silk kabyas^^^ thickly wadded with silk wadding. I 
thanked the Council for their kind inquiries and desired 
them to return my thanks to His Majesty for his present. 
After this, bows were exchanged and I turned and left 
the room going towards the vestibule; but a few yards 
from it I halted and turned, when the Council of State 
again formed line and took leave of me by a deep bow. At 

•"•"Kabiyas (Griffis, To<wnsend Harris, p. 231). 

478 



the vestibule I met the two officers who had first received 
me, and I exchanged bows with them, and then left the 
Palace, and proceeded to my norimon and returned 
home by the same route I had come by. 

The Tykoon was seated in a chair placed on a plat- 
form raised about two feet from the floor, and from the 
ceiling in front of him a grass curtain was hung. When 
unrolled it would reach the floor, but it was now rolled 
up, and was kept in its place by large silk cords with 
heavy tassels. By an error in their calculation the cur- 
tain was not rolled up high enough to enable me to see 
his headdress, as the roll formed by the curtain cut 
through the centre of his forehead, so that I cannot fully 
describe his "crown," as the Japanese call it. I was after- 
wards told that this mistake arose from their not mak- 
ing a proper allowance for my height, as, had my eyes 
been three inches lower, I could have seen the whole of 
his headdress. This may, or may not be so."® The dress of 
the Tykoon was made of silk, and the material had some 
little gold woven in with it. But it was as distant from 
anything like regal splendor as could be conceived. No 
rich jewels, no elaborate gold ornaments, no diamond 
hilted weapon appeared, and I can safely say that my 
dress was far more costly than his. The Japanese told me 
his crown is a black lacquered cap, of an inverted bell 
shape. The dress of the Tykoon was differently shaped 
from those of his courtiers and appeared like loose robes, 
while his breeches were of a reasonable length. The 

506SureIy another reason is that, whereas Townsend Harris stood during 
the audience, all who had ever before been granted an audience had been 
obliged to approach the Shogun on their knees, 

479 



material was far inferior to the glorious "kincabs" of the 
Benares looms/" 

I did not see any gilding in any part, and all the 
wooden columns were unpainted. 

Not an article of any kind appeared in any of the 
rooms, except the braziers and the chairs and tables 
brought for my use. At the right side of the last gate I 
entered, a square pagoda or tower of three stories was 
erected. There was the same absence of military display 
as on my visit to the Minister. Soon after reaching my 
quarters the dinner followed. It was very handsome ac- 
cording to Japanese rules, and the centerpieces were 
beautifully got up. Miniature fir trees, the tortoise and 
stork, emblems of longevity, with tokens of welcome and 
respect were prominently exhibited.^^® I merely looked 
at it but was unable to eat a morsel, as I was seriously ill. 
I had taken a violent cold ; had much inflammation of 
the lungs,''^^ and now a violent ague fit attacked me. I 
was glad to send for the doctor of the Prince of Shi- 
nano, a very intelligent man that I had frequently seen 
at Shimoda. Finding I had already taken cathartic medi- 
cine, he prescribed tisanes,^®" feet in hot water, to drink 
freely of hot cunju, or rice gruel, and to put on as many 
clothes as I could pile on my bed, so as to promote per- 
spiration. 



^^''Kincobs — India silk brocaded with flowers in silver or gold. 

058For the various courses of this dinner, see 46-2, H. Ex. Doc, no. 1, pt. i, 
pp. 626-27, in Serial no. 1902. 

859Xhe record at the Greenwood Cemetery in Brooklyn (where Townsend 
Harris is buried), reads that he died Feb. 25, 1878, of "Congestion of the 
lungs." 

'soptisancs. 

480 



Tuesday, December 8, iSjJ. Still quite ill, al- 
though better than yesterday. 

Write to the Minister for Foreign Affairs that I have 
some important communications to make which deeply 
concern the interests of Japan, which I will communi- 
cate to him, or to the whole Council of State. ( See private 
letter book no. 3.)'" 

I omitted to state yesterday that the dinner sent to me 
was placed on some forty to fifty trays made of un- 
painted wood. These trays were eleven inches high for 
me and about five inches for Mr. Heusken. The dinner 
was served in the usual lacquered cups. 

I was told that the trays and other utensils, after hav- 
ing been used by me, could never be used by any other 
person, and therefore they were made of unvarnished 
wood, this being the custom of Japan when presenting 
food to persons of exalted rank, etc., etc. 

The fan used at the audience differs from that used on 
ordinary occasions. It does not open and fold like ordi- 
nary fans, but is permanently fixed and is about three 
inches across the top. The handle also is longer than 
that of the ordinary fan. Gave the letter for the Minister 
to the Prince of Shinano who came to me this afternoon, 
after his visit to the Castle. He told me that all who were 



"iL. B., vol. 3, p. 10. More fully: This letter referred to the letter of the 
President which Townsend Harris had finally delivered at the audience of 
the preceding day, Dec. 7, 1857. Townsend Harris tells Prince Hotta that 
he is now ready to make confidential communications either to Hotta or to the 
Great Council. He adds that immediate action will be needed thereafter, and 
that he is ready to treat with duly appointed commissioners. The "confidential 
communications" hinted at in this letter, and the "important communications" 
hinted at in the text, both refer to the subjects discussed by Townsend Harris 
during his interview at Hotta's house on Dec. 12, 1857: cf. L. & P., vol. i, 
no. 79. 

481 



present at the audience yesterday were amazed at my 
"greatness of soul" and at my bearing in presence of the 
mighty ruler of Japan. 

They had looked to see me "tremble and quake," and 
to speak in a faltering voice. He added that the Ameri- 
cans were a very different people from the Dutch. I in- 
sert this because he told it to me, and I let it pass for what 
it is worth, but I am hugely inclined to think that there 
is some admixture of "soft sawder." 

Thursday, December 10, iS^'j. We had a shock of 
earthquake yesterday at nine A. M. — quite light — better 
to-day. Show the presents I have brought for the 
Tykoon ; they consist of the following articles : 

12 quarts of champagne, 24 pints of champagne 
12 bottles sherry, 12 bottles of assorted liqueurs 

1 rich astral lamp, 3 rich cut globes, extra chim- 

neys, etc., etc. 

2 very rich cut-glass decanters 
I telescope 

1 aneroid barometer 

2 volumes. Museum of Natural History, 1,000 

plates. 
5 Bramah's patent locks.^®^ 

Trays to place these articles on must be made before 
they can be presented.'^® The Prince of Shinano tells me 
that the person who gave maps of Japan to Von Siebold 
did not perform the hara-kiri, but was crucified; and 

662Wi*h this rather meager and inferior list, compare the lists of official 
presents made to the First and the Second Kings of Siam (Appendices II 
r.nd III). 

^^^The cost of making these stands or trays had to be met by Townsend 
Harris, and is given in L. & P., vol. 2, no. 91. 

482 



that a number of other persons lost their lives by their 
conduct on that occasion."* 

Crucifixion is performed as follows : the criminal is 
tied to a cross with his arms and legs stretched apart as 
wide as possible; then a spear is thrust through the body 
entering just under the bottom of the shoulder blade on 
the left side and coming out on the right side just by the 
armpit. Another spear is then thrust through from the 
right to the left side in the same manner. The executioner 
endeavors to avoid the heart in this operation. The spears 
are thrust through in this manner until the criminal ex- 
pires, but his sufferings are prolonged as much as pos- 
sible. 

^^^Osada's Life of Takano Nagahide, translated and edited with an intro- 
duction by D. C. Greene, D.D., in Transactions of The Asiatic Society of 
Japan, vol. XLI, part III, Aug., 191 3, pp. 408-09: 

"Although the civilization of Western Europe had seemed to be swelling 
to a full tide at Nagasaki ever since Siebold's arrival, an unforeseen calam- 
ity came upon the Dutch community, and forced Takano to give up the 
plans upon which he had set his heart. 

"In the ninth month of the eleventh year of Bunsei (commencing October 
9th, 1828), Siebold had completed his period of service and was planning 
to return home. His ship drifted ashore as the result of a hurricane, and 
this led to a re-examination of the cargo, with the result that there were 
found in his eflrects certain prohibited goods. 

"It seems that when Siebold went to Yedo for the first time [1823], he 
was visited by Takahashi Sakuzaemon who had the office of Chief Librarian 
and Astronomer under the Shogun's government; who asked him many 
questions about foreign countries. Takahashi was widely read and far- 
sighted, and, on learning that Siebold had Russian books and a map of New 
Holland [Australia], he thought it would be of advantage to the country 
if he should translate them and present them to the government; but Siebold 
was at first unwilling to loan the books. Finally, however, he prevailed upon 
Siebold to give them in exchange for maps of Japan and Yezo, together 
with an account of the products of the country, and these articles were found 
by the authorities in examining the ship. 

"Accordingly Siebold was confined in Deshima, while Takahashi, the 
interpreters Baba Hachiro, Kichio Yoshijiro, Inomata Genzaburo and more 
than thirty others were imprisoned. The Shogun's physician, Habu Genseki, 
was also arrested on the charge that he had given Siebold clothes with 
the hollyhock crest, and had studied ophthalmology from him. This affair 
caused great excitement in the medical communities of Yedo and Nagasaki." 

483 



Shinano told me that a few years ago a very strong 
man lived until the eleventh spear had been thrust 
through him. 

No man is put to death in Japan until he has confessed 
his guilt. After conviction, if he asserts his innocence, he 
is put to the torture until he confesses or dies or faints, — 
in the last case he is removed to his prison and brought 
to the question on another day, and this continues until he 
either confesses his guilt or dies under the torture. Had 
a long argument on the injustice of the torture as a means 
of eliciting truth."'" 

Saturday, December 12, iS^J. Again visit the Min- 
ister for Foreign Affairs. Everything attending this visit 
w^as so exactly like my first visit that I have nothing to 
note except what relates to the conference I had with 
him. The Commissioners of my Voyage assisted the 
Minister on this occasion. 

My private papers on "Japan" contain an exact copy 
of what I said on this occasion, — therefore, I do not copy 
it here."'" 



8650n the same day, Townsend Harris wrote a long Dispatch to Secretary 
Cass (£.. B., vol. 2, pp. 49-56, Dispatch No. 26), in which, after referring to 
Dispatch No. 13, he narrates in great detail the story of his trip to Yedo, 
his entry into the Shogun's capital, the negotiations preceding the Audience, 
and the Audience itself. (The text of Townsend Harris's speech on that 
occasion, and of the Tycoon's answer, are both to be found, ib., p. 55.) 

"^^In 46-2, H. Ex. Doc, no. i, pp. 627-31, we find: "Statement made by 
Townsend Harris in the house of Hotta on the 26th of loth month of 4th 
year" — i, e,, Dec. 12, 1857. For additional details of this visit to Lord Hotta, 
see Heusken's Diary, in Wagener, op. cit., pp. 382-83. 

The manuscript source to which Townsend Harris refers is L. Sf P., vol. i, 
no. 79, which is endorsed (in Townsend Harris's hand) : "Memorandum of 
the communications I am to make to the Council of State at Yedo, 1857." From 
this wording it is clear that Townsend Harris had written it all out in advance, 
probably before leaving Shimoda; for it will be remembered that Townsend 

484 



It related to the changed condition of the world by 
the introduction of steam ; that Japan would be forced to 
abandon her exclusive policy; that she might soon be- 
come a great and powerful nation by simply permitting 
her people to exercise their ingenuity and industry ; that 
a moderate tax on commerce would soon give her a large 
revenue by which she might support a respectable navy ; 
that the resources of Japan, when developed by the action 
of free trade, would show a vast amount of exchange- 
able values; that this production would not in any re- 
spect interfere with the production of the necessary food 
for the people, but would arise from the employment 
given to the actual surplus labor of Japan, etc., etc. ; that 
foreign nations would, one after another, send powerful 
fleets to Japan to demand the opening of the country; 
that Japan must either yield or suffer the miseries of 
war; that, even if war did not ensue, the country would 
be kept in a constant state of excitement by the presence 
of these large foreign armaments; that to make a con- 
cession of any value it must be made in due season ; and 
that the terms demanded by a fleet would never be as 
moderate as those asked by a person placed as I was ; and 
that to yield to a fleet what was refused to an ambassador 
would humiliate the Government in the eyes of all the 
Japanese people, and thus actually weaken its power. 
This point was illustrated by the case of China, the war 
of 1839 to 1 84 1, the events succeeding that war, and the 
present hostilities. 

Harris distinctly says (Journal, Nov. 30, 1857) that the letter which he on 
that day sent Hotta by Shinano {L. B., vol. 2, p. 93) "had been previously 
prepared at Shimoda and only required to be dated and sealed." 

485 



I told him that, by negotiating with me who had pur- 
posely come to Yedo alone and without the presence of 
even a single man-of-war, the honor of Japan would be 
saved ; that each point would be carefully discussed, and 
that the country should be gradually opened. 

I added that the three great points would be : ist, the 
reception of foreign ministers to reside at Yedo; 2nd, 
the freedom of trade with the Japanese without the inter- 
ference of Government officers ; and 3rd, the opening of 
additional harbors. 

I added that I did not ask any exclusive rights for the 
Americans, and that a treaty that would be satisfactory 
to the President would at once be accepted by all the 
great Western powers. I did not fail to point out the 
danger to Japan of having opium forced upon her, and 
said I would be willing to prohibit the bringing it to 
Japan. 

I closed by saying that my mission was a friendly one 
in every respect; that I had no threats to use; that the 
President merely informed them of the dangers that 
threatened the country, and pointed out a way by which 
not only could those dangers be averted, but Japan made 
a prosperous, powerful and happy nation. 

My discourse lasted over two hours and was listened 
to with the deepest attention and interest by the Minister. 
He asked some questions occasionally when he did not 
fully understand what was said. 

When I had finished, the Minister thanked me for my 
communication, and said it should be communicated to 
the Tykoon and have that consideration which it merited, 

486 



and that it was the most important matter ever brought 
before the Government. 

He added that the Japanese never acted as promptly 
on business of importance as the Americans did, that 
many persons had to be consulted, and therefore I must 
give them sufficient time for those purposes. This was to 
prepare me for the usual delay of the Japanese in every- 
thing. 

I replied I wished them to fully consider all I had 
said, and that I should be very glad to give any explana- 
tions of details whenever it should be asked. 

The Minister kindly inquired after my health, cour- 
teously expressing his regret at my illness. 

The usual refreshments were served, and I returned 
to my quarters about four o'clock. 

Sunday, December I J, iSSJ. The second Sunday in 
Advent. Read the service with Mr. Heusken. I have told 
the Japanese that I performed my religious worship, in 
order that they might not say they had no knowledge of 
it. 

Monday, December 1 4, 1 8^7- I have had a long and 
unpleasant debate about my diplomatic rights, the Jap- 
anese insisting on their right to appoint persons to 
guard me from insult, injury, fire, etc., etc. 

I replied that I had come to Yedo alone, therefore I 
wished the Government to place proper persons in the 
house, but that it must be done by my request and not as 
their right. I had in view the great importance of my 
not doing anything that might be quoted as a precedent 
whenever foreign ministers shall come here to reside. 

487 



This matter has been agitated for a number of days, and 
at last 1 carried my point, and the matter was settled as 
follows : he wrote me a letter stating that the Japanese 
Government admitted my full and complete control of 
the premises occupied by me, and that no person could 
enter the place without my permission. 

I wrote in reply, first quoting his letter, and added 
that I wished the Government to supply me with a 
proper number of persons to protect me from accidents, 
carefully adding "but in so doing I do not admit the 
right of the Japanese Government to place any person 
in my house under any pretence whatever without my 
consent." (See private letter book no. 3.)^®^ 

Wednesday, December 16, l8^y. In reply to my re- 
quest for some place where I could exercise on horse- 
back, the Japanese offered me a piece of ground adjoin- 
ing my house, about five yards wide and some thirty 
yards long! 

They then offered me another spot about one hundred 
feet long by seventy-five feet wide. This was also re- 
jected. To-day the Prince told me that they had set apart 

5^^The quotation here given is from L. B., vol. 3, p. 11 ; but this is a letter 
addressed to Inouye, Shinano-no-Kami, dated Dec. 19, 1857, ^nd written in 
reply to one from Inouye dated Dec. 18, 1857. The debate about his diplomatic 
rights (mentioned in the beginning of this entry) must therefore have been 
with Inouye, who likewise is the person referred to a little later by the words, 
"He wrote me a letter stating," etc. 

All the internal evidence in the letter here cited proves that the dates are 
correct in the Letter Book. How this entire entry came to be dated Dec. 14th 
in the Journal (which is here written in Townsend Harris's own hand) is 
beyond comprehension. It may be that Townsend Harris made his rough copy 
of the Journal on loose sheets, beginning each new dash's entry on a separate 
sheet; and that, because he wrote hurriedly, he misinterpreted his own hand- 
writing, and entered under Dec. 14th the entry which rightly belonged to 
Dec. 19th. An added consideration in favor of this solution is that the Journal 
has no entry for Dec. 19th. 

488 



a ba-ba not far distant from my place, and wished me to 
send Mr. Heusken or to go myself and see it. Mr. Heus- 
ken examined it, and reported that it was a regular mili- 
tary ground, over three hundred yards long and from 
fifty to seventy-five yards wide, and that it would answer 
my purpose. On this I accepted it, and in the afternoon 
I went to it. It is on a plateau elevated some fifty feet 
above my residence and directly opposite to a bridge and 
gate leading to the residence of the brothers of the 
Tykoon. It is enclosed with a hedge and large trees. 
Large numbers of the people collected around the hedge 
and the streets by which I went to the place. They were 
perfectly quiet; the only noise being that of the street 
keepers with their eternal *'Satu, satu," "Keep back, 
keep back." To-day I sent a present of a few bottles [of] 
wines and liqueurs to the Minister of Foreign Affairs 
with a copy of Blunt's Coast Pilot. In my letter to him 
(which see) I called his particular attention to the book, 
and that it contained an accurate account of every har- 
bor in the United States, West Indies and South 
America; that such books were printed by private in- 
dividuals and sold freely to all that wanted them ; that 
the Government encouraged such publications, as they 
increased the facilities of foreign commerce, which was 
one of the great elements of our prosperity, and that I 
considered it as a very proper book to place in the 
hands of the Minister for Foreign Affairs in Japan."* 



'8*Here again there is a discrepancy that cannot be explained (see preceding 
note). This entry of the Journal correctly gives the substance of L. B., vol. 3, 
pp. 15-16, which is a letter addressed by Townsend Harris to Lord Hotta 
and dated Dec. 24, 1857. Again, Dec. 24, i8s7» must be the correct date on 

489 



Thursday, December IJ, l8^J. A fine ride in the ba- 
ha to-day. The Japanese wish me to agree to go to the 
ba-ba only two days in the week, and that for a single 
hour! as they required it every day for the exercises of 
their soldiers. I replied that, if the place was wanted for 
that purpose, I must of course give it up ; and, as the 
times they named were unreasonable, I would hereafter 
take my exercise along the street running along the moat. 

This did not suit at all, and at last it was settled that 
the ba-ba should be at my disposal from three P. M. every 
day of the week except Sunday. I may be said to be now 
engaged in teaching the elements of political economy 
to the Japanese and in giving them information as to 
the working of commercial regulations in the West. 

This is attended with more labor than can be well im- 
agined, for I not only give them ideas for which, as they 
are new, they have no adequate terms, but the interpreter 
does not understand the Dutch terms when he hears 
them. Thus I am sometimes employed for hours in try- 
ing to convey a very simple idea. It requires an in- 
calculable amount of patience to prevent my throwing 
the matter up in despair. But I know that every word I 
utter, every new idea I succeed in conveying, is at once 
carried to the Council of State, so I persevere in the 
hope that my labors will at last produce fruit, if not for 
me, at least for my successor. 



which Townsend Harris made these presents to Hotta, and for two reasons: 
the first, because this date is nearer Christmas; the second, because on Jan. 4, 
1858 (9 11.), Hotta made a return present to Townsend Harris, and in his 
accompanying letter said that he had read Townsend Harris's letter, "sent 
on the last 9th day" (L. & P., vol. 2, no. 67). In the Japanese calendar Dec. 
24, 1857, -was the 9th day of the nth month. 

490 



Friday, December l8, iS^J. After an incredible 
amount of talk and difficulty, the Japanese have given 
me a map of Yedo. I am not to give it away or suffer it 
to be copied."' 

Sunday, December 20, iS^J. The last Sunday in Ad- 
vent. Read service as usual. Yesterday had an earth- 
quake — not very sharp. Quite unwell these three days. 

Monday, December 21, l8^J. To-day the Commis- 
sioners of my Voyage call on me for the purpose of re- 
ceiving information."" 

The chief point of their inquiries related to the object 
of sending Ministers to foreign countries; their duties, 
their rights under the laws of nations. All these ques- 
tions were as clearly answered as possible. 

I added that, when a Minister gave serious offence to 
the Court to which he was appointed, the government 
might suspend intercourse with him and order him to 
leave the country; that the usual mode was to complain 
of his conduct to his own government and to request his 
recall. The Commissioners asked questions also respect- 
ing commerce, and what I meant by trade being carried 
on without the interference of government officers. This 
I also succeeded in explaining to their full satisfaction. 
They said they were in the dark on all these points and 



569por the fate of Siebold under similar circumstances, see note 564. 

sTOLord Hotta did not go himself, but sent five of the eight Commissioners 
(for whose names see note 528). The purpose of their visit was to seek further 
particulars on the substance of the conversation between Townsend Harris 
and Hotta on Dec. 12, 1857. Complementary to the brief statements here 
made, is the full and detailed account to be found in 46-2, H Ex. Doc, 110. i, 
pt. I, pp. 631-34, in Serial no. 1902: "Account of a conversation with Townsend 
Harris in the Banshe Shirabejo [a kind of Foreign OfEce] on the 6th of the 
nth month." This date corresponds to Monday, Dec. 21, 1857 (cf. note 527). 

491 



therefore were like children; therefore I must have 
patience with them. They added that they placed the 
fullest confidence in all my statements. 

I gave them a written paper containing* the basis of a 
commercial treaty which I explained to them article by 
article, and told them I wished that paper might be 
taken into serious consideration. 

I then gave them champagne, which they appeared 
to understand and to like. 

Friday, December 25, iS^J. Merry Christmas! I 
little thought on last Christmas to pass the present one in 
Yedo. If I could pass one in Pekin, it would make my 
different places of passing the day a remarkable list. 

I ask every day when I may expect an answer to my 
great communications. 

The invariable reply is that a great many persons are 
to be consulted: the brothers of the Tykoon, all the 
Dainty and some other great men ; that letters have to 
be written and answers received, and then the old story, 
— "the Japanese do not decide important affairs until 
after long deliberation." 

Wrote to the Minister for Foreign Affairs transmit- 
ting a memorandum pointing out the most obvious 
articles that will form the elements of foreign com- 
merce, and showing how these articles may be in- 
creased in production, etc., etc. (See private letter book 
no. 3.)'" 



67iThe letter to Hotta is L. B., vol. 3, p. 16; the Memorandum enclosed 
therein is ib., pp. 17-19, and the "most obvious articles that will form the 
elements" of trade between the United States and Japan are lacquerware, silks, 
tea, and copper. The writing of these letters on Christmas Day was a rather 

492 



Sunday, December 2J, 185J. Snow and a gloomy 
day. I cannot get one word out of the Prince of Shinano 
as to my prospects of success, nor a hint as to the existence 
or non-existence of any obstacles. This state of uncer- 
tainty joined to indifferent health greatly depresses my 
spirits. 

Thursday, December ^I, iS^J. An earthquake to- 
day. I have not had a visit for three days from the Prince 
of Shinano, [which fact,] joined to the uncertainty that 
hangs over my negotiations, causes me to pass this, the 
last day of the year, in a melancholy manner. 

I fondly hope that the year now about to commence 
will give me more frequent opportunities of communi- 
cating with the outer world than I enjoyed during the 
present one. In truth I was most shamefully neglected by 
the Navy in the East."' 

Friday, January 1, 1 8 58. I desire to return thanks to 
Almighty God for permitting me to see the beginning 
of a New Year. 

With my poor health, and over half a century of years, 
I cannot promise myself that I shall see another. I am 
thankful that I have been able to accomplish so much 



prosaic occupation, and yet a good example of the saying "the better the day, 
the better the deed." Indeed, only two days before, Townsend Harris had writ- 
ten a long (and private) letter to Mr. E. E. Rice, American Commercial Agent 
at Hakodate, in which, after telling of his audience and his hopes, he discusses 
in detail not only the two Dutch Treaties with Japan (Nov. 9, 1855, and Jan. 30, 
1856), but also the Additional Articles signed by the Dutch and the Russians 
(L. B., vol. 3, pp. 12-15). Treaty making was verily the one task of Town- 
send Harris's life during these busy months. 

°^2And in spite of his "melancholy manner," he dutifully, on this last diy 
of a long and weary year, wrote Dispatch No. 27 to Secretary Cass, transmit- 
ting the number and the dates of all his dispatches to the Department of 
State for the year 1857 (L. B., vol. 3, p. 35). 

493 



as I already have done for the honor of my country dur- 
ing the past year, and I hope that I shall be able to 
effectually open this country before the present one 
closes. I was visited in honor of my New Year's Day by 
the Princes of Toke and Shinano; both came in dresses 
of ceremony and brought me some trifling presents. Had 
some very pleasant conversation, but nothing was said 
on business. °" 

Saturday, January 2, 1858. A very sharp shock of 
earthquake. People much alarmed, and all ran out of 
their houses. I am told the earthquake of December, 
1856, killed over ten thousand persons in Yedo alone, 
and that one-third of the houses in the city were either 
thrown down or so much shaken that they had to be 
taken down. To add to their afflictions, fire broke out in 
an immense number of places among the ruins of the 
fallen houses. A very intelligent Japanese told me the 
motion was perpendicular and the shocks followed each 
other almost instantly. This is the motion that is most 
injurious. The billow or wave motion does but little in- 
jury, comparatively. 

Monday, January 4, 1858. Hotta, Prince of Bittsu, 
sent me a present of some pretty lacquerware and some 
fine crepes."* 



s^sTownsend Harris found time on this day to write five routine dispatches 
to Secretary Cass {L. B., vol. 3, pp. 35-36, Dispatches Nos. 1-5) ; two to the 
Hon. Howell Cobb, Secretary of the Treasury {ib., p. 37, Dispatches Nos. i 
and 2) ; and one to the bankers Baring Bros., at London (ib., p. 37). 

^'^^These presents were accompanied by a letter addressed "To His Excel- 
lency Townsent [sic] Harris, Plenipotentiary and Consul General of the 
United States of America, etc., etc., etc." It was dated the 20th day of the nth 
month, Mi. A copy of the English translation of this letter (the copy being made 
by Mr. Heusken himself) shows that the original translation into English was 

494 






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4 



4rti 

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Q 



4 










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.6 



Ilk 

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in, 

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h 



LETTER WRITTEN BY HOTTA, BITCHIU-NO-KAMI, TO 
TOWNSEND HARRIS 

Dated, Yedo, January 4, 1858. See Appendix VIII. 



To-day I procured some specimens of the square 
bamboo. Earthquake to-day. 

Tuesday, January ^, 1858. Earthquake.'" 
Saturday, January Q, 1858. To-day the Prince of 
Shinano visited me for the first time in three days. I 
determined to bring about a crisis, and therefore began 
by saying that it was now twenty-nine days since I had 
made some very important communications to the Min- 
ister of Foreign Affairs, of which no official notice had 
since been taken;"® that they would not even name a 
period within which I should have a reply; that such 
treatment could not be submitted to ; that the President 
had sent me to Yedo on a most friendly mission, having 
solely the benefit of Japan in view; that the United 
States asked nothing for themselves; that the trade of 
Japan was no object to us ; that all we cared for was that 
our ships could make repairs and get supplies in their 
harbors, and that we had already got that point; that 
they must open their eyes and then they would see that I 



made and signed by Moriyama Takitsiro, the interpreter. At the bottom, 
the letter is countersigned: "A true translation, H. C. J. Heusken." (L. Sf P., 
vol. 2, no. 67.) For a reproduction of this letter, see illustration; for the text 
as given by L. & P., vol. 2, no. 67, see Appendix VIII.) 

s'^'Though silent as far as this Journal entry is concerned, Townsend Harris 
on this day took another forward step in his negotiations. On Dec. 12th (g. v.) 
he had made a long and important statement to Lord Hotta. On Dec. 21st {q. v.) 
he had given further explanations to the five Commissioners who had visited 
him at his house. On the 2Sth {q. v.) he had actually enumerated what would 
probably prove to be the chief objects of Japan's trade with the United States. 
Finally, on this day (Jan. 5, 1858) he again writes to Hotta, saying that, 
judging from the delay in receiving an answer to his propositions, he must 
fain believe that they have not been understood. Townsend Harris therefore 
offers to meet Hotta and give still further explanations, emphasizing the value 
of a full and free discussion which need not (he points out) be considered 
binding on either party (Z,. B., vol. 3, pp. 19-18 bis). 

^^^Referring to the statement made in the house of Hotta on Dec. 12, 1857 
{q. v., and note 566). 

495 



neither asked nor would I accept any favors from 
Japan ; that ten days ago I offered to give them explana- 
tions on any points on which they needed informa- 
tion ;°" and wound up by saying that their treatment of 
me showed that no negotiations could be carried on with 
them unless the plenipotentiary was backed by a fleet, 
and offered them cannon balls for arguments. I closed 
by saying that unless something was done I should re- 
turn to Shimoda. Poor Shinano listened in evident trepi- 
dation, and earnestly assured me that no slight to the 
President or insult to me was intended; that, as to- 
morrow was my Sunday and I would not do business on 
that day, he could not answer me before the next day, at 
which time he told me I should be satisfied. 

This was apparently a bold step on my part, but from 
my knowledge of this people I felt that I ran no kind 
of danger of breaking off my negotiations by what I did, 
and that the more I yielded and acquiesced, the more 
they would impose on me, while, by taking a bold atti- 
tude and assuming a threatening tone, I should at once 
bring them to terms. 

Monday, January II, 1858. A visit to-day from the 
Prince of Shinano. He began by saying that he had re- 
ported all I had said to him at our last interview to the 
Minister of Foreign Affairs; that the Minister ad- 
mitted that I had just cause of complaint, but that the 
position of the Government was most difficult; that they 
were enlightened, and knew that what I had recom- 



B^TXhis Townsend Harris really did by letter to Hotta dated Jan. 5, 1858 
(see note 575). 

496 



mended was truly for the best interests of Japan, but 
their conviction alone was not sufficient, — they had to 
convince the brothers of the Tykoon, the Daimyo, the 
military, and [the] literary classes of the wisdom of 
following my advice; that the Minister and his col- 
leagues had labored constantly night and day to secure 
the consent of the persons referred to ; and that a brother 
of the Tykoon was in Kyushu, and they had to write to 
him and get his reply; and finally he said that on Fri- 
day the 15th he would inform me the day when I should 
have an answer. 

This was much to my satisfaction, and I told the 
Prince that, so long as I had specific days fixed, then I 
could wait with patience. 

I endeavored to draw from him some hints as to the 
probable color of the answer I should receive, but I 
could not elicit anything. Either he has "great powers 
of silence," or he actually was ignorant of the matter. 
Wednesday, January T3, l8^8. Slight shocks of 
earthquake to-day. Mr. Heusken has been much indis- 
posed since the 8th inst. with a bilious attack. 

Wednesday, January I^, l8j8. Slight shocks of 
promise, the Prince of Shinano visited me. He said the 
Minister of Foreign Affairs would give me an answer to- 
morrow or at a later day, as best suited me, and as the 
matters were of the highest importance he desired to 
have a conference with me. 

I accepted at once the day and place of conference. 

Saturday, January 16, 1858. Again to the Minister's. 
Retinue, roads and the appearances in the streets exactly 

497 



as they were on my two previous visits to him, except 
that there were not so many people in the streets to look 
at the cortege as it passed. Foreigners will soon cease to 
excite curiosity here. I was received in the usual man- 
ner by the [Minister], except that I thought his smile 
was warmer this morning than before ; to-day it was more 
than skin deep. The Minister soon opened the confer- 
ence by saying that the communication I had made 
verbally to him, together with the written memorandums 
I had sent to him,"^ and the information I had com- 
municated to his Princes, had all been laid before His 
Majesty the Tykoon. His Majesty desired first to thank 
the President for his very kind advice and for the friend- 
ship he had thus shown for Japan, The Minister then 
proceeded to give me His Majesty's answer. 

The demand for the residence of a Minister at Yedo 
is admitted."" The place of his residence and the rights 
he is to exercise shall be settled by negotiation. 

The right of free trade is granted. Commissioners 
shall be appointed to settle the details of trade. 

Three harbors having already been opened, and as 
Japan is a small country, the number cannot be in- 
creased; but, as Shimoda is not found to be suitable as a 
harbor, another shall be given in place of it, but the num- 
ber may not be increased beyond three. After the Min- 
ister had ended, I told him I was much concerned at 
His Majesty's decision about harbors ;^^° that it was im- 



"8See Journal, Dec. 25, 1857, and note 571. 

579This later became Art. I of the Treaty concluded July 29, 1858. 

csop^r the question of harbors, see ib.. Art. III. 

498 



possible for me to make a satisfactory treaty under such 
restrictions. I pointed out to him the west coast of Japan, 
bordering on the Japan Sea. 

From Hakodate to Nagasaki, following the coast line, 
it is quite four hundred ri (one thousand miles Eng- 
lish), yet in all that distance not a single harbor was 
opened ; that many American whale ships were in the 
Japan Sea, and it was very important for them to have 
a convenient harbor in that sea; that His Majesty had 
spoken of the small size of the Empire, but an examina- 
tion of the maps of the principal parts of the world would 
show that Japan had a coast line far greater than the 
average states. I therefore earnestly recommended a re- 
consideration of that part of His Majesty's decision. 

I was informed that the Commissioners to negotiate 
with me would be appointed immediately, and that the 
first interview should be held day after to-morrow, and 
that the negotiations should be conducted at my quar- 
ters. I then handed the Minister a copy and translation 
of my full powers,^^^ and pointed out to him the necessity 
that the powers of the Japanese Commissioners should 
specify that they were appointed to negotiate with me, 
and not a mere general power. 

I requested that a translation of the Japanese full 
powers should be handed to me before the meeting. 

I also told the Minister that, as soon as we had gone 
through the formality of exchanging our full powers, 
I would hand the Commissioners a draft of such a treaty 
as would be satisfactory; that they could have it trans- 

581 See note 550. 

499 



lated into Japanese; and, after having duly con- 
sidered it, we could then proceed with our nego- 
tiations; that this course would greatly facilitate 
our negotiations and thus save valuable time; adding 
that I had nothing to conceal, no secret motives or wishes, 
and therefore I could proceed in this frank and open 
manner. The Minister said that my course was very 
praiseworthy and that it gave him much satisfaction. 

I have the draft of a treaty which I drew up before 
leaving Shimoda, and I was anxious to take the initia- 
tive in presenting a draft, as, had the Japanese presented 
one, it would have been difficult if not impossible to re- 
ject it entirely, and to try to amend one of their per- 
formances would have made a piece of literary or diplo- 
matic patchwork that would have excited the laughter 
of all who might have the misfortune to be compelled to 
read it. I could not learn the number or names of the 
intended Commissioners. I was told the Prince of Shi- 
nano would be one, but nothing further.''^^ 

Monday, January l8, 18^8. To-day 1 rigged out in 
full dress in honor of the signatures of the President and 
Tykoon which are to be exhibited to-day. I learn to-day 



882Another account of this busy day in Townsend Harris's life is to be found 
in 46-2, H. Ex. Doc, no. i, pt i, pp. 635-36, in Serial no. 1902. The speakers at 
the Prime Minister's house were Hotta, Townsend Harris, and other Japanese 
whom the document just cited does not name. This government publication, 
moreover, is wrong in translating "the second day of the twelfth month" as 
"February, 1858." 

At this point, one should not fail to read Gubbins, The Progress of Japan, 
App. 16, pages 289-91, which are a quotation from the Bakumatsu Gioaikodan, 
or The Story of Foreign Relations in the last days of the Shogunate, 
by M. Sanabe. These few pages give an admirable picture of the complicated 
political activity that was going on behind the mirror. 

Finally, see Heusken's Diary in Wagener, Aus dem Tagebuche, etc, p. 383. 

500 



that I am to have only two Commissioners to deal with. 
This pleases me, as it will prevent much interruption ; 
although the Commissioners will have full powers, yet 
in reality I shall be negotiating with the whole Council 
of State. The Commissioners will hear my arguments, 
and then request time to consider them ; they will repeat 
what I have said to the Council, who will consider the 
matter and then dictate what the Commissioners shall 
say. I feel just as sure of this as though I had been told 
it by themselves. The Commissioners are : 

Inowouye, Prince of Shinano, and 
Iwase, Prince of Hego'^^ 

At one P. M. the Commissioners appeared. They were 
attended by two secretaries to take down every word 
that was uttered. 

We saluted each other standing. I then gave my full 
powers to Mr. Heusken, who handed it to the Prince of 
Shinano who opened it, looked at the President's signa- 
ture and the seal, and then passed it to his colleague, who 
also examined it and then returned it to Mr. Heusken, 
who handed it to me. The full powers of the Japanese 
Commissioners were then given to the Vice-Governor of 
Shimoda who handed it to me. I opened it and looked at 

ess-phese Treaty Commissioners were Inouye, Shinano-no-Kami ; and Iwase, 
Higo-no-Kami. In the printed copies of the Treaty (concluded July 29, 1858), 
they appear as "their Excellencies Inoooye, Prince of Sinano, the Iwasay, 
Prince of Hego." 

Townsend Harris's belief that these Commissioners did not really possess 
full powers, but would report everything back to the Great Council, is re- 
peated in the letter which he wrote on July 6, 1858, to General Prosper M. 
Wetmore. This letter appeared (without the name of the person to whom it 
was addressed) in the Washington Union of Jan. 15, 1859, and was reprinted 
in Littell's Living Age of Feb. 26, 1859, vol. 60, pp. 571-74. 

SOI 



the Imperial seal and signature, and then returned it/^* 
Those who have read Commodore Perry's account of 
his Japanese Expedition will remember that the Jap- 
anese would not let their full powers go out of their 
hands, pretending the Imperial seal was so sacred it 
could not be handled by any but a Japanese, and of them 
only by those to whom it was specially directed. ^^^ 

The seal was in vermilion, about two and a half inches 
in diameter, and composed of the old Chinese "Seal 
Character." This over, I handed the Commissioners a 
Dutch translation of my draft of a treaty. I told them 
that, as this treaty might contain words not well under- 
stood by their interpreters, I suggested that the work had 
better be done in one of the rooms of the house where we 
were, so that if any words or phrases were not under- 
stood they could at once have recourse to Mr. Heusken 
for explanation, and thereby not only would the transla- 
tions be facilitated, but greater exactness would be 
secured. They assented at once to my suggestion. They 
added that, as soon as they had time to examine the 
translation and consider it, they would again meet me, 
but that it would require some days to do both. I re- 



S84A copy of the Full Powers of the Japanese Commissioners is L. & P., 
vol. I, no. 80. It is numbered 17 (of the "Japan Documents" of Townsend 
Harris) and is endorsed in Townsend Harris's hand. 

'85perry, Narrative in 33-2, H. Ex. Doc, no. 97, vol i, p. 249 (Wednesday, 
July 13, 1853): 

"The apologies having been made, the governor exhibited the original 
order of the Emperor [Shogun], addressed to the functionary who had 
been appointed to receive the Commodore. The Emperor's letter was short, 
and was certified by a large seal attached to it. This imperial epistle, which 
was wrapped in velvet, and enclosed in a box made of sandal-wood, was 
treated by the governor with such reverence that he would allow no one 
to touch it." 

502 



quested the Commissioners not to read the Treaty piece- 
meal as it was translated, as the various Articles had such 
relations with each other that they must be read to- 
gether and not separately; that to read it as it was trans- 
lated would give very erroneous ideas, and thus perhaps 
prejudice might arise that it would be difficult after- 
wards to remove. They at once assented to this.The origi- 
nal draft of the Treaty will be found among my private 
"Japan papers.""" 

Wednesday, January 20, 1858. Received a letter 
from Mr. Rice, U. S. Commercial Agent at Hako- 
date."^ He wants "women and must and will have 'em." 

sscphjs precious document is not among the extant Letters and Papers. 

ss^L. & P., vol. I, no. 72, dated Hakodate, Dec. 15, 1857. It is marked 
"Private," and was written in answer to Townsend Harris's letter of Oct. 
27, 1857; and was in turn answered by Townsend Harris on Feb. 1, 1858. 

In addition to what is stated in the Journal, Mr. Rice says in this long letter 
that he refuses to accept the site for a foreign settlement chosen by the Jap- 
anese; emphasizes the importance of Hakodate as a resort for whalers; and 
describes Russia's designs upon it. He then complains of discrimination in 
favor of the Dutch, and appeals to Townsend Harris to remedy the situation, 
etc., etc. 

The passage referred to by Townsend Harris reads: 

"The men want women and rum (and have got both in a few instances) 
and the Japanese people are perfectly willing except [the] officials, who 
constantly follow every American when on shore, which is very annoying 
to our people; and I fear when a large number of ships comes here next 
spring that serious difficulties will follow unless the government gives way 
and complies to [with] the customs of other countries where whaleships 
resort. Five hundred whalemen with their officers (and they would lead 
them) would take and hold this place with perfect ease, and they swear 
they will unless there is a change. The complaint is that the Dutch have 
what we do not. How it will end time will tell; but one thing is certain: 
they must adopt a more liberal policy. The trouble is entirely with the 
officials." 

We have already commented upon the downright illiteracy displayed by 
Mr. Rice in his letters. The text as given above is a reconstruction a 
fundamentis. 

Townsend Harris replied to Mr. Rice by letter dated Feb. 1, 1858, marked 
"Private" (L. B., vol. 3, pp. 18 bis-22), in which he states (pp. 20-21) that 
the question put by Mr. Rice had been favorably decided by the Japanese on 
the ground of "fear of sickness." 



Busy at the translations of the Treaty. It cannot be done 
before Friday or Saturday. 

Saturday, January 2^, 18^8. To-day the translations 
were finished. In order to be sure of the translation be- 
ing correct, I had the Japanese translator read from 
the Japanese copy and translate orally into Dutch to Mr. 
Heusken, who held the Dutch version. It has been an 
immense labor, but my great anxiety has been that the 
Japanese should fully understand what I proposed to 
them. 

A visit from the Prince of Shinano to-day. Some time 
ago I told him that if he saw a dog that had any white 
hair about him, he might be sure the tip of the dog's tail 
would be white also. This he repeated (of course) at the 
Castle, and it appears that each of the nobles set his re- 
tainers to search for a dog who should have some white 
about his body while the terminal color of his tail should 
be black, or at least not white. Many thousands of dogs 
have been examined and as yet no exception to my rule 
has been found. This has given me a reputation for 
universal wisdom that is quite amusing from its sim- 
plicity. I have omitted to note that I made presents of 
wines, cordials, sardines, preserved salmon and lobster, 
and Bramah locks to all the Commissioners of my Voy- 
age. These presents exhausted all the articles I brought 
from Shimoda. 

The Tykoon was much pleased with my presents and 
uses the astral lamp constantly. He sent me a return 
present of a very handsome cabinet. 

The Commissioners each sent me a present of a piece 

504 



of brocade silk twenty-four inches wide and three and 
one-quarter yards long, — the pattern of a pair of such 
breeches as are worn by the highest ranks only. 

Monday, January 2^, l8j8. To-day at two P. M. we 
fairly opened our negotiations. 

In this Journal I shall confine myself to the main lead- 
ing facts of actual transactions, omitting the intermin- 
able discourses of the Japanese where the same proposi- 
tion may be repeated a dozen times ; nor shall I note their 
positive refusal of points they subsequently grant, and 
meant to grant all the while ; nor many absurd proposals 
made by them, without the hope, and scarcely the wish, 
of having them accepted, — for all such proceedings are 
according to the rule of Japanese diplomacy, and he who 
shows the greatest absurdity in such matters is most 
esteemed. They do not know the value of a straight- 
forward and truthful policy, at least they do not prac- 
tise it. They never hesitate at uttering a falsehood even 
where the truth would serve the same purpose. 

The Preamble to the Treaty was accepted as was the 
first Article, — so far as to agree to receive a Minister 
and Consuls. They wished the Minister to reside be- 
tween Kanagawa and Kawasaki, and only come to Yedo 
when he had business, nor should the Minister or Con- 
suls travel anywhere in Japan except on actual business. 

They then proceeded to read from a book what I will 
abridge and insert, merely to remind me hereafter of 
their mode of doing business. 

Earthquake, nine A. M. 

Monday, January 25, 1858, continued. 

505 



They began by saying that they had carefully con- 
sidered the draft of the Treaty I had given them. The 
Empire being small, it had been determined that not 
more than three harbors should be opened ; that Shimoda 
should be closed and a large harbor should be given in 
place of it. The opening of any harbors to Commodore 
Perry was a great concession and w^as made with much 
difficulty. Thus far, American ships have only been fur- 
nished with supplies and not with Japanese goods. Now, 
in consequence of the President's letter and the very im- 
portant and friendly communications of the plenipo- 
tentiary, it has been determined to open trade with the 
Americans on the same terms as were contained in the 
Treaties just made with the Russians and Dutch !!!^^^ 
(See copies of these disgraceful papers in my private 
files on Japan.) ''^^ They offered Kanagawa and Yoko- 
hama in place of Shimoda, and, after all the Daimyo are 
satisfied with the efifects of trade, another harbor should 
be opened. Trade to be conducted as provided for in the 
Dutch and Russian Treaties. Americans cannot be al- 
lowed to travel in Japan, must be confined to strict 
limits. 



588The Treaty with Russia was concluded at Shimoda, Feb. 7, 1855 (Gub- 
bins, The Progress of Japan, pp. 235-39) i the Supplementary Treaty, at 
Nagasaki, Oct. 24, 1857 {ib., pp. 239-45). 

The Preliminary Convention with The Netherlands was concluded at 
Nagasaki, Nov. 9, 1855 {ib., pp. 245-50/; the Treaty itself, at Nagasaki, 
Jan. 30, 1856 [ib., pp. 250-55) ; the Additional Articles thereto, again at 
Nagasaki, Oct. 16, 1857 {ib., pp. 255-64) ; and, finally, the Supplement to 
these Additional Articles, at the same place and on the same day {ib., pp. 
264-66). 

For additional light on Townsend Harris's knowledge of (and attitude to- 
ward) these Treaties, see above. Journal for Feb. 26, 1857, ^nd notes. 

589Xhe full text (in Dutch) of the Supplementary Treaty with Russia is 
L. & P., vol. 2, no. 70. 

506 



They here paused, and I replied that, by the ninth 
Article of the Treaty of Kanagawa, anything granted 
to other nations accrued at once to the Americans, and 
therefore did not require any treaty stipulations ; that, as 
to those Treaties, the conditions of them were disgrace- 
ful to all parties engaged in making them; that, so far 
as trade was concerned, those documents were not worth 
the paper on which they were written; that, were I to 
sign any such conditions, the President would recall me 
in disgrace. I then demanded that the promise of the 
Tykoon "that freedom of trade should be granted," 
should be made good.°®° I added that it was mere trifling 
to offer to me conditions that had already accrued to us 
months ago ; that the proposition to shut out the Minister 
from residing in Yedo, or wherever he pleased, was 
highly offensive, and that it would be far better for 
them to refuse to receive him than to couple his recep- 
tion with such conditions, and that the Minister and 
Consuls must have all the rights enjoyed by such persons 
under the laws of nations ; that I asked nothing more for 
them than those rights, and that I could not take any 
less. 

The Commissioners were not prepared for this. It 
quite upset their plan so nicely prepared for them by 
the Council of State, and they were embarrassed exceed- 
ingly. They began to repeat the old story: "Japan has 
been closed for more than two hundred years ; the people 
are not prepared for such great changes as you propose ; 



s^^At the Audience of Dec. 7, 1857, the Shogun had closed his very brief 
speech with the words "Intercourse shall be continued forever." 

507 



they must be introduced by degrees, and, as the people 
learn to know you better, then we can act more freely, 
etc., etc." 

I replied that, under such regulations as they pro- 
posed, trade was impossible ; that Americans might be 
in Japan for fifty years and make no advances towards a 
better acquaintance; that intercourse under such cir- 
cumstances, so far from removing prejudices, would 
increase them, — for the Japanese would learn to despise 
the Americans as much as they do the Dutch. 

That, from all I had observed in Japan, I was con- 
vinced that the people were actually anxious to have a 
free intercourse with us, and, if objection existed any- 
where, it was confined to the Daimyo and the military, 
two classes of people that in all countries were opposed 
to any improvement in the condition of the great body of 
the people. 

The Commissioners frankly admitted that I was 
right in my last statement, adding that a large class called 
the Literati or expectants of office, being entirely ig- 
norant of everything out of their own land, were also 
opposed to opening the country. In explanation of this I 
was told that every person who had mastered the four 
books of Confucius and could pass the requisite examina- 
tion, received a small pension from the Government, 
and that as officers were wanted they were selected from 
this class. They added that colleges were established at 
Yedo and in each of the provinces of the Empire; that 
the only books used were Confucius and the history of 
China ; that no sciences, arts, history, or polite literature, 

508 



or in fact anything but Confucius and Chinese history 
were taught in those institutions. 

The Commissioners here had a long and animated 
conversation together. After it ended, the Prince of 
Shinano asked me if I would hear a private and con- 
fidential matter, which he wishes to communicate to me. 
I replied, "Most certainly." He then said that of the sons 
and brothers of military men, none enjoyed any rank 
except the eldest son ; that they all received a military 
education, being taught the art of war, the use of 
weapons, etc. They had no pay, nor any prospect of ad- 
vancement in life. They were supported in idleness by 
the head of the family, as their positions forbade their 
devoting themselves to any useful avocations, and they 
had no hope of honorable employment. Their only dis- 
tinction consisted in their .right to wear two swords. 
From these habits of idleness many of them fell into bad 
courses, became dissipated, drunken brawlers and bul- 
lies ; and that when their conduct became too outrageous 
they were disowned and cast off by their families. In 
this condition they form a class called loneen, which 
corresponds to bravo, bully, rowdy and loafer."" The 
Government has just discovered a plot among these 
loneen against the American Ambassador (what they 
intended to do to me I could not learn) , and the Govern- 
ment had that morning arrested three ringleaders of the 
conspirators and had them now in prison; that it had 



59iThe common form in English of the word loneen is ronin — as, for in- 
stance, the famous tale of "The Forty-Seven Ronin," in Mitford's Tales of Old 
Japan, and in Murdoch's A History of Japan, vol. 3, ch. VI, "The Forty- 
Seven Ronin." 

509 



given the Government the greatest possible anxiety, for, 
should anything happen to the Ambassador, it would be 
the cause of serious difficulties with the United States, 
besides disgracing the Government of Japan in the eyes 
of all the civilized world. He then added that a large 
body of men was now employed in patrolling around my 
house and in all the neighborhood, and that at night they 
would be in all the various courts and open spaces of the 
house. He then gave me the names of these three Yedo 
rowdies. They are as follows: 

Horeye Yosi-Nosuke 
Nobu-ta-Nee Ziu-ro 
To-zo. 

The Commissioners now resumed and said [that], 
from what had been told me, I must see that the residence 
of Foreign Ministers in Yedo would be certain to cause 
disturbances, and therefore it was far better for them to 
reside at Kawasaki or Kanagawa than in Yedo. 

I thought it a most suspicious circumstance, that these 
loneen should have remained perfectly quiet for the 
whole fifty-five days I have been in Yedo, and should 
only stir at the very nick of time that the question of the 
residence of Foreign Ministers in Japan was to be agi- 
tated, and that they should be arrested on the morning 
of the very first day that the conferences were to be 
opened. Therefore, I concluded that, if the whole matter 
was not an actual "arrowsmith," it was very much like 
one. 

I replied to all this that they did not know the material 

510 



of which foreigners were composed if they supposed that 
the acts of three or three thousand loneen would keep 
them away from Yedo ; that I considered it as too trifling 
a matter to call for any serious reply.""' 



^92As already remarked in note 538, the dangers which threatened the life 
of Townsend Harris were very real and very serious. Though he could not 
learn what these ronin intended to do to him, Shinano-no-Kami and every 
other Japanese of that day knew, and we all know to-day, that the ronin 
intended to kill him. The record of the events that followed the coming of 
the foreigner and the consequent opening of the country leaves no possible 
doubt on this score. The writer has gathered a long list of these Japanese 
attacks on foreigners — attacks that were cruel and of none avail, but which 
are readily understood when we recollect the excited state of politics in those 
early days of foreign intercourse. From the point of view of the Japanese 
themselves, some, at any rate, of these attacks were due to the exalted state 
of their minds and to a sense of patriotism that later history proved to be 
a mistaken one. 

The list of ^hose attacks on foreigoers is really appalling. To mention only 
a few from the earlier years, we have: 

i) On Aug. 26, 1859, at Yokohama: the attack on a Russian naval lieuten- 
ant, a sailor, and a steward, resulting in two deaths. 

2) On Nov. 5, 1859, at Yokohama: the slaying of a Chinese servant in the 
employ of M. Loureiro, the French consular agent at Yokohama. 

3) On Jan. 29 (or 30), i860, at Yedo: the slaying of Dankichi, the Japanese 
interpreter of the British Legation, who was struck down from behind 
in broad daylight close to the home of Sir Rutherford Alcock, the 
British Minister. 

4) On Feb. 21 (or 26), i860, at Yokohama: the slaying of two Dutch 
merchant captains. 

5) In Feb., i860, at Yedo: the attack on the valet of the French Minister, 
M. Duchesne de Bellecourt. 

6) In Nov., i860: the attack on Mr. Moss. 

7) On Jan. 15, 1861, at Yedo: the slaying of Mr. Heusken himself, as he 
was returning home from the Prussian Legation of Count Friedrich 
von Eulenburg. 

These earlier attacks did not assume the tremendous importance of the later 
murders of Richardson, or of Lieutenant Bird and Major Baldwin; but they 
clearly show the dangerous temperament not only of the irresponsible ronin, 
but also of men in high position. For instance, no less a personage than 
Nariaki, Prince of Mito — a man of the highest lineage and a splendid irrecon- 
cilable — is reported to have exclaimed in a fit of anger: "Let Bitchu [Hotta] 
and Iga commit hara-kiri, and decapitate Harris at once" (Akimoto, Lord li 
Naosuke and Neijj Japan, p. 147). 

The names of the three ringleaders on this occasion were: Horei Yoshino- 
suke, Nobutani Tuiro, and Tozo (GrifEs, Toiunsend Harris, p. 362). Mr. 
Heusken's Diary (in Wagener's Aus dem Tagebuche, etc., pp. 383-S4) says that 
Townsend Harris later asked that these three prisoners be set free, but that 



The Commissioners were again in a quandary. At my 
suggestion they took up my draft and gave a general 
answer on each Article. 

The demand for Americans to have Japanese coin, or 
for Japanese to receive American coin, was rejected in a 
most decisive manner. It was emphatically declared that 
no sales could be made except through Japanese officials. 
In this manner they went through the Treaty, rejecting 
everything except Article VIII. 

This Article I had inserted with scarcely a hope that 
I should obtain it. It provides for the free exercise of 
their religion by the Americans, with the right to erect 
suitable places of worship, and that the Japanese would 
abolish the practice of trampling on the Cross. To my 
surprise and delight this Article was accepted ! 

I am aware that the Dutch have published to the 
world that the Japanese had signed Articles granting 
freedom of worship and also agreeing to abolish the 
trampling on the Cross. 

It is true that the Dutch proposed the abolition, but 
the Japanese refused to sign it. 

In the Dutch Treaty of January, 1856, an Article pro- 
vides that "within the buildings at Deshima the Dutch 



the Japanese Government refused to do so. Shortly afterwards they died in 
prison (Nitobe, The Intercourse betiveen the United States and Japan, p. 65). 
This attempt on Townsend Harris's life was, then, the first in chronological 
order — and naturally so, for he was the first "barbarian" to establish himself 
in Japan, first at Shimoda and now in Yedo. It is this attempt on Harris's life, 
too, which is the subject of a play that has become very popular in Japan 
— namely. The American Messenger, by Okamoto Kido, in which the famous 
actor Matsumoto Koshiro takes the role of Townsend Harris himself. (See 
the illustration in the magazine Japan for Jan., 1927. It may be added that 
the Japanese word Taishi, or Ambassador, literally means Great Messenger: 
E. W. Clement, in the Nation, vol. 106, p. m.) 

512 



may practise their own, or the Christian religion." The 
extraordinary words "their own, or the Christian re- 
ligion" are copied from the Treaty as sent to me by the 
Dutch Commissioner, Mr. John Henry Donker Curtius, 
from Nagasaki; and are also in the copy of the same 
Treaty which was furnished me by the Japanese.^®^ 

I have copies of every Article ever made by the Jap- 
anese with the Russians, Dutch and English, and the 
above is the only Article that relates to religion. (See 
my Journal for Sunday, December 6, 1857.) I told the 
Commissioners, as we were about to adjourn at five P. M., 
that it was useless to proceed with the further considera- 
tion of the Treaty until they would consent to grant the 
Minister the rights he enjoyed under the "Laws of 
Nations." 

Tuesday, January 26, 1858. Commissioners come at 
half-past two P. M. They open the business by saying that 
I had misunderstood them yesterday; that they did not 
refuse the right of the Minister to reside in Yedo, but 
only recommended Kawasaki or Kanagawa as a more 
suitable place for his first residence. They therefore ac- 
cepted the Article as it stood, so far as it relates to the 
Minister. They wished, however, that the Treaty should 
not go into effect until January i, 1861. (It stood July 4, 



BsaSee note 546. 

The Article referred to by Townsend Harris is not part of the Treaty of 
Commerce signed at Nagasaki on January 30, 1856. The ratifications of the 
Treaty were exchanged at Nagasaki, Oct. 16, 1857, ^nd on the same day 
Additional Articles were signed. Of these Additional Articles, No. XXXIII 
reads: "The Netherlanders are at liberty to practise their own or the Christian 
religion within their buildings and at the burying-places appointed for them." 
(Gubbins, The Progress of Japan, p. 262.) For comment on this Article, see 
note 492. 



i859> in my draft.) I replied that to suspend a treaty for 
three years was an unheard-of thing and showed a most 
unfriendly spirit on their part. They hastily replied that 
they did not mean the Treaty, only that the Minister 
should not be sent before that time. I answered that was 
even worse than the other; that the object of sending a 
Minister was that he could promptly settle any small 
difficulties that might arise, whereas, if they were 
neglected until word could be sent to America, they 
might grow into grave and serious matters. I added that 
the proposition manifested a spirit quite at variance with 
the Preamble of the Treaty.^^* They then asked me to give 
them my secret promise that the Minister would not be 
sent before that time. I told them such a promise was be- 
yond my power, as it was the President and not the 
Plenipotentiary that had that matter in his power. 
They then requested me to write to the President, 
making known their wishes on this head. I told 
them I would write to the Secretary of State, who 
would make their wishes known to the President, and 
this satisfied them. They then insisted that the consuls 
should not have the right to travel in Japan "except 
on business." I pointed out to them that to accede to such 
a clause would put every consul at once in the power of 
each local governor, who would have the right to in- 
quire into his business, etc. ; that if the consul wished 



''S*EspecialIy with the words: 

". . . desiring to establish on firm and lasting foundations the relations 
of peace and friendship now happily existing between the two countries, 
and to secure the best interest of their respective citizens and subjects by 
encouraging, facilitating, and regulating their industry and trade. . . ." 




THE FAMOUS GINKGO TREE AT THE ZEMPUKU-JI (THE SHRINE OF PEACE 

AND prosperity) IN TOKYO 

This tree marks the site where once stood the first flagstaff erected by lownsend Harris in the 
Capital of Japan. Townsend Harris concluded the Treaty of Yedo on Julv 29, 1858; the Convention 
of Kanagawa on March 19, 1859; and opened the American Legation at Yedo (Tokyo) on July 7, 1859. 



to make a journey for his health he could not do so, with 
other objections. 

They said that, as the Treaty was to be read by all the 
Daimyo and great nobles, they did not wish to have it 
appear that every consul had the right to travel in 
Japan; that the words "on business" were proposed as a 
mere cover to conceal the extent of the rights actually 
conceded ; and that no governor or other official should 
ever inquire into the nature of the business on which a 
consul might be travelling. I said that implied that 
the consul would be willing to tell a falsehood when 
he wished to travel and had no official business ; that such 
conduct was not according to our customs; that a liar 
was looked on with the greatest contempt, besides which 
it was a sin by our religion for a man to utter a false- 
hood. 

Finding we could not agree at present on this point, 
I requested them to lay it aside for the present and pro- 
ceed with the other Articles, which was agreed to. 

Article II provides that the President will act as the 
mediator of the Japanese when asked to do so, and that 
American men-of-war and consuls should assist Jap- 
anese vessels and their crews so far as the laws of neutral- 
ity permitted. 

There is nothing in this Article that requires a treaty 
stipulation, but I inserted it to produce an impression on 
the Government and people, and it had that effect. This 
Article was accepted without hesitation. 

Article III, the Sebastopol of the Treaty, was now 
taken up, and the debate continued until the hour of our 

515 



adjournment. In the draft as proposed by me I claimed 
Hakodate, Sinagawa, Oasaca, Nagasaki, another port 
in Kyushu near the coal mines, Firato, and two ports on 
the west coast of Nippon, making together eight har- 
bors, and I also claimed the cities of Yedo and Miako 
should be opened to the Americans. 

They went over the old ground of objections so often 
stated before. In answer I said that to secure the peace, 
honor and prosperity of Japan, a satisfactory treaty must 
be made; that the freedom of trade was an essential part 
of such a treaty, and without harbors it was absurd to talk 
of any trade being done. 

I repeated the remark I had made to the Minister for 
Foreign Affairs, that there was a distance of 400 ri on 
the west coast in which not a harbor was opened. The 
discussion continued until dark, when the Commis- 
sioners said that my arguments were so important they 
must have a day to take them into consideration, and 
therefore they could not meet me until the day after to- 
morrow. Thus making good what I have before noted, — 
that, in reality, I am negotiating with the whole Gov- 
ernment and that the Commissioners can only repeat 
what has been told them and report what I say. 

The two Japanese secretaries are constantly employed 
in taking down every word that is uttered. 

Wednesday, January 2J, 18^8. I was shown some 
Japanese radishes of a wonderful sort. One was eighteen 
inches long, fifteen inches in circumference, and weighed 
four pound five ounces ; the other thirty-four inches long 
and one and one-quarter inches diameter. Procured seed 

S16 



of both these sorts to send to the United States Patent 
Office. The Japanese preserve them by drying. 

Thursday, January 28, 1858. The Commissioners 
arrive at half-past one P. M. They go to "the Castle," — 
i. e., the Council of State, at nine A. M., and leave at one ; 
eat a hasty meal and then are ready for business. They 
opened proceedings by saying th^t half the Daimyo were 
at Yedo and the other half in the provinces, and that, 
when the half in the provinces returned to Yedo, the 
other half went to the provinces also ; that the Govern- 
ment was compelled to consult the Daimyo on all im- 
portant matters; and if the Government attempted to 
carry any important measure against their advice, it 
would cause "confusion," — i. e., rebellion, — therefore 
the Government must defer to their opinions. The an- 
swer of the Minister of Foreign Affairs on harbors was 
final. No doubt more will be opened by and by, but not 
at present. The merchants and common people are no 
doubt in favor of opening the country, but the Daimyo 
and Military oppose it. 

The civilians at^he head of the Government under- 
stand these matters better. They have learned a great 
deal since you have been in the country,"" therefore they 
are in favor of a treaty, which they see will make the 
country prosper and the Government rich and powerful. 

This is not a refusal to open more harbors! It is only 
a statement of the condition of the country. Coals have 
been discovered within three ri (seven and a half miles 
English) of Nagasaki, so that the other harbor asked for 

'B^Townsend Harris is here reporting the trend of the Japanese argument. 



in the Island of Kyushu is not wanted. The Island of 
Firato is small and poor, and only produces porcelain, 
therefore a port in that island is not needed. Miaco is not 
the true name of that city. It is Kyoto. The meaning of 
Miako is Capital. 

(This is another instance of the extraordinary secret- 
iveness of the Japanese; for more than three hundred 
years they have permitted foreigners to call it Miako,"" 
instead of Kyoto!) 

Kyoto is comparatively a poor place. The population, 
instead of being five hundred thousand as stated by 
Kaempfer, does not contain two hundred and fifty 
thousand. It is merely a city of priests and temples. No 
larg